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北语13秋《大学英语三》导学资料二(词汇与结构和完形填空)


一、本阶段学习内容概述 同学们,大家好,现在我们进入第二阶段的学习,这一阶段我们会针对《大学英语》统考中的词汇与结构、 和完形填空两个题型进行讲解和详细地阐述。 词汇与结构这部分包括十个单元,系统地复习了英语的基础语法知识,涉及到了词汇的分类,动词的时态语 态,形容词、介词的用法、情态动词,虚拟语气,非谓语动词,倒装,定语从句,状语从句,名词性从句等语法 知识。完形填空这部分针对十种情景介绍了完形填空的做题方法,以及一些相关的语言知识点。下面我将针对词 汇与结构、完形填空这两部分的重难点内容,诸如:倒装句、虚拟语气的用法、完形填空解题技巧等进行补充和 详细的讲解,以帮助大家更好的理解与运用相关的重难点知识。 二、重难点讲解 (一) 、倒装句 1,倒装句之全部倒装 全部倒装是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。 此结构通常只用与一般现在时和 一般过去时。 常见的 结构有: 1) here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。 There goes the bell. Then came the chairman. Here is your letter. 2) 表示运动方向的副词或地点状语置于句首,谓语表示运动的动词。 Out rushed a missile from under the bomber. Ahead sat an old woman. 注意:上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能完全倒装。 Here he comes. 2,倒装句之部分倒装 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。 如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词, 则需添 加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前。 1) 句首为否定或半否定的词语,如 no, not, never, seldom, little, hardly, at no time, in no way, not until… 等。 Never have I seen such a performance. Nowhere will you find the answer to this question. Not until the child fell asleep did the mother leave the room. 当 Not until 引出主从复合句,主句倒装,从句不倒装。 Away they went.

注意: 如否定词不在句首不倒装。 I have never seen such a performance. The mother didn't leave the room until the child fell asleep. 典型例题 1) Why can't I smoke here? At no time___ in the meeting-room A. is smoking permitted C. smoking is it permitted B. smoking is permitted D. does smoking permit

答案 A. 这是一个倒装问题。当否定词语置于句首以表示强调时,其句中的主谓须用倒装结构。 这些否定词包 括 no, little, hardly, seldom, never, not only, not until 等。 本题的正常语序是 Smoking is permitted in the meeting-room at no time. 2) Not until the early years of the 19th century ___ what heat is. A. man did know 答案 D. B. man know C. didn't man know D. did man know

看到 Not until…的句型,我们知道为一倒装句,答案在 C,D 中选一个。

改写为正常语序为,Man did not know what heat is until the early years of the 19th. 现在将 not 提前,后面就不能 再用否定了,否则意思就变了。 3 以否定词开头作部分倒装 如 Not only…but also, Hardly/Scarcely…when, No sooner… than Not only did he refuse the gift, he also severely criticized the sender. Hardly had she gone out when a student came to visit her. No sooner had she gone out than a student came to visit her. 典型例题 No sooner___ than it began to rain heavily. A. the game began C. did the game begin B. has the game begun D. had the game begun

答案 D. 以具有否定意义的副词放在句首时, 一般采用倒装句(谓语前置)。 这类表示否定意义的词有 never, seldom, scarcely, little, few, not, hardly, 以及 not only…but (also), no sooner…than, hardly… when scarcely… when 等等。

注意:只有当 Not only… but also 连接两个分句时,才在第一个分句用倒装结构。如果置于句首的 Not only… but also 仅连接两个并列词语,不可用倒装结构。 Not only you but also I am fond of music.
4 so, neither, nor 作部分倒装

表示"也"、"也不" 的句子要部分倒装。 Tom can speak French. So can Jack. If you won't go, neither will I. 典型例题 ---Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? ---I don't know, _____. A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also

答案:B. nor 为增补意思"也不关心",因此句子应倒装。A 错在用 don't 再次否定, C neither 用法不对且缺乏 连词。 D 缺乏连词。 注意: 当 so 引出的句子用以对上文内容加以证实或肯定时,不可用倒装结构。意为"的确如此"。 Tom asked me to go to play football and so I did. ---It's raining hard. 5 only 在句首要倒装的情况 Only in this way, can you learn English well. Only after being asked three times did he come to the meeting. 如果句子为主从复合句,则主句倒装,从句不倒装 ---So it is.

