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人教版高中英语必修3unit4课文知识点详解


Unit 4

Astronomy:the science

of the stars
基础落实
Ⅰ.高频单词思忆
1.The Chinese government did well in preventing SARS from spreading. 2.He cheered up at the good n

ews. 3.There is a friendly atmosphere of helping each other with difficulties in study in

our class. 4.Do you believe God exists

?

5.There is a violent snow is so heavy.
of Jay Chou.

wind outside and the

6.The fans cheered up at the _________ presence ( 到场) 7.As a student,I should learn the ___________ fundamental (基本的) rules of mathematics. 8.A balloon ________( floated 飘过) across the sky. 9.There is a shortage of _______( oxygen 氧气) at the top of the mountain. 10.I dream of flying to the moon by _________ spaceship (宇宙飞船).

Ⅱ.重点短语再现
1.__________ cheer up 感到高兴 2._________ now that 既然 3._________ break out 突发;爆发 4.______________ give birth to 产生;分娩

5.__________ lay eggs 下蛋
6._______________ prevent...from 阻止;制止 7.__________ watch out 当心;密切注视 8.________________ get the hang of 熟悉;掌握 9.__________ block out 挡住(光线)

10._______________ in one’s turn 轮到某人;接着

Ⅲ.典型句式运用
1.Each religion and culture has i ts own ideas
about how life began on earth.What do you know?每种宗教和文化都有它自己关于地球上生命 起源的看法。你了解些什么呢? 考点提炼 how life began on earth 作介词

_______ 宾 语,宾语从句可作介词的宾语。 about 的___

2.No one knows exactly how the earth began,as it happened so long ago. 没有人准确地知道地
球的起源,因为那发生在很久以前。
考点提炼 本句为复合句,as引导的从句表示____ 原因。

(1)since表示听者或读者已知的原因,即表达已知 信息。 (2)because表示听者未知的原因,可回答why的提 问,也可用在强调句型中成为被强调成分,而其

他几个词则无此用法。
(3)as与since接近,但原因程度比since更强烈。 (4)for并不表示直接原因,只是为主句所说的话提 供推断的理由,引导的分句不能放在句首。

3.What it was to become was uncertain until
between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when the dust settled into a solid globe.它(地球) 将成为什么样子一直是个谜,直到45~38亿年以前 这些尘埃凝聚成一个固体球体。

be to do sth. 考点提炼 (1)表示“应当/必须做某事”,通常用于通知和
说明书里。 (2)表示“______________________”,其完成式 按计划或安排将要做某事 则表示“本来打算做某事”。 (3)表示“将来不可避免要发生的事”。

4.This produced a chain reaction,which made
it possible for life to develop.这就产生了 连锁反应,使生命发展成为可能。 考点提炼 make it+adj./n. for sb./sth.to do

sth.在此结构中,it是________, 形式宾语 真正的宾语是后 面的______, 不定式 而形容词(或名词)充当了__________ 宾语补足语 成分,尤其是当宾语太长时,常采用it作形式

宾语。

5.Last month I was lucky enough to have a
chance to make a trip into space with my friend Li Yanping,an astronomer.上个月我有 幸得到了同我的天文学家朋友李彦平去太空旅行 的机会。 考点提炼

to make a trip...为不定式作定语 ____,

修饰chance。不定式可用在名词、代词、the first,the second以及the last,the only和最高 级等后面作定语。不定式作定语,常常表示将来 ____的 动作。

导练互动
重点单词 1.exist
They laid eggs too and ________ existed on the earth for more than 140 million years.(回归课本P26)

观察思考 The idea exists only in the minds of poets.

这种想法是诗人才有的。
We can’t exist without food or water. 没有食物和水我们就不能生存。

I can hardly exist on the wage that I’m getting;there is no money for luxuries. 我靠我挣的工资简直难以糊口,根本没钱享受。 归纳总结 exist ________________ 。 vi.有,存在;生存 exist in存在于??之中 exist on靠??为生 exist by靠??生存 existing adj.目前的;现存的 existence n.存在;生存 be in existence存在 come into existence开始存在;成立 bring into existence使发生,产生

即学即用

(1)下岗工人主要靠面包和茶生存。
The laid-off workers mainly exist _________ on bread and tea.

(2)有一个解决目前地理问题的好办法。
There _______ exists a good way to solve the _________ existing problem in geography.

2.escape
...which prevents heat from _________ escaping from the earth into space.(回归课本P26) 观察思考 He escaped from the enemy’s prison.

