? it 用作非人称代词，指代日期、时间、季节、天气、温 度、距离、重量、环境、情况等， 常不翻译出来
?It’s quite hot here in summer, isn’t it ? ?It’s early midni
ght now . We’d better go to bed. (时间) ?It’s about an hour’s drive from here to Nanchang. (距离) ?It was noisy last night.
?— Do you like it here？(2004年高考全国卷
—Oh, yes. The air, the weather, the way (环境等) of life. —Everything is so nice.
指代性别不详的婴幼儿 他\她是谁？ Who is it? The baby is crying. It might be hungry. ---Who is knocking 指代说话者心目中不太清 at the door? 楚的那个人 ---It's may be Tom. ?—“Who is it over there?” —“It must be headmaster.” —“No, it can’t be him, for he has gone to Paris.”
Throw wasted paper in the dustbin. It's just beside you. b.还可以指代前面整件事情： This spade is made of iron. It is known to all. 2.指示代词(在回答含有指示代词this\that的问句时 常用it指代)---Who is that?-- It is Lucy. What’s that on the right? I guess it might be a watermelon. ?—“Hello! Who is that (speaking)?” —“This is john/I (speaking). 此处不能用it代this
注 1: it, one, that 区别
? it 指代上文提到的表特指的单数可数名词戒不可数名
? one表示“同类不同物”, 只能代替可数名词单数，相
? that 表示“同类不同物”，（只在平级结构戒比较级
? I had a good pen, but I lost it yesterday. I’ll buy one tomorrow.
it / one / that
the house that the Parkers bought 1. The Parkers bought a new house but ___ will need a lot of work before they can move in. a house A. they B it C. one D. which B. 2. We’ve been looking at houses but haven’t found ___ we like yet. A. A one B. ones C. it D. them 3. I’m moving to the countryside because the air there is much fresher than ___ in the city. A. ones B. one C. that D. those C the air
1.---would you like to buy a bicycle of this kind? ---Yes, I'd like to have_________. A. it B.that √ C.one D.this 2.The color of my coat is different from__of yours. A. it B. one C. that D. this √ 3.The machines we use today are much better than _____we use ten years ago. A. it B.that C.one √ D.those 4.These shoes are too tight, do you have large___? A. it B.that √ C.ones D.one
1. Is this the factory _______ her mother
worked last year?
A. the one B. that year? A. the one B. that √ C. where D. which C. The one D. the 3. ______clean the blackboard is to be praised. A. Anyone who B. The boy
2. Is this factory _______ her mother worked in last
C. where √
The chairman thought ___ necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting.(05全国) A. that B it C. this D. him B. Sentence patterns: 1. Sb + think + it + necessary + ( for sb. ) to do sth. +连词+clause make\believe\feel\ find\consider hard\possible\important\usele ss\worth\worthwhile…
He made it quite clear that he won't change his mind We consider it unimportant when you set out.
I think it his duty to clean the blackboard. Sentence patterns: 2. S+ V + it + one’s duty + ( for sb. ) to do sth. +连词+ clause an honour, a pity, a shame, a good idea--3. S + V + it + no +n + doing sth. ( need 除外） no use\good\point\harm--1. 作为医生，我们觉得救死扶伤是我们的职责。 2. 他们相信适当锻炼身体毫无坏处。 As doctors, we feel it our duty to save the dying and treat the wounded. They believe it no harm doing the exercsie appropriately. Traanslation
I like ___ in the autumn when the weather is clear and C bright.(04全国) A. this B. that C. it D. one
点拨:这是it作形式宾语的一种特殊用法.少数动词 (如like, love,enjoy, dislike, hate, don't mind, appreciate, feellike等)或包含介词的动词短语(如 see to, depend on,be fond of等)后接宾语从句,必 须先由it担任形式宾语,再接从句.
Sentence patterns: 1.I like (enjoy, hate…) it when…. 2.I would appreciate it if… 3.…see to (depend on…) it that…
单句改错：(每行最少一个错诨） 1. He is possible to do this thing flexibly. 2. He didn’t make when and where the meeting would be held clear. 3. The doctor advised Vesa strongly that she should take a holiday, but which didn't help. 4. Is that club that can hold more than 1,000 persons? 5. We consider it no use to spend time on this kind of people. 6. Every student may hate them when their teachers treat them rudely.
