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非谓语动词用法比较


非谓语动词用法比较
一 作主语时的比较 不定式作主语多用 it 作形式主语, 而 ing 形式作主语仅在以下句型中才用形式主语: It is no use It is no good doing..., It is no useless doing...,It is of no use doing...,It is waste doing...,

doing...,

It is nice doing..., There is no good/use doing..., 一次性动作和将来执行的动作作主语时,多用成不定式,而习惯性动作(特别是抽象动作)作主 语时多用作名词。 二 作表语时的比较 不定式作表语多指主语的具体内容,主语与作表语的不定式可交换位置,不定式作表语时, 如主语部分含实义动词 do,此句子的时态为一般现在时或一般过去时(多为 is 或 was), 不定式可 带 to 也可不带 to. (1)What we mast do now is (to)find anther person to help us. (2)All he could do was(to) rush into the room. (3)如果句子的动词时态不是一般现在时或一般过去时, 作表语的动词不定式一般要带 to. ing 形式作表语作用有两种情形,一 ing 形式指明主语的具体内容,此时主语和表语可交换 位置(此时可称之为动名词) 。二 ing 形式用来指明主语的特点、性质(此时可为之现在分词) 位置不能换。如:amusing encouraging onfusing disappointing exciting interesting missing puzzling shocking surprising amazing interesting 例如:The book is interesting . 部分过去分词也可作表语表状态。如 amused amazed

interested confused disappointed

excited surprised 一般情况下在作表语时,不管是 ing 形式还是过去分词,在作表语时都可直接看作形容词了。 因此他们不仅可作表语, 还可作定语。 在初中阶段讲过一般情况下 ing 结构的形容 词只能修饰物, 今天看来也不尽然了,也有-ing 结尾的形容词和人连用的情况,-ed 和物连用的现象。 如 an inspiring leader 一位有感召力的领袖, an amusing girl 一个讨人喜欢的女孩 an amazed expression 一种迷惑不解的表情, she said in an frightened voice. 他用受了惊吓的声音 说着话。 三,非谓语动词作宾语时的比较 非谓语动词作宾语可分为几种情况,一、部分动词只能用不定式作宾语,二、部分动词 只能用动名词作宾语,三、还有部分动词既能用不定式作宾语又能用动名词作宾语,但意思多少 都有些不同。介词一般只能带动名词作宾语,但 but, except 后能都接不定式,且前面有 do 时还省 略符号 to.(the poor man can do nothing but go home with his empty bag) ①能带不定式作宾语的动词有: Wish hope manage ask promise intend decide desire agree care choose determine expect 注意:不定式作宾语一般不能用 it 作形式宾语,但它后有宾补语时又必须用形式宾语。 I think it dangerous to swim here. 只能用 ing 形式作宾语有;pay attention to Can’t help imagine admit put off delay understand practice advice suggest insist on give up

risk finish permit resist( 抵抗) object on mind forbid prevent stop consider be used to avoid escape deny( 否认)Miss excuse forgive devote to look forward to enjoy appreciate

即可接不定式又可接动名词的动词有以下几类: (1)attempt begin continue intend start 等接不定式或动词的 ing 形式作宾语意义无差别。如: We began learning/to learn English when we came to junior middle school.(我们来初中时才开始学习英 语) 但要注意:begin start 用于进行时态时,后面的非谓语动词只能是不定式。如: He is begin to work in that company. 他即将去那个公司工作。 另外, begin start 词后面的非谓语动词若是表示心理活动方面的动词 know love like

understand hate enjoy appreciate think consider 等时,只能是不定式。如: after he talked with his English teacher. He began to like English .( 跟英语老师谈话之后,她开 始喜欢英语)。 (2)动词 forget remember regret 等接不定式时,表示非谓语动词的动作发生于谓语动词的动 作之后;接动词的 ing 形式作宾语时,表示非谓语动词的动作发生于谓语动词的动作之前;如: I forget to tell you about it. 我忘记告诉你那件事了。 I remembered giving the book to Lilei,but he said I didn’t.(我记得我把书给李雷了,但是他说我 没有给)。 另外,forget remember regret 等接动词 ing 形式、接-ing 形式的完成式或不定式的完成式

