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2014届高三英语总复习特色原创专题学案:词汇


安徽省宿州市教研室 2014 届高三英语总复习特色原创专题训练: 词汇

冠词
【考试说明要求】 掌握冠词的基本用法,及习语﹑固定搭配和其他。 【考查趋势】 冠词属于小词类,并非每年都考。从近几年高考可以看出,冠词主要考查定冠词与不定冠词 的区别用法﹑名词前省略冠词的情况﹑特指与泛指的区分﹑抽象名词具体化﹑习惯用语中的 冠词用法等。 【真题呈现】 1

. We can never expect _______ bluer sky unless we create _______ less polluted world .(2009 安 徽卷 21 题) A. a ; a B. a ; the C. the ; a D. the ; the 【答案】A 2. Carl is studying ______ food science at college and hopes to open up _______ meat processing factory of his own one day .(2012 安徽卷 21 题) A./;a B. / ; the C. the ; a D. the ; the

【答案】A 3. The “Chinese Dream” is ______ dream to improve people’s well-being and ______ dream of harmony, peace and development. 【2013 福建卷 21 题】

A. the; a 【答案】B

B. a; a

C. a; the

D. the; the

【模拟演练】 1. Football is _______ sport I love , ______ sport that has given me so much. A. a;the B. a;a C. /;the D. the;the 【答案】B 2. Liu Qian, ______ magician from Taiwan, cast his spell over _____ audience of thousands on the CCTV Spring Festival Show. A. /;an B. a;an C. the;the D. the;an 【答案】B 3.“Long time no see”is _______ sort of informal, but it is part of ______ language that Americans use daily. A. the;a B. a;the C. /;the D. a;a 【答案】C 4. In recent years ______ global warming is becoming ______ concern for people all over the world. A. the;the B. /;a C. /;/ D. the;/ 【答案】B 5. The Chinese astronauts Fei Junlong and Nie Haisheng were so struck by ______ beauty of ______

nature that they took a lot of pictures in ______ space. A. /;/;the B. /;the;/ C. the;the;/ D. the;/;/ 【答案】D

名词
【考试说明要求】 掌握可数名词与不可数名词以及可数名词的单复数;抽象名词与物质名词的具体化;名词的 语法作用;名词的所有格;名词词义辨析以及含有名词的固定搭配。 【考查趋势】 随着“淡化语法,注重语言运用和交际”这个理念在英语学习中被广泛认同以及新课标的实 施,高考对名词词义辨析的测试题目也呈现出一些新特点:即在不降低名词辨析考查的同时, 对语言中习惯用法进行了考查,引导考生在学习过程中加强对习语的运用以及对语言交际环 境的灵活判断能力。 【真题呈现】 1. I haven’t seen Sara since she was a little girl, and she has changed beyond ______. 【2010 安徽 25 题】 A. hearing B. strength C. recognition D. measure 【答案】C 2. China has got a good ______ for fighting against the flu with its careful and smooth organization. 【2009 安徽 31 题】 A. reputation B. influence C. impression D. knowledge

【答案】A 3. What ’s the ______ ,in your opinion, of helping him if he doesn’t make an effort to help himself? 【2011 江西 31 题】 A. sympathy B. theme C. object D. point 【答案】D 【模拟演练】 1. The proposal was narrowly passed at yesterday ’s meeting, but some members at the committee expressed their ______ . A. competition B. authority C. associations D. reservations 【答案】D 2. Since we offer many ways for you to spend the holiday, there are several ______ to choose from. A. alternatives B. conclusions C.decisions D. descriptions 【答案】A 3. Despite the language ______ ,they soon became good friends. A. barrier B. conflict C. misunderstanding D. dilemma 【答案】A 4.—How can I repair it? —Well, look at the ______.

