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现在完成时及现在完成进行时讲解及练习


一.现在完成时的构成:
现在完成时由助动词 have(has)+ 动词的过去分词构成。 has 用于第三人称单 数,have 用于其他各种人称.

二.现在完成时的用法:其用法主要有三种
I.“已完成”用法 :表示一个过去发生并结束的动作对现在造成的影响或结果。 这一类情况可以细致分为下述两种情况。 1)表示开始于过去的动作刚刚结束。常和

just,now,already,yet,not…yet 等不确定的时间状语连用。 Li Ming has just turned off the light. 李明刚刚把灯关上。 (说明现在灯关上了) I've finished my homework now. 现在我已经做完作业了。 (说明可以交作业或做 别的了) 2)表示过去动作的结果,现在仍残留着。一般不用时间状语。 I have lost my pen. 我把笔丢了。(说明过去某时丢的, 现在我还没找到这支笔) She has become a teacher. 她已经当了老师。 (说明她现在仍是老师) II.“未完成”用法。表示动作或状态从过去某时开始,持续到现在,可能继续 下去,也可能刚刚结束。常和表示一段时间的状语连用。如 today,this week (month) ,lately,recently,these days,in the past few days,during the last two weeks,since,since yesterday,since 2 days ago,since 1991,for a long time,for a month,so far,up to now,till(until) now 等。 He has lived here for 30 years. 他住在这儿三十年了。 (现在还住在这儿) They've known each other since childhood. 他们从小彼此相识。 (现在还在往来) How long have you studied English? 你学英语多久了?(现在仍在学) III.经验性用法 :表示从过去开始到目前为止这段时间中反复发生的动作或多 次出现的状态。 常与频度副词如 often,always,every week,twice 等连用。 I have been to the Summer Palace twice. 我曾经去过颐和园两次。

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He has always said so.他总是这么说.

三.现在完成时的时间状语
I a. 用副词 already 和 yet。already 一般用于肯定句中,yet 一般用于否定句和疑 问句中。 如:We have already finished our homework.我们已完成作业了。 They haven't finished their homework yet.他们还没有完成作业。 b. 用 ever 和 never.多用于否定或疑问句中,表示“曾经”或“从未“等。 如: -Have you ever been to the Great Wall?你曾经去过长城吗? -I have never been to the Great Wall.我从未去过长城。 c. 用表示到说话为止的过去时间状语,如 just, before, up to now, the past few years 等。 例如:I have seen her before,but I can not remember where. 我以前见过她,但记 不起在哪里见过。 He has been there three times the last few days. 近几天他去过那里三次了。 d. 用包括“现在”在内的时间状语,如 now,today,this morning(month,year,term) 等。 例如: -Have you met him today?-No,I haven't. 今天你见过他吗?我没有。 How many times have you been there this year? 今年你去过那里多少次? II 短暂性动词不能和表一段时间的时间状语连用。如:come, go, arrive, reach, hear, close, leave, begin, start, lose, buy, fall, join, die, get up 等。但如果要保留表 一段时间的时间状语,必须将动词改为延续性动词。 现归纳总结一下由非延续性动词到延续性动词的转换 如: fall asleep (ill) →be asleep (ill) get to know→ know open →be open get up→ be up go out→ be out begin,(start)→ be on buy→ have die→ be dead come→ be in
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close→be closed join→be in, be a +名词 leave, move →be away, go to school→be a student begin to study→study put on→wear 或 be on

arrive→be here finish( end )→be over borrow →keep catch(a cold)→ have(a cold) come back→be back

如:He has been a soldier for three years.他参军三年了。 His father has been dead for two years.他父亲去世二年了。 The film has been on for 5 minutes.电影已开始五分钟了。 We have studied English for three years. 我们(开始)学英语已三年了。

四.几点注意事项
I. have been(to)与 have gone( to)的区别: have been(to)表示“去过某地(现在已经回来了)”,可用于各人称; have gone(to)表示“去某地了(说话时某人不在当地)”,常用于第三人称, 前者可与 once ,never,several times 等连用,后者则不能。 如: They have been to Beijing twice.他们去过北京两次。 He has gone to Beijing . 他去北京了。 II.不可延续性动词现在完成时的否定式, 已变成一种可以延续的状态, 因此可 以和表示一段时间的状语连用。 如: I haven't left here since 1997.自从 1997 年以来,我一直没有离开过这儿。 (错)I have received his letter for a month. (对)I haven't received his letter for almost a month. 练习 一.用 since 和 for 填空 1.______two years 3.___last month 5._______yesterday 7 4 hours 9.___we were children 11.____ she left here 2.____two years ago 4.______ 1999 6._______ 4 o’clock 8._____an hour ago 10._____ lunch time