She took ____ for granted that he was liked by all C the people. A. this B. that C. it D. one
点拨:这也是it作形式宾语的一种特殊用法.少数动词短语中包含it作 形式宾语,其结构为： sb owe it to sb+ 连词 + clause 把…归功于… bring it to sb+ 连词 + clause 把…带给某人 leave it to sb to do\+ 连词 + clause 把…留给某人去做 take it for granted + 连词 + clause 某人想当然… keep it in mind + 连词 + clause 牢记…
Sentence patterns You can leave the chores to me if you are busy. Please keep it in mind that you are a chinese man. She owed it to me that she is getting better and better.
sb think it adj for sb to do\+连词+clause sb think it n for sb to do\+连词+clause
sb think it no n(use\good-) doing (except need) sb appreciate it +连词+ clause sb leave it to sb to do\+连词+从句 sb owe it to sb +连词+ clause sb bring it to sb +连词+ clause sb take it for granted+连词+ clause sb keep it in mind +连词+ clause
it 作形式宾诧 It 常可代替不定式（短诧）、动名词（短诧）戒从 句在句中作形式宾诧，而将真正的宾诧放在句子后 面。为方便记忆，我们可将it 作形式宾诧的句型称 为"6123结构"。 6. 指主句中常用的动词：think， believe， make， find, consider， feel； 1. 指的是形式宾诧it； 2. 指的是宾补的两种形式：形容词戒名词； 3. 指的是真正宾诧的三种形式：不定式短诧，动 名词短诧戒that引导的宾诧从句。
?We think it important to learn English.
1. -There is still a copy of the book in the library. Will you go and bottow ? -No, I’d rather buy in the bookstore. [2007 陕西卷] A. it;one B. one;one C. one;it D. it;it 2. Little joy can equal ________ of a surprising ending when you read stories. [2007 四川卷] A. that B. those C. any D. Some 3. He didn’t make ________ clear when and where the meeting would be held.[2007 天津卷] A. this B. that C. it D. these
4. （2011福建21） We have various summer camps for your holidays. You can choose ____ based on your own interests. A. either B. each C. one D. it 5. （2010全国II 14）The doctor thought ____ would be good for you to have a holiday. A. this B. that C. one D. it 6. （2010陕西卷12）The cost of renting a house in central Xi’an is higher than ____ in any other area of the city. A. that B. this C. it D. one 7. (2011天津1) We feel ___ our duty to make our country a better place. A. it B. this C. that D. one
It be adj\n\done\vi+连词+clause\to do\ doing= 连词+clause\to do\ doing+be adj\n\done\vi
1. _____ (Whether\If\That\It) the experientment √ will be carried out is not known. =? 2. ______ (That\This\It\As) is not clear when he will √ =? attend the meeting. 3. _____(That\This\It\As) is known to everybody , √ the moon travels round the earth once every month. =?
It is obvious that going for sports will do a lot of good to your health. =?
It's a pity that the Chinese team didn't attend the World Cup in South Africa this year. =?
1. It is clear ( obvious,true,certain....) that ..... 该句 型中it 是形式主诧，真正的主诧是that 引导的主诧从句， 常译为＂清楚（显然，真的，肯定．．．）＂是主诧从句 最常见的一种结构。 It is very clear that he’s round and tall like a tree. = That he’s round and tall like a tree is very clear. It is important ( necessary，strange，natural...) that ... 该句型和上一个同属一个句型；由亍主句中的形 容词不同，that 后的从句中要用虚拟诧气（should + 动词原形），should 可以省去，
It is important that we (should) learn English well. It is necessary that he (should) remember these words.
2. It is said (reported， learned....) that ... 该句型中的it 仍是形式主诧，真正主诧是that 引导的主 诧从句；该结构常译为＂据说（据报道，据悉．．．）＂。 It is said that he has come to Beijing. It is reported that another earth satellite has been put into orbit. It is suggested ( ordered /demanded/insisted/commanded... ) that ... 该句型和上一个同属一个句型，主句中的过去分词是表示 请求，建议，命令等词时，that 后的从句要用虚拟诧气 （should + 动词原形），should 可以省；常译为＂据 建议；有命令．．．） It is suggested that the meeting ( should ) be put off. It was ordered that we ( should ) arrive there in two hours.
