初中英语同义词同义词组归纳 1. 一??就?? as soon as 2. 尽可能 as ? as possible as?as sb. can 3.乐意做?? be glad to do sth. be pleased to do sth. be happy to do sth。 have pleasure to do sth。 4.准备做?
? get ready for sth。 get sth. ready be ready for sth。 be ready to do sth。 prepare for sth。 prepare to do sth。 prepare sth. for sb。 5. “邀请”与“请求” Would you like to do sth.? Would you like sth.? Would you please do?? (回答：I’d love to 。) 6.“没用” It is no use (in)doing sth。 There is no use doing sth。 It is useless to do sth。 It is no good (in) doing sth。 7. “结果” so ?that? enough to do sth。 too ? to? 8. “花费” sb. spends some time/money on sth sb. spends some time/money (in) doing sth。 sb. pays some money for sth。 sb. buy sth. for some money。 (sb sells sth. for some money。) sth. costs sb. some time/money It costs sb. some money/time to do sth。 It takes sb. some time/money to do sth。 It takes some time/money for sb. to do sth。
9. “为了” so that (引导目的状语从句) in order that (引导目的状语从句) in order to do sth. (引导目的状语，可首可尾) to do sth. (引导目的状语，可首可尾) 10. “以至于不” too?to? so ?? that?not?。. not?enough to? 11. “习惯” be used to doing sth。 get used to doing sth。 12. 表示建议的表达 What about sth./doing sth.? How about sth./doing sth.? Why not do sth.? 13. “出什么毛病了” What’s the matter with?? What’s wrong with?? What’s the trouble with?? What happens to?? 14. “为什么不” Why not do sth.? Why don’t you do sth? 15. “不但??而且??” not only?but also not only?but? 16.“劝阻” “阻止” stop sb. from doing keep sb. from doing prevent sb. from doing discourage sb. from doing sth。 17. “相处” get on with sb。 get on well with sb。 get along with sb。 get along well with sb。 18. “因为” thanks to because of as a result of 19.“形式” It’s + adj. (for/of sb. ) to do sth. (形式主语) find/think/feel it + adj. + to do sth. (形式宾语)
20. stress 句型汇总 be stressed out be under a lot of stress take stand the stress 忍受压力 put stress on sth. 强调 21. “弥补” make up for compensate for 22. “在?看来” in one’s opinion, to one’s mind in one’s view in one’s eye according to sb. 23. “丢” be lost be missing be gone 24. “著名” be famous for sth. be famous to sb. be famous as + 职位 be famous to sb. as+ 职位 be known for sth. be known to sb. be known as+ 职位 be known to sb. as+ 职位 25. “满意” be satisfied with be pleased with be happy with be delighted with 26. “为??而高兴” be pleased for sb be happy for sb. be glad for sb. 27. “祝贺” congratulate sb. on sth. congratulations to sb. on sth. 28. “道歉” apologize to sb. for sth. make an apology to sb. for sth.
29. “玩得高兴” have a good time have fun (doing sth.) enjoy oneself 30. “决定” decide to do sth. make a decision to do sth. make a resolution to do sth. make up one’s mind to do sth. set one’s mind to do sth. 31. “使役” make sb. do sth. let sb. do sth. have sb. do sth. get sb. to do sth. set sb. to do sth. 32. to 表示 “的” the key to the door the key/answer to the question the solution to a problem the way to sp. the entrance to sp. be on a visit to sp. pay a visit to sp. a trip to sp. a ticket to sp. (a ticket for + 比赛名称) 34. “怎么样”怎么样表达? What do you think of sth.? How do you like sth.? What’s your view on sth.? How do you feel sth.? What’s your opinion about sth? 35. 对??的态度： be kind to sb. be nice to sb. be friendly to sb. be impolite to sb. be rude to sb. be mean to sb. be patient with sb. be impatient with sb. be angry with sb. at sth. be mad with sth. be strict with sb. in sth.
