Form: had (not) + done
1.By the 1920s, he had become an explorer.
1. had become根据时间状语by…确定。 2.The tomb contained more treasure than any of us
had ever seen before.
2. had seen根据主从句之间动作发生的先后顺序确定， 以过去式的动作为参照点，在它之前发生的动作用过去 完成时。 3. In 1922, Howard Carter made his most amazing discovery of all, in the Valley of the Kings, in Egypt. He had received money from Lord Carnarvon, a British man who was very interested in Egypt. 3. had received根据上下文语境确定。
4. Upon their entering the tomb, Carter’s lucky pet bird, which he had left in Cairo, was swollen by a snake. Then , a few months after Carter had opened the tomb, Lord Carnarvon, who was also present when the tomb was opened, fell ill with a fever and died in Egypt.
1. had left根据主从句之间动作发生的先后顺序确定，以 过去式的动作为参照点，在它之前发生的动作用过去完 成时。 2. had opened根据上下文语境确定。
2.用法： 1）表示在过去某一时刻或某一动作之前已经发生或完 成了的动作，即“过去的过去”. The train had left when I came to the station.
2)在by the time (by/by the end of) /when/before+过 去的时间/句子, 主句（过完） By the time we got there, the train had already gone. We had learned 5000 words by the end of last term.
3).在宾语从句中， 当主句是一般过去时，且从句的动 作先于主句的动作时，从句要用过去完成时 :v-ed+宾语 从句(had done).
He reported to his boss that he had already arranged the
1.It/That/This was the first (second , third…)time that sb. had done:这是第…次… had seen That was the third time that she ___________( see) the professor.
2.It/That/This( …)was the best/ most important+ that
sb. had done:这是…最…
had seen It was the most splendid building that I___________
3.主语+had hardly/ scarcely+ done + when 从句(过去时)
=主语+had no sooner + done + than从句 ( 过去时)
“一 … 就 …” 他一到家就打开电视。 He had hardly turned on the TV when he reached home. = He had no sooner turned on the TV than he reached home.
部分倒装结构： Hardly/Scarcely +had +S+ done when …(did) = No sooner +had +S+ had done than…(did) “一 … 就 …”
He had hardly turned on the TV when he reached home. = Hardly/Scarcely had he turned on TV when he reached home.
= He had no sooner turned on the TV than he reached home. = No sooner had he turned on the TV than he reached home.
5).表示未曾实现的希望、打算、意图、诺言等。常用与 had hoped / planned / meant = intended / thought / wanted / expected＋to do ： 本希望/计划/ 打算/以为/想/期望 had intended I _____________(intend) to see you ,but I had an unexpected visitor. 6)在虚拟语气中，表与过去的事实相反. I wish I had gone to the party last night. I would have succeeded if I had studied hard .
1. I __________ ( finish) reading the novel by nine had finished o’clock last night. 2. We _______________( learn) over two thousand had learned English words by the end of last year. had taught 3. Before she came to China, Grace ____________ ( teach) English in a high school for five years. 4.By the time I got to the station, the train had left __________( leave).
It was the most important tomb that had ever been
had( not) been done
At the ending of the meeting, the headmaster announced that an agreement _________________( reach). had been reached
Practice: D 1.No sooner _____than the bus started. A.are we seated B. we had been seated C. have we seated D. had we been seated C 2. It was the second time that he ___out with her. A. went B. has gone C. had gone D. had been going
(3). We arrived earlier than we ________. B A. were expected B. had been expected C. had been expecting D. had expected 4.I was just going to cut my rose bushes but B someone ________ it. Was it you? A. has done B. had done C. would do D. will do C 5.If he ________ my advice, he wouldn't have lost his job. A. followed B. should follow C. had followed D. would follow
6.[2011·山东卷] She was surprised to find the fridge empty; the child ________ everything! A．had been eating B．had eaten C．have eaten D．have been eating 7. By the time he arrived in Beijing, we _______ there for two days. A. will have stayed B. stay C. have been staying D. had stayed 8.I ______to go for a walk, but someone called and I couldn’t get away. A、was planning B、planned C、had planned D、would plan
9.When Mark opened the door, he saw a woman standing there. He _____ her before. A. never saw B. had never seen C. never sees D. has never seen 10.The news came as no surprise to me, for I _____ of it earlier. A. hear B. heard C. have heard D. had heard 11.She said that she _____ the film before. A. see B. saw C. have seen D. had seen 12.I met Wang Zao in the street yesterday. We ______ each other since he went to Beijing. A. didn’t see B. don’t see C. haven’t seen D. hadn’t seen
13.That dinner was the most expensive meal we_______________. A. would have B. have had C. had never had D. had ever had
14. How long ___each other before they___ married? A. had they known, got B. have they known, get C. did they know, were going to get D. do they know, are going to get 15. By the time he was twelve, Edison _____ to make a living by himself. A. would begin B. has begun C. had begun D. was begun 16. She _____ Robert for a year. A. married B. married with C. has been married D. has been married to
17. When Jack arrived he learned Mary ____ for about an hour. A. had gone B. had been away C. had set off D. had left 18. Great change _____ in the city, and a lot of factories_______. A. have been taken place; have been set up B. have taken place; have been set up C. are taken place; are set up D. were taken place; were set up
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