3. It happens (seems，appears) that... 该句型中it是形式主诧，that 引导的是主诧从句，主句中 的happen，seem等词是不及物动词。 It happened ( so happened ) that he met his teacher in the street. 碰巧．．. It seems that he will be back in a few days. 看 来．．． It looks ( seems ) as if ... 该句型中it无意义， as if 引导一个状诧从句。常译 为，＂看起来好象．．．＂如果与事实不相符合，则用虚 拟诧气。 It looks as if he is ill.（真的病了） It looks as if he were ill. （没有生病） It seemed as if he were dying.
4. It is a pity ( a shame ... ) that ... 该句型中，that后的从句一般用虚拟诧气（should + 动词原形），should可省去．表示出乎意料，常译为＂ 竟然＂。没有这种意义时，则不用虚拟诧气。 It is a pity that such a thing ( should ) happen in your class. 这种事竟然发生在你们班上，真是遗憾！ It is a pity that he is ill. 他生病了，真遗憾！ 5. It is time ( about time ，high time ) that ... 该句型中that 后的从句应该用虚拟诧气，值得注意的是 ① 常用过去时态表示虚拟．② 有时也用should + 动词 原形，should 不能省，常译为＂该到做--的时侯--了＂ It is time that children should go to bed. = It is time that children went to bed.
8：It be +n+连词+从句 的特殊句式结构 1. It is the first ( second ... ) time that ... 该句型要和上一个句型区别开来，该句型中的 that 从句 不用虚拟诧气，而用完成时态，。至亍用什么完成时态， 由主句的谓诧动词的时态决定。如果是一般现在时，后面 从句用现在完成时态；如果是一般过去时，后面从句则用 过去完成时态，该结构中 that 可以省去；it有时用 this 替换．常译为＂是第一（二）．．．次．．．＂。 It is the first time I have been here. = This is the first time I have been here. 2. It is up to sb. to do sth … 应由某人做某事。 It is up to you to decide whether we start or not.
3. It is +一段时间+since ...。 since 引导的从句通常是一般过去时态，而且是瞬间动 词。如果主句是一般过去时，从句则用过去完成时。 It is 5 years since his father died.
It is five months since I arrived in New York.
It is five months since I was in New York. 我离开纽约已经五个月了。 （注意：终止性动词表示从动作发生时算起；如果是状 态动词戒持续性动词，则从动作戒状态结束时算起。）
4. It is ... when ...。 该句型中的 when 引导的是一个时间状诧从句，主句 中的 it 指时间，表诧由具体的时间充当，常译为＂ 当．．．的时候，是．．．＂ It was 5 o’clock when he came here. 5. It was\will be+段时间+ before+从句 该句型主句中的 it 指时间， 主句中的时态常是一般将 来时戒过去时两种时态．主句中的表诧多是long， 3 days ， 2 weeks 等表示时间段的词戒短诧 It was 3 days before he went to Beijing. It will not be long before he finishes his job.
It will be +段时间+before+clause:要过---才--It will not be+段时间+before+clause:用不了---就---
It will be several years before we meet again.
It will not be long before they set out for the front.
was not+时间段+before… “没过…就”
It was two hours before the fireman arrived here. 两个小时之后消防员才到. It was not five minutes before the fireman arrived here. 没过五分钟消防员就到了.
_____ 1.It’s years ___(since, before, after, that) I painted this beautiful picture. It is +时间段+since(过去时)...
2.ItItwillwill years ___(since, before, after, that) I paint this + be be +时间段 +before(一般现在时)… beautiful picture. ______ 表示从现在起到before从句谓语动作发生所经过的一段
表示从since 从句谓语动作发生以后到现在所经过的一 _______ 段时间，译为“自从......以来已多久了”
It + was + 时间段 + before(过去时)… 3.It was years ___(since, before, after,that) I painted this 表示从过去某一时间到before从句谓语动作发生所经过 beautiful picture.
4.It’s for years ___(since, before, after, that) Ihave painted this beautiful picture.
It is +时间段+since(过去时)...
It + will be +时间段 +before(一般现在时)… It + was + 时间段 + before(过去时)…
Translate the following: 1.过了很久他才回来. 2. 我们很久后才会见面的.
It was long before he came back.
It will be long before we meet again.
It is long since I left this school.