他从敌人的监狱逃了出来。
He made his escape on a rainy night. 他在一个雨夜逃走了。 That is really a narrow/near escape. 那可真是九死一生。

归纳总结
escape ________________ 。 v. & n.逃跑,逃离 escape+ n./doing sth.逃脱了/避免了?? escape from/out of...从??逃跑 sth.escape sb.??被某人遗忘;未被注意

a narrow escape九死一生
make one’s escape逃跑 易混辨异 escape,flee,run away (1)escape着重强调逃跑后的结果,而不是逃跑的动 作本身。

(2)flee着重强调逃跑的行为,常含有因“惧怕”而
逃跑的意味。 (3)run away强调动作性,有时含有“不辞而别”之 意,是口头用语。 即学即用

(1)有什么办法可以避免和他见面吗?
Is there any way to _______________ escape meeting him? (2)我一时忘了他的名字。 His name ___________ escaped me for the moment.

3.mass
“If you are right,my _____ mass will be less than on the earth...”(回归课本P31) 观察思考 The sky was full of dark masses of clouds. 天空中乌云密布。 Our cause needs the support of the masses. 我们的事业需要人民群众的支持。 There is/are a mass of children playing in the park. 公园里有许多孩子在玩耍。 The great mass of men consider themselves healthy. 大多数人都认为自己是健康的。

归纳总结
mass n.( _______________________________________ 聚成一体的)团;块;大多数;质量;群众;大量。 a mass of/masses of大量的 the mass media大众传媒 mass production批量生产

in the mass总体上,总的来说
the (great) mass of大多数,大部分 注意 在表示“大量的,许多的”含义时,a mass of/masses of既可修饰可数名词,也可修饰不可数 名词。在英语中类似的短语还包括:plenty of,a
lot of,lots of,a quantity of,quantities of 等。

即学即用 (1)下雨前,天上有一团团的乌云。 Before the rain,there were _______________ masses of dark _______ clouds in the sky. (2)我挤过人群到了出口。 I struggled through ____________________ the masses of people to

the exit.

重点短语与句型
4.break out
We watched,amazed as fire __________ broke out on the outside of the spaceship as the earth’s
gravity increased.(回归课本P31)

观察思考
If another world war should break out,what would become of human beings?
如果再一次爆发世界大战,人类将会变成什么样子?

Fire broke out during the night.

夜间突然发生了火灾。

归纳总结
break out意为:___________ 突发;爆发 。 break up解散;打碎 break through突破;强行穿过 break away from...脱离??

break off停止讲话
break into强行进入某处;突然开始(大笑、欢呼等) break down(谈判)失败;(精神、身体)崩溃 break in进入;插话

易混辨异

break out,happen,occur,take place
(1)break out通常指战争、疾病、灾害等突然爆发。 (2)happen强调偶然发生某事。 (3)occur指意想不到的事情发生。 (4)take place强调按事先的安排或计划发生。

即学即用
(1)I was still sleeping when the fire ___,and A then it spread quickly. A.broke out C.came out B.put out D.got out

解析

break out发生,符合题意;put out扑灭;

C、D表示“出来”。本题意为“火灾发生时,我在 睡觉??”。

(2)As the president’s car appeared,the
waiting crowds _____ B loud cheers. A.broke away B.broke into C.broke out D.broke down

5.in time
They were ________ in time to produce carbon, nitrogen,water vapour and other gases,... (回归课本P25) 观察思考 The car came to a halt just in time to prevent an accident. 那辆汽车及时停下,避免了一场事故。 You’ll learn how to do it in time. 你早晚能学会做这件事。 Don’t worry—I’m sure things will get better in time. 不要担心——我相信事情迟早会有所好转的。

归纳总结
in time意为___________ 及时;最终 。 (1)on time准时;按时 in no time立即;马上 at a time一次;每次

at one time曾经;一度
at times有时 ahead of time提前 for the time being暂时 take one’s time别着急;慢慢来

(2)It’s time to do sth./It’s time that sb.
did/should do sth. 到了某人做某事的时间
It/This is the first/second...time sb.have/has

done...