36. 疑问词+动词不定式 what to do how to do sth. where to do sth. when to do sth. whether to do sth. 37. “刚??就??” hardly?when? no sooner? than? be about to do sth. when? 38. like 句型汇总 like sth./sb. like doing sth like to do sth. would like to do sth. would like sth. feel like doing sth. feel like sth. look like? what’s ? like? 39. need 句型汇总 need sth/sb. need to do sth. need sb. to do sth. need doing sth. = need to be done needn’t do sth. Need?do sth.? (need 作情态动词时常用于否与疑) in need of = in want of in great need of meet the needs of 40. “到达” get to sp. arrive in/at sp. reach sp. 41. interest 句型汇总 be interested in sth. have interest in sth./doing sth interest sb. in sth./doing sth. lose interest in sth/doing sth It’s interesting (for sb.)to do sth. a place of interest
42. tell 句型汇总 tell sb. sth. tell sth. to sb. tell sb. about sth. tell sb. to do sth. tell sb. not to do sth. tell A from B tell the difference between A and B 43. “相同” be the same as look like be similar to 44. “拜访” call at sp call on sb. drop in at sp. drop in on sb. 注意 call on 还有“号召”的意思，句型为 call on sb. to do sth. 45. hope 与 wish 句型汇总 hope to do sth. hope that?? wish to do sth. wish sb. to do sth. wish that? hope sb. to do sth. (╳) 46. “翻译” translate ? into? turn ? into? change ? into? 47. suggest 句型汇总 suggest that??(虚拟语气) suggest to sb. that?? suggest that??(表明 ) suggest doing sth. suggest sb. to do sth. (╳) 48. advise 句型汇总 advise sb. against sth/doing sth advise sb. to do sth. advise sb. not to do sth.
49. ?to doing sth 汇总 look forward to doing sth. devote oneself to doing sth. devote one’s life to doing sth. pay attention to doing sth. be used to doing sth. be accustomed to doing stick to doing sth. 坚持做?? adapt to doing sth. admit to doing sth. apply to doing sth. be addicted to doing sth. be dedicated to doing sth. 致力于;献身于 be indifferent to doing sth. be opposed to diong sth. be similar to doing sth. get down to doing sth. give one’s mind to doing sth. give rise to doing sth. lead to doing sth. object to doing sth. prefer doing A to doing B respond to doing sth. take to doing sth. 喜欢上;从事;养成?的习惯;沉湎于? turn to doing sth.求助;转而从事于 in addition to doing sth. 50. “容忍” put up with stand bear tolerate endure 51. “对??厌烦” be tired of be fed up with be sick of be bored with 52. tired 句型 be tired of 对?厌倦，对??烦 be tired with/from sth./doing sth. 因?感到疲劳 be tired out 精疲力竭 (=be exhausted)
中考英语重点词汇归纳 一. 出现以下词,用 do 填空: can , could, may, must, need, had better, why not, make, have to, let's, see, hear, watch, notice, Will ( Would ) you please…, help do, help sb do. 二. 出现以下词,用 to do 填空: would like, want, begin, start, hope, decide, ask, wish, have something to do, tell, take time, it's time, remember, forget, learn, teach, try, stop, plan, adj./疑问词后,take ,allow sb to do, It's +形容词+to do something, know, refuse, invite , get order, like, offer, lend, make up one's mind to do, set one's mind to do, enough, need ,help to do, help sb to do, 三. 出现以下词,用 doing 填空: allow doing, finish , like, enjoy, mind, keep, be busy, there be, do some…, go doing, prevent, be worth, spend, practice, feel like, thank somebody for doing something ,stop, excuse somebody for doing something, can't help, prefer… to…, look forward to…hate, mention, have fun doing,介词:at, in, on, of, from, for, about, with, without, ,make a contribution to, be used to, hear, see, watch, notice, listen, can't help doing 四. 基数词的特殊变化 one---first ; two---second; three---third; five---fifth; eight---eighth; nine---ninth; twelve---twelfth; twenty---twentieth; twenty-one---twenty-first 五. 表示天气的词 1. sun—sunny 2. cloud—cloudy 3. rain—rainy 4. wind—windy 5. fog—foggy 6. mist—misty 7. snow—snowy 8. shower—showery 六. 表示方向的词 1. east—eastern—easterner(s) 3. west—western—westerner(s) 七. 国家---国家的(人) 2. south—southern—southerner(s) 4. north—northern—northerner(s)