A.explanations 【答案】D

B. expressions

C. instructions

D. introductions

5. Last month, Michelle Obama started a(n) ______ to end childhood fatness and appealed to young people to take more exercise. A. campaign B. concern C. influence D. discovery 【答案】A

代词
【考试说明要求】 掌握代词的数量概念及种类;代词的指代作用;代词用法的比较;全部肯定﹑部分否定和全 部否定的表达方法;不定代词﹑替代词的用法及区别。 【考查趋势】 近几年高考代词的考点仍集中在不定代词上,一是考查它们在特定结构中的用法,如:none, neither, both, each 等与定语从句相结合; 二是考查不定代词在特定语境中的意义和功能。 试题 注重了情景干扰,注重了特定语言环境中上下文的联系,而且题干的语义结构趋于复杂,强 调与其他相关语法知识相结合。正确把握句意﹑分析句式结构在解题中起着很重要的作用。 【真题呈现】 1. You are a team star! Working with ______ is really your cup of tea. 【2010 安徽 21 题】 A. both B. either C. others D. the other 【答案】C 2. Surprisingly, Susan’s beautiful hair reached below her knees and made ______ almost an overcoat for her. 【2011 安徽 22 题】 A. them B. her C. itself D. herself 【答案】C 3. This project requires close teamwork. ______ will be achieved unless we work well together. 【2013 安徽 27 题】 A. Nothing B. Anything C. Something D. Everything 【答案】A 【模拟演练】 1. The boss had often heard ______ said that John was often late for work. A. one B. that C. it D. him 【答案】C 2 John didn’t choose ______ of the ties and went away without looking at a third one. A. many B. either C. all D. any 【答案】B 3.—Lend me some more money, will you?

—Sorry I’ve got ______ at hand myself. You know the MP3 player cost me all I had just now. A. nothing B. no C. none D. not 【答案】C 4. On my desk is a photo that my father took of ______ when I was a baby. A. him B. his C. me D. mine 【答案】C 5. The thieves ran away separately, ______ carrying a bag. The police then divided into groups to follow them immediately. A. all B. each C. every D. either 【答案】B

形容词与副词
【考试说明要求】 要求掌握形容词与副词的基本用法;形容词与副词的原级﹑比较级和最高级;常用的形容词 与副词的词义辨析;同根副词的语法辨析;名词前多个形容词的排列顺序;复合形容词的构 成及用法;副词的位置。 【考查趋势】 近几年高考以形容词﹑副词辨析为热点,当然对于形容词﹑副词比较等级的考查仍然是高考 的重点,但是对此点的考查具有“淡化语法,注重深层语义”的特点。比较等级的意思并不 是直接从“结构”中看出来,而是从语句的深层意义中挖掘出来的。近几年没有考查多个形 容词的顺序,其原因是对此考点的考查可能性变小。 【真题呈现】 1. To be great, you must be smart, confident, and, ______ ,honest. 【2011 安徽 24 题】 A. therefore B. above all C. however D. after all 【答案】B 2. ______, I managed to get through the game and the pain was worth it in the end. 【2011 安徽 31 题】 A. Hopefully B. Normally C. Thankfully D. Conveniently 【答案】C 3. Queen Elizabeth Ⅱ is often thought to be the richest woman in the world. ______, her personal wealth seems rather small. 【2012 安徽 34 题】 A. Besides B. Otherwise C. However D. Altogether 【答案】C 4. David is _______ animal fur, so he won’t visit anyone who has cats or dogs in the house. 【2013 安徽 30 题】 A. curious about B. allergic to C. satisfied with D. fond of 【答案】B 【模拟演练】

1. Experts think too much violence on TV will lead to ______ behavior and crime among the teens. A. resistant B. artificial C. aggressive D. responsible 【答案】C 2. The director added a few characters and changed some names in the movie but ______ this is a true story. A. completely B. necessarily C. essentially D. gradually 【答案】C 3. There is not much time left, but ______ we must get well prepared for the College Entrance Examinations. A. somehow B. anyhow C. somewhat D. however 【答案】B 4. I’m afraid I’m not ______ to help with the show next weekend. A. available B. dependable C. valuable D. convenient 【答案】A 5. —How was your holiday in Qingdao? —It was great. I visited some friends, and spent the ______ days at the seaside. A. few last sunny B. last sunny few C. last few sunny D. sunny last few 【答案】C