作宾语时,意义相同。如:I regretted to have broken the rules of our class.= I regretted having broken the rules of our class. 我后悔违反了班规。 (3)hate .like love prefer 等接不定式时,通常表示一次性或具体动作;接动词 ing 形式作宾语 时,通常表示一般性或习惯性的动作。但在现代英语中,通常不加区别地混用。如: I hate to go boating today. 今天我不想去划船。I hate going today。我讨厌划船。 (4)动词 mean 接不定式作宾语时,表示一种意图,意思是:打算做......, 想要做..... ,接动词-ing 形式作宾语时,表示解释,意思是:意味着... 意思是.... 。如: I didn t mean to bother you. 我本不想打扰你。 What he said means going there by air. 他说话的意思是坐飞机去那儿。 (5)try 接不定式作宾语时,表示一种决心,意思是:设法做,尽力做;接动词-ing 形式作宾语 时,表示没有把握,意思是:试着做。如: I ll try to catch up with my class this term. 这一学期我将尽力赶上同学们。 I tried reading the text without consulting my dictionary. 我试着不查阅词典来阅读课文。 (6)动词 go on, stop 等接不定式时,表示一种目的,意思是:继续或停下来去干另一件事;接动 词-ing 形式作宾语时,意思是:继续或停止做。如:Now stop to listen me please. 现在停下来听我 讲 (7)动词 deserve ,need, require, want 等接不定式时, 表示非谓语动词的动作为句子的主语所发出; 接动词-ing 形式做宾语时,表示非谓语动词的动作为句子的主语所承受,相当于一个被动形式的 不定式,如: I need to water the flowers every day. 我需要每天给花浇水。 The flowers need watering every day.=The flowers need to be wated every day. 花儿需要每天浇水。 (8)can’t help 等接不定式时,意思是:不能帮忙干;接动词-ing 形式做宾语时,意思是:禁不 住干;情不自禁干。如: I m very busy now,so I can t help (to) clean the room. 我现在很忙,因此不能帮助打扫房间了。 The girl couldn t help crying when she saw her mother again. 当小女孩再次看到母亲时,她情不自禁 的哭了起来。 (9)be used to 等接不定式时,意思是: “被用来做…”(此时前面的主语是物);接动词 ing 形式 时,意思是:习惯于做什么(此时前面的主语是人)。如:

The wood will be used to make paper 这些木材将被用来造纸。 The students will be used to living here soon. 学生们讲将很快适应这儿的生活。 (10)bear, stand 两个动词能跟动名词和不定式,意思没多大变化。 四、非谓语动词作状语的用法 不定式只能做目的状语 方面状语 原因状语和结果状语。其中作目的状语 方面状语是不定式的 独特功能,ing 形式和过去分词都不能这样用。作其他状语就是分词的强项了,虽然不定式能作 结果状语和原因状语,也局限在一些固定句型中。而除了目的状语和方面状语之外,充当其他各 类状语一般都应该使用 ing 分词。 ①作目的状语。作目的状语是不定式的强项,相反动名词一般不作目的状语,不定式作目的状语 时常见于 in order to, so as to 等句型中,但也可直接用不定式作状语。如: Tom climbed up the tree to get his kite.=Tom climbed up the tree in order to get his kite=Tom climbed up the tree so as to get his kite. 其中 in order to 可提前到句首,因此上句还可写成:in order to get his kite Tom climbed up the tree . 但上句不能写成 so as to get his kite Tom climbed up the tree . 因为 so as to 不能提前到句首。 ②不定式作方面状语。也只有不定式才能作方面状语,现在分词和过去分词则不能这样用。 The machine is difficult to mend.=It is difficult to mend the machine. ③不定式作原因状语, 虽然不定式能作原因状语, 但仅见于以下固定句型: be glad to ...be surprised to 例如:Tom is excited to see his mother ④不定式作结果状语主要见于 too...to..., enough to..., only to.... never to 等句型。only to.... 和 never to 在句中表示意料之外的结果 My brother hurried to school without breakfast only to find it was Sunday. 我的弟弟早饭没吃就急忙赶 到学校结果才发现是星期天。 Suddenly the boy fell into the river never to come up again. 这个孩子突然掉进了河里再也没有出来 了。 现在分词作状语的情况就丰富的多了。 先看看 ing 分词作时间状语可分三种情况: 1、时间状语 ing 分词作时间状语可分三种情况: ①分词动作一发生主句就紧接着(必然)发生,分词前加“on” 。 (on)leaving his house he realized he had left his keys at home.) ②谓语动作在分词动作过程中发生,前可加 while/when. 如: Working on the garden he hurt his foot=while/ (he was) working in the garden he hurt his foot. =ewhen (he was) working in the garden he hurt his foot. Reading carefully. he found something he hadn t known before.=when reading carefully, he found something he hadn t known before. 她仔细读书时,发现了从前不知道的一些东西。 ③如果分词动作结束后谓语才发生时, 分词应当用完成形式。 也可在分词的一般式前面可加 after。 Having finished his homework he went out to play basketball .= after having finished his homework he went out to play basketball. 2、ing 分词作让步状语时,其前面加 though although even if(though). Working so hard,he failed again. Having failed many times, he didn t lost heat. 3、作结果状语时,前可加 so there by thus His fathere died,leaving him a lot of many. 注意:现在分词和不定式都能作结果状语,现在分词作结果状语表示一种自然结果;不定式作结