1. China—Chinese 2. Japan—Japanese 3. Germany--German 4. Canada—Canadian 5. Sweden—Swedish 6. Australia--Australian 7. Italy—Italian 8. India—Indian 9. France—French---Frenchman 10. America—American 八．不规则形容词和副词的比较级及最高级: 1. good—better—best 2. well—better—best 3. much—more—most4.many—more—most 5. bad—worse—worst 6. badly—worse—worst 7. ill—worse—worst 8. far—farther—farthest 9. old—older—oldest 10. old—elder—eldest 11. little—less—least
九. 一些特殊的名词复数及短语 1. leaf__________________ 2. life__________________ 3.thief_________________ 4. knife_________________ 5. shelf_________________6.half__________________ 7.roof__________________8.German_______________9.sheep_________________ 10. deer_________________ 11. child______________ 12. woman teacher________ 13. tooth________________ 14. foot_______________ 15. people_______________ 16. postman_____________ 19. boy_______________ 20. key__________________ 21. story________________ 22. family_____________ 23. century______________ 24. baby________________ 26. tomato_____________ 27. potato_______________ 28. radio________________ 29. zoo_______________ 30. kilo_________________ 31. photo_________ 32. businessman_________ 33. woman_____________ 34. man__________________ 35. difficulty________ 36. monkey_______________ 37. mouse________________
一 、 数词 【基数词 、 序数词 、 分数、星期、月份、hundred/thousand/million/billion、
时间表达法】 1. The t_________ Olympics was held in August, 2008 in Beijing China. 2. There are so many new words in the _________ (二十一) lesson. 3. The Yellow River is the s_______ longest river in China. 4.We had a special party for her _________ (二十) birthday. 5. We will have the meeting on the _________ (十二) floor. 6. T_________ of students help the homeless people through the Red Cross. 7. More than two t__________ people lost their lives in the earthquake in Yushu. 8.“Supper Girls” are loved by m________ of young people. 9.The best time to visit England is O__________, not August. 10. The first month of a year is J_______, and the last month is called D_________. 11. Sunday is the f________ day of a week. 12.—Shall we meet on W_________ or Thursday? —Either day is fine with me. 13.The last day of a week is S_________. 14.There are f________ students in our class, twenty-six boys and twenty-four girls. 15.Three q_________ of the money has been spent recycling the rubbish. 16. Tree Planting Day is on M________12th, Fool’s Day is on A_______1st, Mid-autumn Day is on A________15th, and S________10th is Teachers’ Day.
四、介词【including; except; besides; during; towards; across; through; along;
past; over; among; between; behind; with; without; since; inside; outside; instead of; according to; because of 】 1. Everyone else in my class was invited ( 除了 ) me. 2. All the students in our city go to school every day ( 除了 )weekends. 3. Another four students were invited to the English party _____(除了)Tom yesterday 4. She was the first girl to swim ( 穿越 ) the channel.You must be careful when you ( 穿过 ) the street.
5. It’s exciting to trek t the jungle. 6. The little girl went to school w eating anything. 7. There is a main railway b this town and that one. 8. I’m much taller than Nancy, so I have to sit b her. 9. Paris has some fantastic sights, i the Eiffel Tower and Notre Cathedral.
五、连词【however; although; though; because; since; unless; until;
neither... nor...; either…or…; not only… but also…; both… and…; or(否则)】 1. Sometimes I find watching English movies frustrating b the people speak too quickly. 2. Fortunately he passed the English exam a he has been ill for a long time. 3. Susan will not arrive at the airport on time u she hurries up. 4. We know Jackie Chan w movies are very popular with the young. 5.Don’t eat too much junk food, ( 否则 ) you will be in bad health. 6. I like the weather that is n too hot nor too cold.