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12. He has lived in Nanjing ___ the year before last. 13. I’ve known him ______ we were children. 14. Our teacher has studied Japanese ______ three years. 15. She has been away from the city ______ about ten years. 16. It’s about ten years __________ she left the city. 二.单项选择。 1、Both his parents look sad . Maybe they ______what's happened to him . A. knew A. already A. just B. have known B.never B. ago C.ever C. must know D.still D. a moment ago C.wrote D.has written D.will know 2、He has _______ been to Shanghai , has he ? 3、Have you met Mr Li ______? C.before 4、The famous writer _____ one new book in the past two year . A. is writing B.was writing 5、—Our country ______ a lot so far . —Yes . I hope it will be even ______ . A.has changed ; well B.changed ; good C.has changed ; better D.changed ; better 6、Zhao Lan ______already ______in this school for two years . A. was ; studying A. know A.will see B. will ; study C. has ; studied C. have known C.saw D.see D. are ; studying D. knew 7、We ______ Xiao Li since she was a little girl . B. had known B.have seen 8、Harry Potter is a very nice film .I______ it twice . 9、—These farmers have been to the United States . —Really ? When _____ there ? A. will they go B. did they go C. do they go D. have they gone 10、—______ you ___ your homework yet ? —Yes . I _____ it a moment ago . A.Did ; do ; finished B.Have ; done ; finished C.Have ; done ; have finished A. joined B. has joined D.will ; do ; finish C. was in
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11、His father ______ the Party since 1978 . D. has been in

12、—Do you know him well ? — Sure .We _________ friends since ten years ago . A. were B. have been C. have become D. have made 13、—How long have you ____ here ? —About two months . A. been B. gone C. come D. arrived D. began 14、Hurry up! The play __________ for ten minutes . A. has begun A. is B. has B. went B. had begun C. has been on C. will C.will go D. was D. has been D. have been D. haven’t they to 15、It _____ ten years since he left the army . 16、 Miss Green isn't in the office . she_______ to the library . A.has gone 17、My parents ______ Shandong for ten years . A. have been in B. have been to C. have gone to 18.The students have cleaned the classroom, A. so they 19、 China? A. How soon, comes B. How often, got C. How long, came D. How far, arrived 20.When he arrived at the bus stop, the bus _____ for 20 minutes. A. has left B. had left C. has been away D. had been away 21.The factory ____ since the February of 1988. A . has been open B. has opened C. was open D. opened 22.Mary and Rose ____friends since they met in 2000. A. have made A. be away B. have been C. be left C. made D. have become 23.You mustn't_____ until he comes back. B. leave 24.The meeting _____ for a week now. A. has finished B. has ended C. has been over 25.Miss Gao ______ this school for nearly 5 years. A. has been in B. has come to C. has taught
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?

B. don’t they

C. have they

has Mr White been a member of Greener China since he

26.Ben ______ a teacher for 4 years . A. has been B. has become 27. I ______ home for a week. A. have returned B. have been back C. returned 三.用 never, ever, already, just, yet, for, since 填空 1. I have _______ seen him before, so I have no idea about him. 2. Jack has _________ finished his homework. 3. Mr. Wang has taught in this school ________ ten years. 4. “Have you ________ seen the film?” “No, I have ________ seen it.” 5. “Has the bus left _______?” “Yes, it has _________ left.” 四.用适当的时态填空: 1.She’s _____________ (live) here ever since she was ten. 2.Both of them ________________ (be) in Hongkong for ten days. 3.Both of them ____________ (come) to Hongkong ten days ago. 4. Half an hour __________ (pass) since the train __________ (leave). 5. Mary________(lose) her pen. ________ you _______(see) it here and there? 6. _________ you _____ (find) your watch yet? 7. ---Are you thirsty? ---No I _________just _________ (have) some orange. 8. We already _________ (return) the book. 9. ________ they _______ (build) a new school in the village? 10. I _____________(not finish) my homework . Can you help me? 11. My father _____ (read) the novel twice. 12. I _________ (buy) a book just now. 13. I _________ (lost ) my watch yesterday. 14. My father ___________ (read) this book since yesterday. 五、划线提问 1) I have been there for two days. __________ _________ __________ you __________ __________ ? 2) My father has lived here since 2000. _________ _________ __________ your father _________ __________? 3) He left here yesterday. _________ ________ he _________ __________? 4) They bought a book two hours ago. __________ ___________ they __________ a book C. was D. became

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现在完成进行时
1 定义:现在完成进行时表示动作从过去某一时间开始,一直延续到现在,可能 还要继续下去。 2 现在完成进行时的构成 :现在完成进行时是由 “have/has+been+ 动词的现在分 词”构成 3 现在完成进行时的基本句型 肯定式 疑问式 简略回答 肯定式 疑问式 简略回答 I/We have been working. Have you been working? Yes,I/we have. No,I/we haven't. He/She/It has been working. Has he/she/it been working? Yes,he/she/it has. No,he/she/it hasn't.