介词与介词短语
【考试说明要求】 要求掌握介词的语法作用;常见介词的基本用法;介词与名词﹑动词﹑形容词的搭配;介词 的词义﹑用法辨析。 【考查趋势】 对于介词的考查主要集中在词义辨析与习惯的用法上。介词虽不是实词,但其内涵丰富﹑搭 配灵活﹑用法多样,这是成为高考热点的主要原因。题目设问角度呈现细微化,题干结构呈 现复杂化﹑综合化。随着“淡化语法,注重语言运用和交际”的理念在英语学习中被广泛认 同以及新课程的实施,高考对词义辨析的测试题目也呈现上升趋势,并呈现出一些新特点: 即在不降低名词﹑介词辨析考查的同时,加大了对语言中习惯用法的考查力度,引导学生在 学习过程中加强对习语的运用以及对语言交际环境的灵活判断能力。 【真题呈现】 1. Sometimes proper answers are not far to seek ______ food safety problems. 【2011 安徽 25 题】 A. in B. to C. on D. after 【答案】B

2. Before you pay a visit to a place of interest, look in your local library ______ a book about it 【2013 安徽 22 题】 A. on B. at C. for 【答案】C 【模拟演练】 1. ______ the limitation of time, they decided to allow each participant 3 minutes to summarize their respective speech. A. In search of B. In place of C. In view of D. In terms of 【答案】C 2. Clinical experiment have shown that children generally relate to other children’s strengths and abilities, ______ to their weaknesses. A. except for B. instead of C. but D. rather than 【答案】D 3. The police let him go, because they didn’t find him guilty ______ the murder. A. of B. in C. over D. on 【答案】A 4. Don’t make a conclusion so quickly. You’d better hear me through. I am not speaking for myself, but ______ all my colleagues. A. in charge of B. in terms of C. on the basis of D. on behalf of 【答案】D 5. It’s ______ me why Alice, aged 28, gave up her job and got married to a man of 82. A. under B. above C. beyond D. over 【答案】C D. to

动词和动词短语
【考试说明要求】 要求掌握动词的语法功能和基本用法;及物动词和不及物动词的用法;延续性动词与非延续 性动词的用法;动词及动词短语的语义辨析;常用动词的固定搭配;动词及短语的灵活运用。 【考查趋势】 在近几年的高考中,每年的动词及其词组的测试均为重点,并且在测试中更注重短语辨析的 考查,用以测试学生基础知识的巩固程度和运用能力。在动词及动词短语的测试中,几乎绝 大多数为基础动词的考查, 出现频率较高的词有: break, bring, call, carry, catch, come, cut, do, fall, feel, get, give, go, have, hold, keep, look, make, pick, pull, put, run, send, set, show, take, turn 等。 动 词及其短语在具体句式中的灵活应用仍为测试重点及难点。今后考查的重点将会集中在以下 几点:易混的基础动词及其短语;与汉语习惯有出入的动词用法的考查;部分基础动词及其 短语的较高级的用法。 【真题呈现】

1. As the story ______ , the truth about the strange figure is slowly discovered. 【2011 安徽 21 题】 A. begins B. happens C. ends D. develops 【答案】D 2. If you ______ faults but you still want the bicycle, ask the shop assistant to reduce the price. 【2011 安徽 21 题】 A. come across B. care about C. look for D. focus upon

【答案】A 3. The athlete’s years of hard training ______ when she finally won the Olympic gold medal. 【2012 安徽 28 题】 A. went on B. got through C. paid off D. ended up 【答案】C 6. Traditionally, college students hold a graduation ceremony to encourage themselves before they ______ on their life journey. 【2013 安徽 26 题】 A. give up B. settle down C. get through 【答案】D 【模拟演练】 1. The little girl ______ to herself as a result of her mother ’s careful attention. A. recovered B. woke C. came D. recognized 【答案】C 2. Have you seen today ’s paper? It ______ the police have caught those million-pound bank robbers. A. writes B. tells C. says D. talks 【答案】C 3. The USA plans arms sale to Taiwan, which forces China to ______ its modernization process in national defense. A. set up B. take up C. make up D. step up 【答案】D 4. Fossil fuel power plants are widely blamed for much of the pollution that ______ global warming. A. contributes to B. responds to C. adapts to D. appeals to 【答案】A 5. The shaking hands are the only thing that ______ her fear. A. gives away B. keeps out C. holds back D. puts off 【答案】A D. set off


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