1. Take a short rest after an ______ (小时) hard work, and you won’t feel too tired. 2. Can you imagine what life will be like in 20 _________ (年) time? 3. Last week I went to my _______(姑姑) house to teach her how to send e-mails. 4. I can’t say what the ________ (计划) are. 5. The _______(架子) are for keeping books. 6. Mom often tells Linda not to talk to a ________ (陌生人). 7.As a ________(自愿者), he has been working in Yushu for about a month. 8. The hottest season in China is s_______. 9.Great _______(变化) have taken place in our hometown. 10. After his father’s _______(死), Martin’s life became more difficult. 11. —Can I help you, madam? —Two kilos of ________(西红柿), please. 12. All the Chinese people like Spring F________. We often eat jiaozi on that day. 13. English people often begin their talks with w________. So when you meet someone in English, you can say, “It’s a fine day, isn’t it?” 14.—Could you give us some a______ on how to learn English well?—I’d be glad to. 15. —When is _________(母亲) Day? —The second Sunday in May. 16. We’re doing many useful things to control the _________(污染) of the rivers. 17. We have three meals a day: breakfast, l_______ and supper. 18. If robots do the work of human beings, lots of people will lose their j_______. 19. O________ cover more than 70 percent of the earth’s surface (表面). 20. Science is one of my favorite s________. How about you? 21. The accident was caused by a person who doesn’t have a driver’s l________. 22. —I am so glad to have passed the driving test. —C_________. 23. Would you like to see the movie with me? I’ve got two t_______. 24. My sister often downloads English songs and stories from the I_________. 25. The young l_______ and her boy friend are waiting for the bus. 26. Zhang Yimou is one of the most famous d______ in China.
27. We often use an u_______ to prevent us from getting wet. 28. These women doctors are from _________(德国). 29. I saw several _________ (猴子) escaped from the zoo. 30. The blind person showed his talent in different ________(城市). 31. There are many w________ workers in this big factory. They are hard-working. 32. —What are k_______ used for? —They’re used for cutting things. 33. Many souveniors in World Expo have been on _________(出售). 34. You shouldn’t be allowed to get your ears pierced without p_________.
六、形容词【名词前作定语; 系动词后作表语; 原级、比较级、最高级】
1．A powerful earthquake hit Wenchuan in (西南方) China . Shanghai is in the e _____ of China. 2．It’s our duty to help b _____ people because they aren’t able to see . 3．I think this book is a little expensive, but it’s very u ________ . 4．I’ll buy my father something s _____ for his birthday. 5．The weather in South China is quite d ______ from that in North China . 6．My daughter likes sleeping with the window o ________ to keep the air fresh. 7．That man reminds me of my English teacher .They wear the s _________ glasses. 8，The Yellow River is the second l ______ river in China . 9．The cup that I bought yesterday was b ______ . 10．When I decided to go back home, it got dark and w _____ . 11．I was so t _____ after the race that I Drank two bottles of water . 12．I’m very h ____ . Please give me something to eat . 13．It’s a ______ (晴朗的) day today. You’d better go out for a walk. 14．Don’t be ______ （紧张）. It’s nothing serious . 15．In my opinion ,the weather of Xichang in spring is too ___ （多风）. 16. A nine-year-old boy saved children during earthquake. How __ (勇敢) he is ! 17．It’s (危险) to cross the roads when the lights are red . 18．The population of China is (多) than that of India . 19．The more you listen to English , the ___ （容易）it becomes. 20．How are the kids in Yushu now? Are they happy and ____________(健康) ? 21．We are very __ (吃惊) at the news . 22．Liu Xiang is one of the most ___ (成功的) player in China . 23．Which is ___ (安全的) ,traveling by train or by plane ? 24．The more we get together ,the ___ (快乐) we’ll be .
25．After education reform (改革) , the students have more time to relax and (少) homework to do . 26．I’m (担忧) about her health . 27．He was so hungry that he ate up an (巨大的) cake. 28．He seems very (严肃) .
【修饰形容词 、 动词或整个句子 。 程度副词：always ; usually; sometimes ; never ; seldom ; hardly ; almost ; nearly 】 1. Anny did her homework c 2. He’s so strong that he can raise the box 3. My mother gets up 4. English is the most 5. He was lying in bed 6. How h that she didn’t make any mistakes in it. ( 容易 ).
( 早 ) to cook for us every morning. ( 广泛 ) used language in the world today. ( 安静 ) looking at the ceiling. the rain is raining. (代替).
7. Mrs. Green couldn’t take pride in the party so her husband went 8. Could you please speak more s 9. My sister likes singing very much, 10. I h 11. 12. U
,Tom? I can’t catch what you say. (尤其)singing pop songs.
go to bed before mid-night. I don’t think it’s good for your health. (幸运), I have been a volunteer of the activity organized by the charity. , I didn’t get the chance to pay a visit to Hong Kong. (礼貌) ask him to join the line.
13. If we see someone cutting in line, we may 14. The boss left his office 15. I believe
(生气) without saying a word. (坚定): “A good plan takes you going further.”
