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选修8 Unit 4 grammar


M8 Unit 4Grammar-----Revise the Past Participle as Adverbial 主备: 鲁宏杰 审核: 甘忠清 陶兰 孙方言 学习目标:掌握过去分词作状语时的各种语法功能。 掌握独立主格结构并了解过去分词与现在分词作状语的区别,能熟练解题。 过去分词作状语 ? -ed 分词短语做状语可表示时间、地点、原因、条件、让步、伴随等意义。这种-e

d 分词状 语相当于一个时间、地点、原因、条件、让步等状语从句,若-ed 分词作状语,句子的主语 与分词所表示的动作构成动宾关系,即是该分词动作的承受者。 ? -ed 分词(短语)作状语时,也可在其前面加上连词 when, if, once, though, unless 等,以便 明确作何种状语。这种带有连词的过去分词结构通常可以看作是一种省略句,省略的总是 “主语+ be” ,省略的主语常与主句的主语相同。 过去分词担任状语时的语法功能 ①表时间,相当于一个时间状语从句,有时过去分词前可加连词 when 或 while 来强调时间概 念。如: 从山顶上看,这个城市就像一个大花园。 ______________________________ , the city looked like a big garden. 入党以后,他决定献身于党的事业。(accept) __________________________, he decided to devote his life to the cause of the Party. ②表原因,相当于一个由 as, since,, because 等引导的原因状语从句。如: 被夜晚的响声惊吓,那姑娘不敢睡在她的房间里了。 ______________________________in the night, the girl didn’t dare sleep in her room. 因为淋了一场大雨,所以他全身湿透了。 ______________________________, he was all wet. ③表条件,相当于一个条件状语从句,有时过去分词前可用 if 等词。如: 再给他一次机会,他会做得更好。 ____________________________ , he will do better. 和你哥哥相比,你应该更加努力学习英语。 __________________________, you should make greater efforts to study English. 水如果被加热,会变成水蒸气。 _________,water can be turned into steam. ④表让步,相当于一个 though/although 引导的让步状语从句。如: 尽管已经跑得筋疲力尽,他们还是继续追赶着那个强盗。(exhaust) __________by the running , they went on running after the robber. 尽管被许多人嘲笑,他还是继续他的研究。 __________________________________, he continued his study. ⑤表方式或伴随情况。如: 那个老人在他的妻子的搀扶下走进了房间。(support) The old man went into the room, ________________________. 我和父亲坐在桌子旁边讨论着我的工作问题。 __________________________, my father and I were talking about my job.
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⑥独立成分(主句主语与从句主语不一致时) Given good weather, our ship will reach Shanghai Monday evening. The signal _________ (give), the bus started. 信号一发出,汽车就开动了。 注意: 部分过去分词因来源于系表结构,作状语时不表示被动关系,其前不用 being. 这样的过去分词 及短语常见的有:lost (陷入某种状态),seated(坐), hidden(躲), lost/ absorbed in(沉溺于), dressed in(穿着), tired of (厌烦) 等。 ____________________________, he didn’t hear the sound. 因为沉溺于思考之中,所以他没有听到那个声音。 ______________________________, we must try to overcome them. 在遇到困难的时候,我们必须设法克服。 现在分词与过去分词作状语的差异: 1._________(give)more attention, the trees could have grown better. 2._______________(know) what to do, he went to his parents for help. 3. _____________ (write) in a hurry, this article was not so good! 4. _____________( read) carefully, he found something he had not known before. 5.__________________________ ( discuss) several times, the decision was finally made. 高考链接: ( )1. ________ time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. (03’北京) A. Having given B. To give C. Giving D. Given ( )2. The computer center, ________ last year, is very popular among the students in this school(93’ 全国) A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened ( )3. The first textbooks ________ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. (94’全国) A. having written B. to be written C. being written D. written ( )4. ________ is thought, he almost ran into the car in front of him.(96’全国) A. Losing B. Having lost C. Lost D. To lose ( )5. _______ such heavy pollution already, it may now be too late to clean up the river. (01’全国夏) A. Having suffered B. Suffering C. To suffer D. Suffered ( )6. The researcher is so designed that once ________ nothing can be done to change it. (02’全国) A. begins B. having begun C. beginning D. begun ( )7. ________ in 1636, Harvard is one of the most famous universities in the United States.(00’上 海) A. Being founded B. It was founded C. Founded D. Founding ( )8. When ________, the museum will be open to the public next year. (02’上海春) A. completed B. completing C. being completed D. to be completed ( )9. Prices of daily goods ________ through a computer can be lower than store prices.(02’京皖春) A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying ( )10. Mr. Smith, _______ of the ________ speech, started to read a novel. (03’北京春) A. tired; boring B. tiring; bored C. tired; bored D. tiring; boring
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