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高中定语从句详细讲解 Part 1 (一)定义及相关术语 1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先 行词之后。 2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词。 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等; 关系副词有 when, where

, why 等。 关系词通常有下列三个作用: A、引导定语从句; B、代替先行词 C、在定语从句中担当一个成分。例如: The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中,who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词 the man, “who”是引 导定语从句的关系词,代替先行词 the man,在定语从句中作主语。 A plane is a machine. The machine can fly. A plane is a machine that can fly. The girl is Mary. We saw her yesterday. The girl we saw yesterday is Mary. (二)关系代词引导的定语从句 1.who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。 Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 想去博物馆的人必须在明晨 7 点到大门口集合。 Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 那就是教我们物理的老师。 2.whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. 刘先生就是你们在公共汽车上谈论的那个人。 Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 李明正是我想要见的男孩。 The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 老师经常表扬的那个女孩是我们的班长。 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替,也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3.Which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。 The factory which makes computers is far away from here.制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很远。 He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 他喜欢外国作家写的书。 The house which is by the lake looks nice. 湖边的那幢房子看上去很漂亮。 This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天买的钢笔。 The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的电影一点意思也没有。

4.That 指人时,相当于 who 或 whom;指物时,相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾 语,作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. 每年来参观这座城市的人数达一百万。 Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿? The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友好。 The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 春天以后的季节是夏季。 Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自澳大利亚的信。 5.Whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country.我拜访了一个全国知名的科学家。 He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。 注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替: The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow? (三) “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 关系代词在定语从句中作介词宾语时,从句常常由“介词+关系代词”引出。 The school (which / that) he once studied in is very famous. The school in which he once studied is very famous. 他曾经就读过的学校很出名。 Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine (which / that) you asked for. Tomorrow I’ll bring here the magazine for which you asked. 明天我将把你要的杂志带来。 This is the boy (whom / who / that) I played tennis with yesterday. This is the boy with whom I played tennis with yesterday. 这是我昨天跟他打台球的男孩。 We’ll go to hear the famous singer (whom / who / that) we have often talked about. We’ll go to hear the famous singer about whom we have often talked. 我们将去听那位我们经常谈论的著名歌唱家演唱。 The manager whose company I work in pays much attention to improving our working conditions. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 我工作的那家公司的经理十分注意改善我们的工作条件。 注意:1.含有介词的短语动词一般不拆开,介词仍放在短语动词的后面。如:look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) 这是我正在找的手表。 This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) 那个保姆照看的小宝宝们都很健康。 The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. (误) 2.若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时只可用 whom,不可用 who, that;关系代词指

物时只可用 which,不可用 that。关系代词是所有格时用 whose。 The man with whom you talked just now is my neighbour. (正) 你刚才跟他谈话的那个人是我的邻居。 The man with that / who you talked just now is my neighbour. (误) The plane in which we flew to Canada was really comfortable. (正) 我们去加拿大所乘坐的飞机实在很舒服。 The plane in that we flew to Canada was really comfortable. ( 误) 3. “介词+关系代词”前还可有 some, any, none, all, both, neither, many, most, each, few 等代词或者数词。如: He loves his parents deeply, both of whom are very kind to him. 他深深地爱着他的父母,他们俩待他都很好。 In the basket there are quite many apples, some of which have gone bad. 篮子里有好些苹果,有些已经坏了。 There are forty students in our class in all, most of whom are from big cities. 我们班总共有40个学生,大多数来自大城市。 Up to now, he has written ten stories, three of which are about country life. 迄今为止,他写了10部小说,其中3部是关于农村生活的。 词+关系代词引导的定语从句特例 1)...... ,...of +关系代词。2)which 代替 this/that/the (四)关系副词引导的定语从句 1.when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所学校的那一天。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。 October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 1949 年 10 月 1 日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。 Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents. 你还记得在农村和你祖父母一起生活的那些年吗? 2.where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。 Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 我十年前住的房子已经被拆掉了。 I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised . 我参观了那个饲养了许多奶牛的农场。 Is this the place where they fought the enemy? 这是他们当初打敌人的地方吗? 3.why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我不知道他今天为什么看上去不愉快。 注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。 如:From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known what he wanted to be when he grew up. 自从他在农村读小学时,他就已经知道长大后要做什么。 Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. 他们生活的城市正发生巨大的变化。