果状语时固定在几个特殊句型中,其中 only to 句型表示一种以前没有料到的结果,请仔细对比一 下两者。 4、作条件状语时前可加 if、unless Working hard,you will succeed.=If working hard,you will succeed.(If you work hard, you will succeed.=Work hard, and you will succeed) Having two more hours we can finish the task.=If Having two more hours we can finish the task=Give us two more hours and we can finish the task.) 5、ing 分词作原因状语 Having eaten too much,he couldn ’t go to sleep. Having lost his wallet he didn t buy anything in the mark. Bringing no stool her had to dig the hole with his hands. Being sick,I stay at home. 我因病呆在家里。 Not knowing her address,I can t write to her. 由于不知道她的地址,我没法给他写信。 Not having done(=As he has not done)his homework,he stayed at home. 由于他没完成作业, 只好呆在 家里。 6、方式状语,伴随状语 People developed a way of pringting,using rocks( 但是以后,人们利用石块发展了印刷术) He sat in the armchair,reading a newspaper. 他坐在扶手椅里读报。 All night long he lay awake, thinking of the problem. 他整夜躺在床上睡不着,思考着那个问题) 7、作结果状语、伴随状语时放在句尾,其余多放在句前。 过去分词作状语的基本用法: 过去分词作状语主要说明谓语动作发生的背景或条件:表示原因 随情况等。过去分词可置于主句后,用逗号与主句隔开。 1 原因状语

时间

条件 让步

方式 或伴

Choked the heavy smoke, he could hardly breathe. 他被浓烟呛了,几乎不能呼吸了。 Caught in a heavy rain,he was all wet. 因为淋了一场大雨,所以他全身湿透了。 Frightened by the noice in the night,the girl didn t dare to sleep in her room. 受到夜晚响声的惊吓, 那姑 娘不敢睡在她的房间。 2 时间状语 Left to itself in the room,the baby began to cry. 当被孤独地留在房间时,婴儿哭了起来。 Ask why he did it,the monitor said it was his duty. 当被问及这件事时,班长说这是他的职责。 Approached in the dark,the lights looked lonely and purposeless. 在黑暗中走近时,那些电灯显得孤单 而无意义。 3 条件状语 Seen in this aspect,the matter isn t as serious as people generally suppose. 如果从这个角度看, 问题并不 像人们一般预料的那样严重。 Grown in rich soil,these seeds can grow fast. 如果在肥沃的土壤里。这些种子能长得很快。 Given better attention,the accident could have been avoided. 要多加注意,那次事故就能避免了。 Watered more,these cabbages could have grown better. 如果多浇水,这些大白菜可以长得更好。 Compared with you,we still have a long way to go. 和你们相比,我们还有很大的差距。 4 方式或伴随状语 Surrounded by his students,the professor sat there cheerfully. 那位教授在学生的簇拥下, 兴高采烈的坐 在那儿。