是某人第??次??(完成时)
each/every time+从句每次??时 即学即用

(1)医生及时赶到救了她的命。
The doctor came ________ in time to save her life. (2)不要一起背诵,一次一个。 Don’t recite all together;one __________. at a time

6.now that
“Oh,dear,” I cried,“walking does need a bit of practice _________ now that gravity has changed.”(回归课本P31) 观察思考 Now (that) you are grown

up,you must stop

this childish behaviour. 既然已经长大,你必须停止这种幼稚的行为。 Now that dinner is ready,wash your hands. 晚饭准备好了,洗手去吧。 Now that you have finished your work,you’d better have a rest. 既然你的工作已经做完了,最好休息一下吧。

归纳总结
now that意为:___________ 既然;由于 。 易混辨异 now that,because,since,as,for (1)now that是固定短语,意为“既然;由于”,

引出原因状语从句,that可省略。
(2)because因为,表示直接的或为人所不知的原因。 (3)since既然(可与now that互换),侧重主句。 (4)as由于,表示显而易见或已为人所知的原因。
(5)for因为,并列连词,引导一个分句,不能置于句首。

即学即用
(1)既然恢复了健康,他就可以继续学习英语。 ____________________________,he can go on Now (that) he is well again with his English study. (2)既然我们正高速地发展新技术,真正的挑战在于

寻找新的使用途径。
___________________________ Now that we are developing new technology at such a high pace,the true challenge is to find new ways of using it.

7....,but it will not be as strong a pull as the earth’s.??,但它不如地球的引力 那么强。
典例体验 John is _____________ as bright as Bob. 约翰与鲍勃一样聪明。 The girl was __________________ as intelligent as she was beautiful. 这姑娘既漂亮又聪明。 归纳总结 as...as...比较结构:

(1)基本用法:as+形容词或副词原级+as分句。否 定形式为not as/so...as。主句主语与as分句主语

不同但比较的项目相同。
(2)主语相同,但比较的项目不同。 (3)as much/many+名词+as分句 He took as much butter as he needed. 他带的这些黄油够需要的。

(4)as+形容词原级+名词词组+as分句
as+adj.+a(n)+n.+as句型是“as...as”结构的一 种变化形式。与as的这种用法类似的词还有too...

to...句型中的too,感叹句中的how,so...that...
句型中的so等。 Jack is as efficient a worker as Bill. 杰克和比尔都是工作效率很高的工人。

即学即用

(1)我想用一种尽可能大众化的方式把我的个人经历
表达出来。
I want to express my personal experience in

_______________________________. as universal a way as possible
(2)这位歌手希望利用尽可能流行的歌曲来表达个人 的思想情感。
The singer tends to express his feelings and

thoughts in ______________________________. as popular a song as possible

8....,I found I was carried twice as far as on the earth and fell over. ??(当我 向前迈步的时候)我发现我所走的距离是在地 球上的两倍,我跌倒了。
典例体验 Asia is _______________________ four times as large as Europe. 亚洲的大小是欧洲的4倍。 The new building is _______________________ four times higher than the old one.新楼比旧楼高4倍。 This ball is __________________ twice the size of that one. 这个球的大小是那个球的两倍。 The production now is ____________________ three times what it ____ was ten years ago.现在的产量是十年前的3倍。

归纳总结 倍数表达法: (1)...times ___________ as...as... 是??的几倍 (2)...times+__________________+than 形容词/副词比较级 (3)...times+the size/height/length/width/ depth+___... of (4)...times+_____ what 从句 即学即用 (1)我们每个人比1910年吃的蔬菜多三倍。 We are eating ________________ three times more vegetables per person today than we did in 1910. (2)我的房子是我父母房子的两倍大。 My house is _________________ twice the size of my parents’.

品味构词
1.利用转化法,品句填词

(1)He couldn’t help eying

the cakes hungrily
out for

though he was asked to keep an eye anyone who came here.(eye)

(2)In a team,all the members should fight for the common target shoulder to shoulder .That is to say,all the members should shoulder the same responsibility.(shoulder)

串联扩展
n.(表身体部位的名词) v.(动词) shoulder挑起;承担 back 背靠;支持 face面对;对付

shoulder肩膀
back背 face脸

head头部
nose鼻子 arm手臂 hand手

head 主管;给标题; 前往,朝(某方向)走
nose 慢行;闻出 arm 武装某人 hand递,交;提出

2.利用转化法,品句填/选词

(1)Last night I dreamt a sweet dream .(dream) (2)In order to a better C A ,we must not harm other things. B
A.life B.living C.live

串联扩展 同源动宾词组 词义

dream a ...dream die a ...death
live a ...life smell a...smell fight a ...fight smile a ...smile

做了个??梦 ??的死
过上??生活

闻??香味
打了一个??架 笑了一个??笑

考题回扣
【例1】My uncle’s house in the downtown area is much smaller than ours,but it is twice ____ A expensive. A.as C.too 解析 (四川高考)

B.so
D.very

but分句实际上是一个省略句,补充完整为:

but it is twice as expensive as ours。 课文原文 ...I found I was carried ________________ twice as far as on the earth and fell over.