4 现在完成时的用法
1)在强调指出动作还未结束, 还要继续下去。 如: I've been reading this book for two hours, but I haven't finished it. 这本书我已读了两个小时了, 但我还没读完。 I've read this book.我已读完这本书了。 2)强调动作延续时间的长久或带感情色彩。 She has always been working like that.她一贯是这样工作的。 3)现在完成进行时也可表示现在以前这段时间反复发生的事情。 We've been seeing quite a lot of each other recently.最近我们经常见面。 5 现在完成时和现在完成进行时的区别 1)现在完成进行时更强调动作的延续性,它是现在完成时的强调形式。试比较: We've been living here for ten years. We've lived here for ten years.我们在这儿已经住了十年了。 2)在不用时间状语的情况下,现在完成进行时表示动作仍在进行。而现在完 成时则表示动作在过去已结束。如: The students have been preparing for the exam.(还在进行)学生们一直在准备考 试。
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The students have prepared for the exam.(已经结束)学生们为考试作了准备。 3)有些表示状态,感情,感觉的动词如:have,exist,like,hate,hear,know, sound 等动词不能用于现在完成进行时,但可用于现在完成时。如: They've known each other since 1970.自从 1970 年起他们就相互认识了。 练习: 1.Mr Li A.has been, started C.started, started 2.---How long ---Since two years ago. A.have, collect B.have, been collecting C.did, collect B.had read C.is reading D.read D.watched D.are, collecting 3.She had a headache because she A.has been reading 4.The boy A.has watched 5.--A.How long TV all the morning. B.had watched B. How often C.has been watching ---Half a year. D.When . C.How far have you been learning to swim? too long. She ought to shop. swimming for 3 hours, and his son B.have started, has started D. Has started, has started you stamps? an hour ago.

6.Our teacher has been teaching in this school for A.two year and a half C.two years and half 7.He B.two and a half year D.two and a half years

it for two hours, and he's still watching now.

A.has been watched B.watching C.has been watching D.is watching 现在完成时态练习题答案 一.翻译下列句子: 1. Have you ever had / eaten fish and chips? 2. I have just lost my chemistry book. 3. I have never been to the farm before. 4. He has already had lunch = He has had lunch already. 5. Have you seen the movie yet? 6. My brother hasn’t come /get / been back yet = My brother hasn’t returned yet.
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7. I have had this dictionary for three years / since three years ago. 8. Has been away from China for three years. 9.I have known them for five years. 10. They have been in the USA for five years. 11. He has been here since he moved to Jining. 12. My sister has been a college student for three years = My sister has been in college for three years. 13. They have known each other since 1999. 14. I have been in this school for over three years. 二、用 since 或者 for 填空 1. for 2. since 3. since 4. since 5. since 6. since 7. for 8 since 9.since 10. since 11. since 12.since 13. since 14.for 15.for 16. since 四、划线提问 1. How long have, been there 2. How long has , lived here 3. When did , leave here 4. When did , buy 五、用 have(has) been 或 have(has) gone 填空。 A: Where has Li Fei gone? B: He has gone to Hainan Island. A: How long has he been there? B: He has been there for three days. A: When will he come back, do you know? B: I’m afraid he won’t come back recently. A: Could you tell me the way to Hainan Island? B: Sorry, I have never been there. A: How many times has Li Fei been to that place? B: He has been there only once. 六、用 have / has been to / in, have gone to 及 go 的各种形式填空。 1. has gone to 2. went to 3. has been in 4. have , been in 5. have been in 6. Have , been to ; have been 7. have been in / at 8. has gone to 9. did go ; went 10. go ; have been 11. are , going ; am going 12. goes
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13. Did , go 14. Do , go 七、综合练习: 1. never 2. just , already 3. for 4. ever, never 5. yet , just / already 八. 用适当的时态填空: 1. lived / has been living 2. have been 3. went 4. has passed ; left 5. has lost ; have , seen 6. Have , found 7. have , had 8. have , returned 9. Have , built 10. haven’t finished 11. has read 12. bought 13. lost 14. have been reading / has read

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