He stood there silently,moved to tears. 她静静地站在那儿,被感动得热泪盈眶。 The old man went into the room,supported by his wife. 那位老人在妻子的搀扶下,走进了房间。 5 让步状语 Beaten by the police and sent to jail,Gandi created the principle of nonviolent resistance. 尽管受警察的 殴打,被投入监狱,甘地却首创了非暴力抵抗的原则。 Defeated again,he didn t lose heart. 尽管再次被击败,但他没有灰心。 Wanted by others for over half an hour,he didin t turn up at the meeting. 尽管别人等了他半个小时,他 还是没有到会。 6.跟 ing 分词一样,过去分词一般也不能作目的状语和方面状语。 现在分词作状语和过去分词作状语的最主要区别 现在分词作状语和过去分词作状语的最主要区别在于:两者与所修饰的主句的主语的逻辑关系的 区别。 1)现在分词作状语时,现在分词所表示的动作与句子主语之间构成逻辑上的主动关系。 He went out,shutting the door behind him. 他出去后将门随手关上。 Not knowing what to do,he want to his parents for help. 由于不知如何办才好,他去找父母帮忙。 2)过去分词作状语时,过去分词所表示的动作与句子主语之间构成逻辑上的被动关系。 Given more encouragement,the boy could have behaved better, 如果多给这个孩子一些鼓励, 他就会表 现得更好。 Faced with difficulties,we must try to overcome them. 在遇到困难时, 我们要设法克服。 3)部分过去分词来源于系表结构,作状语时不表“被动关系”其前不用 being. 这样的过去分词及 短语常见的有:lost in(陷入某种状态) 、 seated(坐着的) 、 hidden(躲着) 、 stationed(驻扎) 、 lost/absorbed(沉溺于) 、born in (出身于) 、dressed in(穿着) 、 tried of (厌烦了) devoted to Lost/Absorbed in deep thought,he didn t hear the sound. 因为沉溺于思考中,所以他没有听到那个声 音 Born in this beautiful town, he hates to leave it. 出生于这个美丽的小镇,他不愿离开它。 现在分词的完成式被动式与过去分词的比较 现在分词有完成式、一般被动式和完成被动式,其中现在分词完成式和现在分词完成被动式主要 用来作状语,不作定语。现在分词一般被动式可作定语。 现在分词完成式作状语时强调完成 (动作先于谓语动词发生) , 这一问题在讲现在分词作状语时已 经说过。 Having finished his homework he went out to play basketball.(=After finishing his homework he went out to play basketball.) 分词完成被动式作状语时强调完成被动两重意义。 Having been weakened by successive storms, the bridge was no longer safe.=weakened by successive storms, the bridge was no longer safe. (这座桥接二连三地遭到暴风雨的袭击后,已经不完全了。 ) 由上例可看出:作时间状语、原因状语和让步状语时,现在分词的完成被动式和过去分词一般都 可互换。 现在分词的的完成被动式 (having been done) 可和表示次数的短语及时间段 (for+一段时间) 连用, 表示发生在谓语动作之前的一个“被动动作” ,过去分词能和纯粹的过去时间连用。 Writen in a hurry,this article was not so good. 因为写得匆忙,这篇文章不是很好。 Having been discussed several times, the decision was finally made.=discussed several times, the decision was finally made. 进行了几次讨论,终于有了决定。

Mended by uncle Wang last week, the machine works well now.=Having been Mended by uncle Wang last week, the machine works well now. 作伴随状语和条件状语时现在分词被动式可代替过去分词。 Bing helped by his grandson the old man went upstairs.=Helped by his grandson the old man went upstairs. 在孙子的帮扶下,老人上了楼。 但是,伴随状语和条件状语时更偏向于用过去分词而不用现在分词的被动式。 更重要的的是:过去分词通常可作定语其他成分,而现在分词完成被动式却不能。 Eg:The computer centre,opened last year,is very popular among the students in this school. 去年开办的计算机中心很受学生欢迎。 The frist textbooks written for tearching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. 作为外语的英语教科书早在 16 世纪就已经出版了。 Most of the artists invited to the party were from south America(MET90) 应邀参加舞会的大多数艺术家来自南美。 过去分词可以用“连词+过去分词”的结构作状语,其实质就是状语从句的省略,而现在分词的 完成被动式却不能这样用。 Eg:Once seen,it can never be forgetten. 目睹一眼,终生难忘。 If bitten by a snake,you should send for help and don t walk. 要是你被蛇咬了,你应当向别人求助而不要走。 When shot in the leg,he continued to fire back with his gun. 虽腿部已遭枪击,他仍然继续开枪还击。 The room,although supposed to be kept locked, was often left open. 通常以为是锁着的那个房间,其实 经常敞开着。 总之,过去分词和现在分词被动式无论其形式和内涵,都有一定的差异。正确区分它们的异 同,准确运用他们的表达形式,对英语学习者来说,尤为重要,只有多加比较,反复体会,就能 掌握这一知识。 五 非谓语动词作定语时的比较