常见的固定用法有: make it 成功，安排在或定在某时间 forget it 别提了，忘了它吧 Don’t mention it 别提了，表示不用谢 It doesn’t matter 没关系 It(That) depends 视情况而定 You guessed it 你猜着了 It’s hard to say 很难说
判断对错(每句最多有两处错诨 ) It was this morning while I finished my task. It is up to you to make the choice. It happened that I was out when he called. It is not easy finishing the work in two days. It is not a good habit staying up late. It is no use to cry over spilt milk. It is a pity that you don't read this book. It looks as if it were going to rain. It is the second time that I was told the rules here. It is time that we protect our environment. It is evident that he is telling a lie now. It is demanded that he goes to school on time.
It was with a strong belief that Martin Luther king led mang movements against racial discrimination.
It is the ability to do the job__ matters not where you come from or what you are. A. one B. that C. what D. i
It is / was + 被强调的部分 +that / who+句子其他成分 It is\ was not until +被强调的部分+that+句子其他成 分
A. not until midnight did he go B. until midnight that In which play is it that…? he didn’t go C. not until midnight that he went D. until midnight when he didn’t go 强调句型和 I don’t know in which play it is that…
被强调的部 分是not until 引导的时间 Is it …that…? It was ___ back home after the experiment. 状语
It is …that…
各种从句 In which play is ___ your brother appears?
A. that where B. this when C. it that
?it where D.
It was in the lab ___ was taken charge of by Professor Zhang ___ they did the experiment. A. where; that B. which ; where C. that ; where D. which; that
1.It is not how much we do but how much love we put into what we do____ benefits our work most. A. who B. which √ that D.what C. 2. I don't know___he had been. Awhere was it B. it was where C. where it was that D. it was where that √ 3.It was ___he came back from Afica that year___he met the girl he would like to marry. A. when ; then B. not, until Cnot until;that D.only;when √ correct: It is? school gate that I met him. the
3. (2000,上海) Someone is ringing the doorbell. Go and see__. A. who is he B. who he is C. who is it D. who it is 正确答案：D。说话时，不知道对方的性别。注意在宾语从句中 需用陈述语序。
4. (2007, 全国Ⅰ)–Have you heard the latest news? –No, what __? A. is it B. is there C. are they D. are those 正确答案：A。it指代上文提及的latest news。 5. (2006,全国Ⅰ) If I can help __, I don’t like working late into the night. A. so B. that C. it D. them 正确答案：C。help是“阻止、避免”的意思，it指代下文的事 情。 6. (2002,北京) -He was nearly drowned once. -When was _? -__ was 1998 when he was in Middle School. A. that, It B. this, This C. this, It D. that, This 正确答案：A。it指时间。
9. (2004,北京) The Foreign Minister said, “__ our hope that the two sides will work towards peace. A、This is B、There is C、That is D、It is 正确答案：D由句意易知：that从句是真正的主语;it为形式主语。 10. (2005,上海)____in the regulations that you should not tell other people the password of your e-mail account. A. What is required B. What requires C. It is required D. It requires 正 确 答 案 ： C 。 it 为 形 式 主 语 ， 在 此 结 构 中 done 为 required/suggested/demanded/recommended等时，从句必 须用should + 动词原形，且should可以省略。
11. (2004,上海春) It was foolish of him to __ his notes during that important test, and as a result, he got punished. A. stick to B. refer to C. keep to D. point to 正确答案：B。短语辨析题，refer to有“参考”的意思，符合 句意。 12. (2006,全国Ⅱ) It is no __ arguing with Bill because he will never change his mind. A. use B. help C. time D. way 分析：正确答案：A。为固定结构。 14. (2006,湖南)As the busiest woman in Norton, she made __ her duty to look after all the other people’s affairs in that town. A. this B. that C. one D. it 正确答案：D。真正宾语为不定式。
15. (2005,江苏)–Don’t you think it necessary that he __ to Miami but to New York? – I agree, but the problem is __ he has refused to. A. will not be sent; that B. not be sent; that C. should not be sent; what D. should not send; what 正确答案：B。表示“理应如此”需用 should＋动词原形，should可以省略。在做it 形式宾语和形式主语的复合句中如果从句表示 的是“惊奇、惋惜或者理应如此”等含义时， 需用should＋动词原形，should可以省略。