16. Yesterday was my birthday. All my friends sang 17. Li Ming usually checks his test papers (高兴)at the party. (认真)before handing it in. (成功).
18. China sent up Shenzhou 6 manned spaceship in October,2005
【谓语：时态（8 种时态和情态动词+do）、语态; 非谓语：to do/do/doing/done; 动名词形式，注意： 三单写法、过去式写法、过去分词写法、现在分词写法】 1. Many parents are s____________ money for their children to go to college. 2. He kept unhappy last week because his little brother d___________ his walkman (随身听) on the floor and broke it. 3. The World Expo was h____________ in Shanghai. 4. When we meet with difficulties, our teacher always _____________(鼓励) us to work then out by ourselves. 5. As the famous saying goes, it’s better to give than to r____________. 6. My sister often d___________ English songs and English stories from the Internet. It really improves her listening. 7. It’s our duty to protect environment. So we must stop ___________(倒) dirty water into the river. 8. I h___________ nothing，Could you please tell me what the teacher said? 9. That man r_____________ me of my English teacher. They wear the same glasses. 10. It is said that Columbus first ____________(发现) American continent(大陆). 11. I don’t think students should be _______(允许) to bring mobile phones to school. 12. Fried food t____________ good, but in fact it is unhealthy food. 13. Spending some time on our hobbies can help us to ___________(放松) and make our lives colorful. 14. CCTV-9 is looking forward to _____________(采访) President Bush. 15. When we climb the hill on Sundays, Jake always _________(到达) at the top first. 16. Students can _____________(借) only two books from the library each time. 17. I’m very sorry that I’ve _____________(忘记) my backpack in the classroom. 18. All the information had better be _________(储存) in the computer to keep safe. 19. “Love in Beijing” is _________(演唱) by Sun Nan , a well-known Chinese singer.
We practiced ___________ (唱) English songs for one and a half hours today. 20. Can you ___________(组织) the games for the class party? 21. In order to get a prize in the speech contest, Vera has ____________(花费) 2 weeks improving her spoken language. 22. Beijing Chinese , we are very proud that the 29th Olympic Games was h_____________ in Beijing. 23. A scientist says that beautiful music can make cows _________(生产) more milk. 24. Fish will d_____________ without water and air. 25. Please d____________ yourselves in English. Don’t be afraid. 26. It’s not right to w____________(浪费) too much time on computer games. 27. The Internet is very useful. It can p____________ us with the latest news. 28. Because of the earthquake , we slept outside in yard instead of ____________(待 在) in the house. 29. Some of the monkeys have e_____________ from the zoo. 30. He ___________ (计划) to come here yesterday, but he didn’t.
（一）用所给动词的适当时态形式填空： 1.We _______(go) swimming in the river every day in summer. 2.It ______(seem) you are right. 3.Look, the children ______ (play) basketball on the playground. 4.He ______(listen) to the radio when I came in. 5.It is very cold. I think it ______. (rain) 6.“I need some paper.” “I _____ (bring) some for you.” 7.I can’t find my pen. Who ______(take) it? 8.He said that he _____(come)_ back in five minutes. 9.I didn’t meet him. He ______(leave) when I got there. 10.I ______(lose) my bike, so I have to walk to school. 11.He ______(sit) down and began to read his newspaper. 12.He is not here. He ______ (go) to the post office. 13.He is very hungry. He ______(not eat) anything for three days.
14.I ______(go) with you if I have time. 15.We will go to the cinema if it ______ (rain) tomorrow. 16.I will tell her the news when she ______(come) to see me next week. 17.“When ______ you ______(buy) the car?” “In 1998.” 18.We ______ (be)good friends since we met at school. 19.What ______ you ______ (do)at five yesterday afternoon? 20.The bike is nice. How much _____ it _____? (cost)
21.It’s very important for us to learn English by______(make) flashcards. 22.We__________(take ) notes when the teacher had a lesson. 23.I think_______(wear) tie looks really cool. 24.It ________ (seem) that they’re playing basketball on the playground. 25.Students should be ___________ (allow) to study with friends. 26.When they are together, they talk instead of _______ (do) homework. 27.You’re only twelve years old. Don’t get your ears _________ (pierce). 28.It’s raining now. We have to put off ____________ (have) a picnic. 29.It takes me half an hour __________ (walk) to work every day. 30.If it __________ (be) fine, we’ll go fishing tomorrow. 31.He ___________ (live) in Beijing since he was eight years old. 32.I think the computer ____________ (invent) before the TV. 33.He said he____________ (be) to the Great Wall four times. 34.By the time I got home, my parents ____________ (have) supper.