The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. 他为什么拒绝接受邀请的原因是十分明了的。 Part 2 限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句 形式上:不用逗号“, ” 与主句隔开。 意义上:是先行词不可缺少的定语,如删除,主句则失去意义或意思表达不完整。 译法上:译成先行词的定语: “. . .的” 关系词的使用上: A.作宾语时可省略 B.可用 that C.可用 who 代替 whom 非限制性定语从句 形式上:用逗号“, ”与主句隔开。 意义上:只是对先行词的补充说明,如删除,主句仍能表达完整的意思。 译法上:通常译成主句的并列句。 关系词的使用上: A.不可省略 B.不用 that C.不可用 who 代替 whom 限制性定语从句举例: The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 老师告诉我说汤姆是我唯一的可以依靠的人。 China is a country which has a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 在街上我看到一个来自非洲的人。 非限制性定语从句举例: His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他,对他要求很严格。 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立的,现在正变得越来越强大。 Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every year. 去年夏天,我参观了人民大会堂,在那儿每年都要举行许多重要会议。 This is the man (who /whom /that) you met yesterday. The man , whom you met yesterday, is my friend. Part 3 考点归纳 ? 考点一:that 与 which 1.只用 that 的情况 Tom is the tallest boy that I have ever know. This is the first play that I have seen since I came here. (1)序数词或形容词最高级修饰先行词时 I have read all the books that you gave me. You can take any room that you like. Nothing that we saw in this film is true. She told everything that she had known.

( 2 )当先行词是不定代词或被不定代词修饰时, all,every, any,no,none, few, little, much, everything,nothing,anything 等 This is the very book that I'm looking for. (3)当先行词有 the very, the only 等修饰 Who is the boy that is standing under the tree? Which is the book that we bought last week? (4)当主句中已有 who/which 时, 避免重复。 I have never heard the people and things that you talked about just now. (5)当先行词同时指人和事时 He is not the man that he was when I first saw him. (6) 关系代词在定语从句中作表语,不管是人或物只能用 that 2. 不能用 that 的情况:关系代词前有介词。 This is the boy with whom he talked. This is the ring on which she spent 1000 dollars. ? 考点二:when, where, why 与 that, which 的区分 I will never forget the day we first met in the park. I will never forget the time we spent with you. This is the reason I didn't came here. The reason she gave was not true. 分析从句谓语动词与先行词之间的逻辑关系, 在从句中作主语宾语,用 that ,which 等,作状 语,用关系副词。

? 考点三:as 的使用 1. as 引导非限制性定语从句 He married her, as was natural. 他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。 He married her, which was natural. He is honest, as can be seen. 他很诚实,这一点我们看得出来。 =He is honest, which can be seen. =As can be seen, he is honest. 2.as 引导限制性定语从句 当先行词受 so, such, as, the same 修饰时,关系词常用 as。 如:I’ve never heard such stories as he told. 我从未听过他讲的那些故事。 他可不像他看上去的那样傻。He is not as/so foolish as he looks. This is the same book as I read last week. 这本书跟我上周看的一样。 This is the same book that I read last week. 这本书就是我上周看的那本。 It is so interesting a book we all like. It is so interesting a book we all like it. A. as B. that 区分定语从句和结果状语从句 ? 考点四:定语从句中谓语动词的单复数

He is the only one of the student in our class who He is one of the students in our class who 取决于先行词的单复数

(have) got the teacher's praise.

(have) got the teacher's praise.

? 考点五:the way+in which/that/省略+定语从句 That is not the way ______I do it. A./ B.which C.how D.with which The way ______he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. how C. what D./ This is the way ____________ he thought of to solve the problem. A. which B.in which C.with which D. How the way+关系词引导定语从句,首先排除用 how。 The way 或 the time 等特殊先行词后面的 that 也可以做状语。 正式语体中, that 可 以用 in which 代替, 口语中省略 that 也可以, 显得更自然。 因此就构成了 the way 在定语从句中做状语的三个结构:the way+in which/that/省略+定语从句。 如果 the way 不做状语,则跟其他先行词一样处理。 ? 考点六:定语从句和同位语从句的区别
The fact that surprised me was true. 定语从句,修饰作用。that 是关系词, 担任成分。 The fact that he died was true. 同位语从句,说明具体内容。that 是连词,不作成分。 考点七:特殊关系代词 but There are very few but admire his talents. 没有几个人不钦羡他的才华。 but= who don’t ? 考点七:关系代词作宾语不可省略的情况 1. 在介词+whom /which 结构中, whom, which 不能省略。 That is the headmaster with whom my father was talking just now. This is the ring on which she spent 1000 dollars. 2.在 the same ... as, such ... as, as ... as, the same... that 结构中, as, that 即使作宾语,也不能省略。 I have bought the same bike as you (have). This is the same film that I watched yesterday. 3. 当 and, but, or 等连词连接两个或两个以上的定语从句修饰一个先行词时,关系代词第一个 可省略,第二、第三个等不可省略。 This is the book (which) I read yesterday and which I found very interesting. 4.在非限制性定语从句中,作宾语的关系代词也不能省略。 Mr Green, whom you know, is the tallest in our school. Smoking is harmful to one's health, as we all know.



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