17、(2003,上海) I will appreciate it __ you call back this afternoon for the doctor’s appointment. A、until B、if C、when D、that 正确答案：B。 18. (1998，上海) Don’t __ that all those who get good grades in the entrance examination will prove to be most successful. A. take as granted B. take this for granted C. take that for granted D. take it for granted 正确答案：D。take it for granted that …意为：想当然的认为某 事。it为形式宾语，真正的宾语为that从句。另外我们也应该注 意：depend(rely) on it（相信某事）和see to it（负责某事）的 用法。 19. (2008,全国Ⅱ) It was in New Zealand __ Elizabeth first met Mr. Smith. A. that B. how C. which D. when 正确答案：A。将it was去掉句子结构完整，易知是考查it的强调 句型。
20. (2004,福建) It was with great joy __ he received the news that his lost daughter had been found. A. because B. which C. since D. that 正确答案：D。 21. (1997,全国) Was it __ that I saw last night at the concert? A. you B. not you C. yourself D. that yourself 正确答案：A。强调句型的一般疑问式的基本结构为： Is/Was it+被强调部分+that…将该句恢复为陈述语序， 去掉It is/was…that结构，易判断是强调you的强调句 型。 22. Is __student __was caught smoking in the classroom? A. it that, that B. that it, it
23. (2004,上海) Why! I have nothing to confess. __ you want me to say? A. What is it that B. What it is that C. How is it that D. How it is that 正 确 答 案 ： A 。 强 调 句 型 的 特 殊 疑 问 式 的 基 本 结 构 为 ： wh+is/was it that +其它成分，故选B。 24. (2005,山东)-__ that he managed to get the information? -Oh, a friend of his helped him. A. Where was it B. What was it C. How was it D. Why was it 正确答案：C。
25. (2007,浙江) It __ we had stayed together for a couple of weeks __ I found we had a lot in common. A. was; when B. was that; that C. wasn’t until; when D. wasn’t until; that 正确答案：D。易判断这是考查not until的强调形式。 26. (2008，重庆) It was not until midnight __ they reached the camp site. A. that B. when C. while D. as 正确答案：A。 27. (2007,山东)–Where did you get to know her? –It was on the farm _we worked. A. that B. there C. which D. where 正确答案：D。答句完整形式应为：It was on the farm where we worked that I got to know her.
28. -Who made such a stupid mistake? -__Tom. A. It was B. He was C. That was D. There was 正确答案：A。答句完整形式应为：It was Tom who made such a stupid mistake. 29. It was the university __ he was teaching __ sent him to America. A. which; that B. where; that C. that; which D. that; had 正确答案：B。本题是考查：it was +university + 引导的定语从 句+ that…。 30. (2007,陕西) It is not who is right but what is right __ is of importance. A. which B. it C. that D. this 正确答案：C。本题是考查强调句型和名词性从句连用。
31. (2006,辽宁) It was after he got what he had desired __ he realized it was not so important. A. that B. when C. since D. as 正确答案：A。本题是考查强调句型和状语从句连用。 32. It might have been Tom __ bought John a new pen yesterday. A. what B. since C. that D. then 正确答案：C。去掉It might have been…that句子仍然是完整的 所以选C。 33、(2008, 北京) I’m sorry you’ve been waiting so long, but it’ll still be some time __ Brian gets back. A. before B. since C. till D. after 正确答案：A。It be + 时间 + before …表示过了一段时间才…… 34. (2006,福建) –How long do you think it will be __ China sends a manned spaceship to the moon? -Perhaps two or three years. A. when B. until C. that D. before 正确答案：D
35、(2005,安徽) That was really a splendid evening. It’s years __ I enjoyed myself so much. A. when B. that C. before D. since 正确答案：D。 36、(2006,四川) –It’s thirty years since we last met. -But I still remember the story, believe it or not, __ we got lost on a rainy night. A. which B. that C. what D. when 正确答案：B。 易判断本题是考查同位语从句。 37. (2006,重庆) Isn’t it time you got down to __ the papers? A. mark B. be marked C. being marked D. marking 正确答案：D。got down to是“开始从事”的意思，to不是不定 式符号，而是介词后跟名词或者-ing形式。
38. (2005,安徽) -Shall we go to the art exhibition right away? -__. A. It’s your opinion B. I don’t mind C. It’ all up to you D. That’s your decision 39、(2006,湖北) –You know who came yesterday? -Yao Ming? We had seen basketball match. -__ He came and watched the game. A. You guessed it! B. How did you know that? C. Well done! D. That was good news! 正确答案：A。由具体语境易做出正确选择。 40. (2008,天津) –How much do I own you for lunch? -__. It’s nothing. A. You’re welcome B. Forget it C. With pleasure D. That’s all right 正确答案：B 。
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