不定式作定语常可分为三种情况。 ①,它和中心词之间存在着逻辑上的动宾关系。 Tom has a letter to write, I have some clothes to wash. The old man has no food to eat 若这种动宾关系不完整时, 要加适当的介词 The old man has no house to live in (=The old man has no house in which to live). ②, 逻辑主语在句中出现时,常用主动形式代替被动形式:注意区分一下两句的不同含义。 I have some clothes to wash。我有一些衣服要洗(我自己洗,洗衣服的人出现了——我自己) I have some clothes to be washed. 我有一些衣服要洗(要别人洗,洗衣服的人没出现) ③, 不定式的被动式作定语有将来和被动的两重意义。 The products to be displayed tomorrow are all made in our factory. ing 分词作定语三种可能: ①分词是中心词正在进行的动作,相当于一个使用进行时态的定语从句。 The boy climbing the tree is my brother.=The boy who is climbing the tree is my brother. ②分词是习惯性和连续性的动作,相当于一个使用一般现在或一般过去时态的定语从句 The man bringing milk here very day is my cousin.=The man who brings milk here very day is my cousin.

③分词是 want wish desire hope wander 等词 After 2000 there are more and more people wanting to buy cars.=After 2000 there are more and more people wanting to buy cars. (表意愿的词)但 like 的分词不作定语。 ④ing 形式作定语时,它所表示的动作并非由其中心词来执行,而是表示用途。这时他们就成为 动名词了。例如:sleeping car,waiting-room, working method, walk stick ⑤ing 分词的被动式 作定语具有正在进行和被动两重意义。 The watch being mended is brother s ⑥现在分词的完成体不能用作定语。 过去分词作定语含被动含义且动作先于谓语发生(或时间不确定). 例如:a stolen car the lost pen The schools destroyed in the earthquake will be rebuilt . 若强调动作正在发生或与谓语同时发生,该用 ing 分词被动式。 The building being built in a school. 若指未来动作,可用不定式的被动式来表达。 The old house to be pushed down next week was built in the 1920s 不及物动词的过去分词一般不作定语,但少数及物动词的过去分词可作定语,只表示“完成”且 只能作前置定语。 A retired worker 六 fallen leaves an escaped slave the risen sun the gone days

非谓语动词作宾补语的情况

能带不定式作宾补语的动词很多, 常见的有: ask want order encourage like tell advise Forbid 等。 这些词语后的不定式常常代表宾语将来执行的一个动作。 如: Tom asked me to help him with his Chinese. 使役动词和感官动词后宾补语由不定式充当时, 不带 to。 他们主要有 look at watch notice see

observe hear listen to feel make let have. 这些词语后的不定式常常代表宾语已经执行了 的一个动作,如:We saw him pick an apple. 但这类句子在变为被动句后不能再省略 to, 例如: Tom made his sister cry→Tom s sister was made to cry by him. 感官动词和 have find keep 等动词还可用 ing 形式作宾补语补充说明宾语正在执行的动作,不 过这与不定式作宾补语的意思不同,比较一下两句:We saw him pick an apple,( 我们看见他摘了一 颗苹果)/We saw him picking apples in the garden.( 我们看见他正在花园里摘苹果) 。 少数动词(主要是感官动词)后可带过去分词作宾补语。补充说明宾语的一个被动动作。如 see hear feel 另外还有 keep get 等词 。例如: He spoke loud so that he counld make himself heard by his father.( 他大声地讲起话来以便能使自己的 父亲听见) 。 七 不定式的进行体的用法 不定式的进行体的表示正在发生的动作且于谓语动作同时发生。 常常在 seem,appear,happen,pretend 等动词后作宾语,例如: She happended to be writing a letter in the room when I come in. He prtended to be reading when the teacher came. 当然,现在分词和过去分词就不可能有这进行体形式了,请思考为什么。