【例2】When he ____ D the door ,he found his keys were nowhere. (湖南高考)
A.would open C.had opened 解析 B.opened D.was to open

句意为:当他要打开门时,发现哪里也找

不到钥匙了。表示即将发生的动作用be to do sth.,所以D项符合句意。A项中出现了would,该 词用于将来时态或用来表达某种倾向。

课文原文
What it ______________ was to become was uncertain until between 4.5 and 3.8 billion years ago when

the dust settled into a solid globe.

【例3】Encourage your children to try new
things,but try not to ____ D them too hard. (宁夏高考) A.draw 解析 B.strike C.rush D.push 句意为:鼓励你的孩子们尝试新的东西。

但尽量不要太过分。draw拉;strike敲,打;rush
冲,均不合题意。push向前推,符合题意。 课文原文 As the rocket rose into the air,we were _______ pushed back into our seats...

【例4】In the good care of the nurses,the boy
is ____ D recovering from his heart operation. (浙江高考) A.quietly C.practically 解析 B.actually D.gradually

句意为:心脏手术后在护士们的精心护理

下,这个男孩渐渐地痊愈了。quietly静静地; actually实际上;practically实际地;gradually

逐渐地。
课文原文 ___________ Gradually the weight lessened and I was able to talk to him.

【例5】The art show was ____ A being a failure; it was a great success. (天津高考) A.far from B.along with C.next to D.regardless of 解析 far from远非;完全不;along with与?? 一起;next to几乎,差不多;紧临着;regardless of不管;不顾。句意为:这次艺术展绝不是一次失 败,而是一次巨大的成功。句中a failure与a success为抽象名词具体化,分别表示“失败的人/ 事”和“成功的人/事”。 课文原文 “We are too far ________ from the earth now to feel its pull,” he explained.

自主检测
Ⅰ.品句填词
1.He doesn’t like to be violent ,instead,he prefers to solve the problem in peace.

2.Without oxygen

,we couldn’t live.

3.In cold winter days,there will be ice on the surface of the water.

4.With the development of science,many new
things are invented. 5. G enerally speaking,he is a smart boy except his carelessness.

6.His p resence at the meeting made everybody excited.
7.Another of his books will be published next month.
8.The reason why we have to fall to the ground

is that there is gravity . 9.Gradually ,he realized that he had done
wrong to her. 10.The river is so polluted that every day we can see a lot of things floating the water. on

Ⅱ.短语运用
in all directions,go by,give birth to,in time,depend on,prevent...from,as well as, be different from,escape from,watch... doing,masses of,because of

1.Whether life will continue on the earth
for millions of years to come will __________ depend on

whether this problem can be solved. 2.If you put your heart into it ,you’ll succeed _________. in time

3.There were ___________ masses of people in the shops yesterday.
4.Nothing can _______ ____ being prevent their plans from carried out. 5.We _______ setting behind the trees watched the sun _______ and the evening fell.
6.Our sons are very _______________ different from each other.

7.We spent three hours waiting in the rain ___________ because of you! 8.As time ________,I began to realize what I went by did was wrong.

9.Carbon dioxide can prevent heat from ______________ escaping from the earth into space. 10.They own a house in France ___________ as well as a

villa in Spain.
11.The birds were flying about in _______ all ___________. directions

12.She ______________ gave birth to a fine healthy baby.

Ⅲ.完成句子
1.The problem of pollution is _____________ worth paying

_____________ attention to (值得关注). 2.The unexpected snowstorm _________________ prevented us from
______________________ climbing the mountain (阻止了我们去登山).

3.__________________________ Watch out for the traffic (当心车辆)while crossing the road.
4.Our teacher took us to the park ___________ to cheer us ___ up (以使我们高兴).

5.____________________________________( Now that everyone agrees to my plan 既然大

家同意了我的计划),let’s start for Shanghai
next weekend.

6.This is ___________________________( so interesting a film that 如此有
趣的一部影片) I have seen it twice.