35.What’s your plan for the holiday? I _______ (visit) Beijing if possible. 36.The foreigners are getting used to____________ (use) the chopsticks. 37.At first she had trouble __________ (make) compete sentences. 38.I think _______ (memorize) the words of pop songs also helps a little. 39.Jim is often alone. He doesn’t seem __________ (have) many friends. 40.As student, you should stop ____ (wear) that silly earring.
41.Cheng long ___________ (make) some great movies over the year. 42.Why it is easier ____________ (learn) Chinese than English? 43.My father used ____________ (get) up early. 44.As the name ____________ (suggest) , he is a quiet boy. 45.Be sure ___________ (close) the windows when you leave. 46.If I ____ (be) you, I would take a long walk before ______(go) to bed. 47.You look tired. Why not _____________ (have) a short rest? 48.My brother often practices ___________ (play) soccer after school. 49.It’s too noisy. They must ___________(listen) to the rock music now. 50.I like singers who ___________ (be) really cool. 51.Shanghai ________________ (become) a modern city over the years. 52.He doesn’t know where ____________ (go) for the vacation. 53.He decided ______________ (chat) with his friend on the net. 54.I am considering ______________ (join) the English club next week.
55.Sunglasses are used for ____________ (keep) out the sun. 56.I _____________ (feed) my cat, so it is full now. 57.Many buildings ________ (build) in our city during the last few years. 58.You shouldn’t make him______________ (stand) so long. 59.My brother will call me as soon as he ______________ (reach) here. 60.She said she ____________ (not write) to her parents for a long time.
61.These homeless children _________ (look) after in the SOS village. 62.His uncle _______________ (return) in three days. 63.So far, they_________________ (plant) thousands of trees. 64.I’m sorry ______ (keep) you _____ (wait) for me for such a long time. 65.He was made ____________ (sing) a song for his little mistake. 66. I was frightened, I heard someone __________ (walk) towards to me. 67.The baby is sleeping. Would you mind ________ (turn) off the radio? 68.Do you enjoy __________ (listen) to the pop music? 69.You had better not to go out now. It ___________ (rain) heavily. 70.If I had a million dollars, I _____________ (give) it to the charity. 71.Nancy said that loud music made her __________ (feel) sad. 72.I __________ (oversleep) because my alarm clock didn’t go off. 73.She told me she ____________ (go) on a beach vacation next month.
74.Shanghai is cold this time of year. You need _____(pack) warm clothes if you ____(go) there. 75.The man under the tree ___________ (call) Tom comes from India. 76.What if everyone else ___________ (bring) a present to the party? 77.We are looking forward to _________ (become) a volunteer. 78.He likes _________ (drop) by his friends’ homes on weekends. 79.In the United States, you’re not supposed _____ (eat) with your hands. 80.When I got to school, I realized I __________ (leave) my homework at school. 参考答案 1. goes 2. seems 3. are playing 4. was listening
5. is going to rain 6. will bring 7. has taken 8. would come 9. had left 10. have lost 11. sat 12. has gone 13. hasn’t eaten 14. will go 15. rains 16. comes 17. did, buy 18. have been 19. were, doing 20. did, cost 21making 22. were taking 23. wearing 24. seems 25. allowed 26. doing 27. pierced 28. having 29. to walk 30. is 31. has lived 32. was invented 33. had been 34. had had 35. will visit 36. using 37. making 38. memorizing 39. to have40. wearing41. has made 42. to learn 43. to get 44. suggests 45. to close 46. were. Going 47. have 48. playing 49. be listening 50. are 51. has become 52. to go 53.to chat 54. joining 55. keeping 56. have fed 57. have been built 58. stand 59. reaches
60. hadn’t written 61. are looked 62. will return 63. have planted 64. to keep ,waiting 65. to sing 66. walking 67. turning 68. listening 69. is raining70. would give 71. feel 72. overslept 73. would go 74. to pack , go 75. called 76. brings 77. becoming 78. dropping 79. to eat 80. had left
copyright ©right 2010-2020。