八 不定式的完成体和现在分词的完成体的用法(过去分词本身就表完成和被动,因此就不会再 有完成体) ,不定式的完成体主要有以下三种用法用于: 1,在 seem,appear,happen,pretend 等后作宾语。 The boy seems to have know the secret 2, 在一些特殊句中(往往是被动句)作主语补足语:Tom is said to have recover from his illness. 3, 主系表后作原因状语:I m sorry to have come late. 现在分词也有完成体,不过只作状语时才会用 ing 的完成体,而且主要做时间状语、原因状语、 让步状语等,表示动作发生在谓语动作之前,作其他成分特别是不作定语时不用完成体。 Having been there once,she knew the place quite well, 由于去过那儿一次,他对那地方很熟悉。 Having failed twice,he didn t want to try again. 他已经失败了两次,不想再试了。 九 不定式的被动式和 ing 分词的被动式的用法 1 不定式的逻辑主语是动作承受者,不定式需用被动式,常在句中作宾语、定语等。 He dislikes to be praised in public.( 宾语) The only animal to be seen in the desert was the camel.( 定语) He raised a few questions to be answered.( 定语) 不定式的动作执行者在句中出现时常用主动形式表被动意义。 区别以下两句:Tom has some clothes to wash. Tom has some clothes to be washed. 作方面状语也是如此,只能用主动形式表被动意义。He machine is difficult to mended, 2,ing 分词的被动式表示正在进行和被动两重意义。可作定语、宾补语、状语。 The machine being mended by Mr smith was bought only two weeks ago,( 定语) We saw Tom being criticized in the teachers room( 宾补语) Being helped by my mother I worked out the problem soon.( 状语) 作时间状语,若动作先于谓语动作,且有具体过去时间,只能用过去分词,若没有具体过去时间 状语,可用过去分词或 ing 的完成被动式。如果要强调分词的动作发生在谓语动作之前,则可用 现在分词完成被动式,或用过去分词。作方式或伴随状语,不用现在分词被动式,只用过去分词。 作原因状语,现在分词被动式与过去分词可以互换。 十,不定式和 ing 形式的逻辑主语。 一般情况下用“for+名词/代词”把不定式的动作执行者介绍在不定式符号前。 It s time for them to get up, 在主系表结构的句子中不定式作状语,若表语是与人的品质相关的形容词时就用 of 代替 for。 It s nice of you to help me 动名词的逻辑主语复杂得多,其逻辑主语是有生命的名词。 1. 一般来说,逻辑主语是有生命的名词,且动名词短语在句中作主语时,须用名词所有格或用形 容词性物主代词: Your driving a car to BeiJing took longer than expected. 你开车去北京所用的时间比我预料的长一些。 It s a waste of time your talking to him. 你跟他谈话,那是浪费时间。 Excuse my bing late. 原谅我来晚了。 You falling into the river was the climax of the whole trip. 你掉到了河里,是整个旅行的高潮。 2,作宾语时,也可用普通格或人称代词宾格。逻辑主语是指示代词或不定代词 但是,动名词后面跟自己的宾语时,他的逻辑主语也可以使用宾格代词或名词普通格。例如:

Please excuse my/me coming late, 请原谅,我来迟了。 I ll never forget Tom s/Tom imitating the headmaster. 我永远忘不了汤姆模仿校长的样子。 3,如果动名词是 being, 也都使用所有格或物主代词,而不用宾格。 (而在句首出现使用代词主格 来作动名词的逻辑主语,那就是典型非正式语) 。例如:Excuse my being late. 原谅我来晚了。 4,动名词作介词宾语时,而且大都与动词、名词和形容词的搭配有关。动名词的逻辑主语既可用 代词宾格或名词普通格,也可用物主代词或名词的所有格。例如: I insisted on him leaving here at once. 我坚持要他立刻离开这里。 Maybe that is the sound that I ve heard at night-the sound of him/his lock the door. 这也许就是我在晚 上听见的声音——他锁门的声音。 There are many reasons for animals/animals dying out. 动物灭绝有许多原因。 Once day the man upstairs heard the sound of children playing in the park. 有一天,住在楼上的那个 人听到孩子们在花园里玩耍的声音。 5、无论作动作宾语和介词宾语时,如果其逻辑主语是无生命的名词,一般用普通格;如果逻辑主 语是有生命的名词,一般用所有格形式,但是,在作介词宾语时,也可用普通格。例如: Do you hear the rain pattering on the roof ?( 动词的宾语,pattering 的逻辑主语 rain 没有生命) Is there any hope of John winning the first prize?( 介词的宾语,winning 的逻辑主语 John 有生命用所 有格用 John s winning 和普通格 John winning 均可) 。 在非常正式的英语中, 名词后面带动名词, 要用名词所有格形式, 但省略 s 的情况更为多见。 I don t remember my mother complaining about it. 我不记得我母亲为此抱怨过。 (文体正式) I don t remember my mother complaining about it. (口语) 6、 如果动名词的逻辑主语是它动作的对象,他就要用被动式,注意不要与现在分词的被动式相 混淆。例如:Usually at the beginning of school,the nioce of desks being opened and c losed could be heard out in the street. 通常,在开始上课时,在街上都听到打开和关上书桌的声音。 这里的 desks being opened and closed 是一个“名词+动名词被动形式”的复合结构,共同作介词 of 的宾语, 其中名词 desks 是动名词 being opened and closed 的逻辑主语。 又如: There are also records of gymnastics being performed in china and some other Asian countries. 中国以及其它的一些亚洲国家 也有体操表演的记载。 但下列句中是现在分词的被动式作定语。例如: The houses being built by our company will be completed by the end of the year. 由我们公司营建的那 批房屋将于年底竣工。 The problem being discussed is of vital importance. 正在讨论的问题是及其重要的。 7、 如果动名词的复合结构和现在分词的独立主格结构从逻辑主语的形式上难以辨别时, 可以看谓 语是什么样的动词,一般来讲,在 see,hear, notice,watch, keep, find,get,have,feel, leave,listen to 等动 词后的 V-ing 形式为现在分词作宾补语; 但带有 V-ing 形式的词置于介词、 及物动词的短语动词后 时,它肯定是动名词。例如:The two men had their lights burning all night. 这俩人让灯通宵亮着。 The old man insisted on them /their staying in his home. 这位老人坚持要他们留在老家。 动名词的逻辑主语为谓语动词的主语时,不需要把它写出来;如果动名词动作的发出者不是谓语 动词的主语时,则需要有自己的逻辑主语。 They insisted on reading the letter. 他们坚信要看信。 (他们发出了看信的动作) 十一,关于独立主格结构 前面讲过,非谓语动词作状语时,其逻辑主语应当与句子主语保持一致,如果不一致就应当把他 的逻辑主语单独写在非谓语动词之前,这种结构就叫独立主格结构,它主要在句中作状语,独立