Ⅳ.单项填空
1.That hotel is always full because it offers

a friendly ____ B and personal service. A.surface B.atmosphere
C.system 解析 D.appearance

考查名词词义辨析。句意为:这家旅馆总是

住满客人,因为它提供一种友好的氛围和个性化的

服务。surface表面;水面;atmosphere气氛;大
气;system系统,体系;appearance外表;出现,露面。

2.At first,we didn’t know about Jim.But ____, C

we came to know that he was an honest boy.
A.suddenly C.gradually 解析 B.luckily D.generally

考查句义理解及副词辨析。句意为:起初我

们不了解吉姆,但逐渐地,我们开始知道他是一个

诚实的孩子。gradually逐渐地,慢慢地。

3.I’m sorry you’ve been waiting so long,but it’ll be some time A.where D Brian gets back.

B.since

C.till

D.before

4.Many Europeans ____ C the continent of Africa in the 19th century. A.exploded B.exposed

C.explored
解析

D.expanded

考查4个形近词的词义辨析。句意为:许多

欧洲人在19世纪对非洲大陆进行了探索。explode 爆炸;expose暴露;显示;揭露;explore探索, 探究,勘探;expand扩大;展开;膨胀。

5.It is reported that the United States uses ____ D energy as the whole of Europe.

A.as twice
C.twice much as 解析

B.twice much
D.twice as much

考查倍数的表达方式。倍数+as+原级+as

...意为“几倍??”。

6.It’s ____ B for the Shenzhou Ⅶ spaceship that every Chinese feels cheerful and proud.
A.so a successful flight B.so successful a flight C.such successful a flight

D.a such successful flight
解析 考查such...that和so...that句型。句意 为:对于“神七”来说,这是一次极为成功的飞 行,以致于每个中国人都为之高兴和自豪。“so+ adj.+a+可数名词单数”或“such+a+adj.+可数名词 单数”。

7.He has ____ C letters to answer and has to work from morning to night. A.much B.a great deal of C.masses of D.the number of

解析 考查修饰名词表“大量”的词的辨析。 masses of相当于plenty of,意为“许多;大 量”。A、B两项用于修饰不可数名词;the number of意为“??的数目”,与题意不符。 8.It’s no longer a question now ____ A man can land on the moon. A.that B.which C.whether D.what 解析 考查句式结构。it作形式主语,that从句作 真正的主语。

9.In such dry weather ,the flowers will have
to be watered if they _____. B A.have survived B.are to survive C.would survive 解析 D.will survive 考查时态。主句是一般将来时,if条件状语

从句不能用将来时,排除C、D两项。A项显然不合
句意。B项“be to do”形式表示将来。另外“be to do”结构还可表示职责、义务、约定、命令、 可能性等。

10.____ D we’ll have our sports meet this week

____ the weather.
A.If;depend on C.If;depends on 解析 B.Whether;depend on D.Whether;depends on

考查主语从句及主谓一致。if一般不引导

主语从句,特别是不放在句首。主语从句、动词不

定式及动名词作主语时,谓语动词用单数。故选
D项。

11.—Alice,you look puzzled.Have you
understood it? —Yes,I ____ C another problem just now. A.have thought of B.thought of C.was thinking of D.had thought of

解析

考查动词时态。句意为:——艾丽斯,你

看上去很困惑。你明白了吗?——是的,刚才,我 正考虑另一个问题。由句意和“just now”可知, 应用过去进行时,表示过去某一段时间一直在干 某事。

12.The harm the modern farming methods have
done ____ B the countryside is considerable. A.on 解析 B.to C.at D.for do harm to sb./sth.为固定短语,意为

“对??有害”,且“the modern farming...

countryside”为定语从句修饰harm。故选B项。

13.All possible means ____.However ,nothing D can ____ him dying of lung cancer.
A.has tried;stop B.have tried;keep C.has been tried;prevent

D.have been tried;stop
解析 前一句的主语是all possible means, means用all修饰,看作是复数,后面的谓语动词 要用复数形式并且用被动语态;后一句是“阻止 某人做某事”,him后省略了from。

14.You ____ A pay too much attention to your reading skill,as it is so important. A.can’t B.should C.must D.needn’t

解析

考查情态动词的用法及句式结构。句意为:

你怎么重视你的阅读技能都不过分,因为它太重 要了。can’t...too...无论??也不过分,越 ??越好,双重否定构成肯定。

15.Lucy picked up a lot of French ____ B playing with the native boys and girls. A.on B.by C.with D.in

解析

考查介词用法辨析。句意为:露西通过与当

地儿童一起玩耍学会了很多法语。by表示方法、 手段,意为“靠,通过”。

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