主格结构本身不是句子,在句子中作状语,表示时间 原因 条件 伴随等。 例如:the meeting being over,all of us went home. 开完会后,我们都回家了。 (时间) Her work done,she sat down for a cup of tea. 他干完了活,坐下来喝茶。 (时间) The condition being favourable,he may succeed. 若条件有利,他或许成功。 (条件) There being no taxis,we had to work. 没有出租车,我们只好步行。 (原因) 以上结构中现在分词的位置上可用过去分词 不定式 形容词 副词 介词短语等代替。从而又衍生 出以下各种新的独立主格结构: 1、名词/代词(主格)+现在分词。如: The girl staring at him(=As the girl stared at him),he didn t know what to say. 姑娘两眼望着他,他不知道说什么好。 Time permitting(=If time permits),we will go for an outing tomorrow. 如果时间允许的话,我们明天去郊游。 2、名词/代词(主格)+过去分词。如: The problems solved(=As The problems were solved),the quality has been improved. 随着时间的解 决,质量已经提高了。 Her glasses broken(=Because her glasses were broken),she couldn t see the words on the 由于眼镜摔坏了,他看不见黑板上的字。 3 名词/代词(主格)+不定式。不定式强调的是一次具体性的动作。如: He is going to make a model plane,some old parts to help. 借助一些旧零件,它要做一个飞机模型。 They said good-bye to each other,one to go home,the other to go to the bookstore. 他们道别后,一个回 了家,一个去了书店。 4 名词/代词(主格)+形容词。如: An air accident happened to the plane,nobody alive. 那架飞机遭遇了空难,无一人生还。 So many people absent,the meeting had to be called off. 这么多人缺席,会议不得不取消。 5 名词/代词(主格)+副词。如: He put on his seater wrong side out. 他把毛衣穿反了。 The meeting over,they all went home. 会议一结束,他们就都回家了。 6 名词/代词+(主格)介词短语。如: The boy goes to the classroom,book in hand, 那男孩手里拿着书去教室。 Mary was sitting near the fire,her back towards the door. 玛丽靠近火炉坐着,背对着门。此外还有以 下两种结构需要注意: 7,The being+名词(代词) 如:There being nothing else to do,we went home. 没有别的事可做,我 们就回家了。 There being no futher business,I declare the meeting closed. 没有在要讨论的事了,我宣布散会。 8, It being +名词(代词) 如: It being Christmas,the goverment offices were closed. 由于圣诞节的缘故,政府机关都休息。 It being a holiday,all the shops were shut. 由于今天是假日,所有商店都关门了。 注:独立主格结构有逗号与主句分开。 独立主格结构有时可在其前加上介词 with, 此时就可用逗号与主句分开。 如:Don t sleep with the window open. 别开着窗睡觉。 He was lying on the bed with all his closes on. 他和衣躺在床上。 She came in with a book in her hand. 他手里拿着一本书走了进来。 He fell as leep with the lamp burning. 他没熄灯就睡着了。 使用独立主格四点注意:

1,独立主格与状语从句的转换,当状语从句的主语与主句的主语不是指同一对象时,可用独立主 格结构取代状语从句,但不在保留连词。如:After class was over(=class being over/class over),the Students soon left the classroom. 下课后,学生很快离开了教室。 2,不能省略 being(have been) 的情形在下列两种情况下,独立主格结构中的 being(have been) 不能 省略。 (1)独立主格的逻辑主语是代词时,如:It being Sunday. We went to church. 因为是星期天,我们 去了做礼拜。 (2)在 There being+名词的结构中。如:There being no bus,we had to go home on foot. 因为有公共 汽车,所以我们不得不不行回家。 3 通常不用物主代词或冠词在“名词或代词+介词短语”构成的独立主格结构中,一般不用形容 词性物主代词和冠词。如:Miss smith entered the classroom,book in hand. 史密斯小姐走进了教室, 手里拿着一本书。比较 with 的复合结构。如 Miss smith entered the classroom,with a book in hand. 4, 独立主格结构没有所有格形式。 The chief-editor arriving, we began themeeting. 主编来了, 我们开 始开会。 (比较动名词复合结构) 十二 关于垂悬分词 分词或分词短语在句子中充当状语时,其逻辑主语与句子主语应该一致,当分词的逻辑主语与句 子的主语不一致时,则应将分词的逻辑主语补出来,使用独立主格结构。 但有时分词的主语既不与句子主语一致,分词本身又非独立主格结构,如:Going up the hill,the statue of Lincoln struck my eye. 在登上山的当儿,林肯的雕像十分引我注目。 Tired but happy,the bus whisked us home. 我们虽然疲乏,但很高兴,公共汽车飞快地把我们送到了 家。 这种分词在英语语法上叫作垂悬分词 (dangling participle), 从他的起源上来说, 是语言的错误使用, 垂悬分词通常出现在句子开头或接近开头的位置,与句子的其他成分不产生必要的句法关系,特 别是它与句子主语无逻辑关系。鉴于这种特点,垂悬分词别名为:独立分词或孤立分词。垂悬分 词多数为现在分词,少数为过去分词。以下将从使用场合和情况对垂悬分词进行分类。 1,当分词主语是不定人称时,如:When dining in the restaurant,a jacket and tie are required. 2, 当分词的主语是表示时间、天气、自然现象等的无人称代词 it 时, 如:Being Chistmas,the government offices were closed. 3 当分词的暗含主语是句子的整体时,如:the siren sounded,indicating that the air-raid was over. Unknow to his closest advises, he had secretly negotiated with an enemy emissary. 4 在正式科技文体中,分词前常常带有连词,其主语通常与 I,we, you 等同,如:When installing a boiler,the floor space which is available is very importent. 5 垂悬分词最常见于方式分离状语,表明说话人对所说的话的方式、条件以及说话人的态度或看 法,这种用法可细分为以下几种情况: A :说话者用垂悬分词引出话题, 如: talking of , getting back to,coming to 等, 意思为: 谈到了??, 关于??,回到? ,请看例句: getting back to our story, the princess was killed. Coming to this question,I say no. b 垂悬分词表明说话者的说话方式,如:putting it mildly, frankly speaking,generrally speaking, Roughly speaking,broadly speaking,biologically speaking 等,请看例句: putting it mildly, ,you have caused us some inconvenience. generrally speaking,dogs are more faithful to men than cats. C , 有些垂悬分词表明说话的依据或视角,如: judging from,according to, considering,viewing it

from,seeing, 例如: Judging from his expression,he is a bad mood. Acconsidering to Barthes, the author had died. Considering the low price,the car is worth buying. D:有些垂悬分词或词组还为说话者所说内容的成立提供条件, 如: providing (that) , provided(that), Supposing,given. 意思为“if 或 with”wanting 和 failing,意思为: “without” 。例如: Provided that a film entertains,few people care about its other merits. Supposing this to be true, he is certainly the murderer. E: 表 示 转 折 性 的 垂 悬 分 词 或 词 组 还 可 以 表 明 说 话 者 所 说 内 容 有 无 例 外 情 况 。 如 : excepting,excepted,saving that, 意思为“除了??”;including,counting,setting,aside,leaving?to one side, 意思为:包括,除了?还有?”等


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