Only when he is seriously ill, does he ever stay in bed. 6 as, though 引导的倒装句 as / though 引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前 (形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提前) 。 注意: 1) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。 2) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实义动词有宾语和状语, 之前。 Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 注意: 让步状语从句中,有 though,although 时,后面的主句不能有 but,但是 though 和 yet 可连用。 7 其他部分倒装 1) so… that 句型中的 so 位于句首时,需倒装。 So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 2) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中: May you all be happy. 3) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词,可将 if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之 前,采取部分倒装。 Were I you, I would try it again. 典型例题: 1) Not until the early years of the 19th century___ what heat is A. man did know B. man knew C. didn't man know D. did man know 随实义动词一起放在主语

答案为 D. 否定词 Not 在句首,要求用部分倒装的句子结构。 2) Not until I began to work ___ how much time I had wasted. A. didn't I realize 答案为 B。 3) Do you know Tom bought a new car? I don't know, ___. A. nor don't I care B. nor do I care B. did I realize C. I didn't realize D. I realize

C. I don't care neither D. I don't care also 解析:答案为 B. 句中的 nor 引出部分倒装结构,表示"也不"。由 so, neither, nor 引导的倒装句,表示前一情 况的重复出现。其中, so 用于肯定句, 而 neither, nor 用在否定句中。 (二) 、虚拟语气的用法 虚拟语气用来表示说话人的主观愿望或假想,而不表示客观存在的事实,所说的是一个条件,不一定是事实,或 与事实相反。 虚拟语气通过谓语动词的特殊形式来表示。 英语中的语气分为陈述语气、 祈使语气、 虚拟语气三类。 虚拟语气在非真实条件状语从句中的用法 1、真实条件状语从句与非真实条件状语从句 eg . If he doesn’t hurry up, he will miss the bus. 如果他不快点,他将错过巴士。( 真实条件状语)(不是虚拟语气) If he is free, he will ask me to tell stories. 如果他是空闲的,他会要求我讲故事。 (真实条件状语) (不是虚拟语

气) If I were you, I would go at once.如果我是你,我马上就会去。 (非真实条件状语从句) If there were no air, people would die. 如果没有空气,人就会死亡。 (非真实条件状语从句) 2、用法及动词形式 1、表示与现在事实相反的情况: if+主语+过去时+其他+主语+should/would/could/might+do+其他 例: 1.If I were you, I would take an umbrella.如果我是你,我会带把伞。 (事实:我不可能是你) 2.If I knew his telephone number, I would tell you. 如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。 (事实:不知道) 3.If there were no air or water, there would be no living things on the earth. 如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有 生物。(事实:地球上既有空气也有水) 4.If I had any money with me, I could lend you some. 如果我带钱了,我就会借给你些。 (事实:没带钱) 5.If he studied harder, he might pass the exam.如果他再努力些,就能通过考试了。 (事实:没有努力 2、表示 与过去事实相反的情况 if+主语+had done +其他+主语+should/would/could/might+have done+其他 例: 1. If I had got there earlier, I should/could have met her. 如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。 (事实:去晚了) 2.If he had taken my advice, he would not have made such a mistake. 如果他听我的劝告的话,就不会犯这样的 错误了。 (事实:没有听我的话) 3、表示对将来情况的主观推测 ①if+主语+did/should/were to do+sth.+主语+should/would/could/might+do+其他 ② if+主语+did/be(were)+sth.+主语 +should/would/could/might+do+其他 ③if+主语+should+do+sth.+主语 +should/would/could/might+do+其他 例: 1.If he should come here tomorrow, I should/would talk to him. 如果他哪天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。 (事 实:来的可能性很小) 2.If there were a heavy snow next Sunday, we would not go skating. 如果下周日下大雪,我们就不能去滑冰了。 (事实:不知能否下雪) 3.If she were to be there next Monday, I would tell her about the matter. 如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉 她这件事的始末。 在表示建议、命令、要求等含义的宾语从句,谓语动词常用虚拟语气,"should+动词原形"构成,should 可 省略。 4、 有时,虚拟条件句中,结果主句和条件从句的谓语动作若不是同时发生时,虚拟语气的形式应作相应 的调整。 ①从句的动作与过去事实相反,而主句的动作与现在或现在正在发生的事实不符。如: If I had worked hard at school, I would be an engineer, too. 如果我在学校学习刻苦的话,我现在也会成为一个 工程师了 If they had informed us, we would not come here now. 如果他们通知过我们的话,我们现在就不会来这里了。 ②从句的动作与现在事实相反,而主句的动作与过去事实不符。如:

If he were free today, we would have sent him to Beijing. 如果他今天有空的话,我们会已经派他去北京了。 If he knew her, he would have greeted her. 要是他认识她的话,他肯定会去问候她了。 ③从句的动作与过去发生的情况相反,而主句的动作与现在正在发生的情况相反。如: If it had not been raining too much, the crops would be growing much better. 如果天不下太多的雨的话,庄稼会 长得更好。 If he had been working hard, he would be working in the office now. 要是他一直努力工作的话, 他现在已进了办 公室了。 5、 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时,if 可以省略,这时条件从句要用倒装语序,即将 were, should, had 等词置于句首,这种多用于书面语。如: Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果她懂一些电脑知识的话, 我们已经聘 用他来这里工作了。 6、非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来,只暗含在副词、介词短语、上下文或其他方式表示出来, 这种句子叫做含蓄条件句,在多数情况下,条件会暗含在短语中,如 without…., but for….等 But for his help, we would be working now. 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。 Without your instruction, I would not have made such great progress. 要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的 进步。 We didn’t know his telephone number; otherwise we would have telephoned him. 我们不知道他的电话号码,否 则我们就会给他打电话。 7、 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句可以省略其中的一个,来表示说话人的一种强烈的感情。 ①省略从句 He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。 You could have passed this exam. 你应该能通过这次考试了。 ②省略主句 If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该多好啊。 If only I had got it. 要是我得到它了该多好啊。 虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood)的其他用法 1、虚拟语气用在 wish 后的宾语从句 a、表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用过去式 eg. I wish I had your brains.我希望我有你那样的头脑。(事实:我根本比不上你) b、表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词:had+done(动词过去分词) eg:.I wish I had known the truth of the matter.我希望我原来知道这件事的真相。 (事实:原来不知道) c、表示将来难以实现的愿望 谓语动词:should/would + 动词原形 eg. I wish I should have a chance again.我希望我还能有一次这样的机会。 (事实:很难再有这样的机会了) (注:if only 和 as if/as though 也有相同用法) 2、虚拟语气用在目的状语从句中 1.在 for fear that, in case, lest 引导的,若用虚拟语气时,从句谓语为:should + 动词原形。并且 should 不能

省略 She examined the door again for fear that a thief should come in. 她又把门检查了一遍,以防盗贼的进入。 He started out earlier lest he should be late. 他很早就出发了以防迟到。 2、在 so that, in order that 所引导的目的状语从句中,从句中的谓语为:can / may / could / might / will / would / should + 动词原形。 He goes closer to the speaker so that he can hear him clearer. 他走近说话的人以便能挺得更清楚。 He read the letter carefully in order that he should not miss a word. 他把信读得很仔细以便不漏掉一个单词。 3、虚拟语气的其他用法 1、 一想要(desire)二宁愿(prefer)三命令(order. command)四建议(advice. suggest. propose)五要求(demand. require. request. desire.insist)中,无论主句谓语动词为何种时态,从句的谓语动词都用: “should + 动词原形”或只用“动 词原形” 。 如 He suggested that we (should) take the teacher’s advice He insisted that we (should) take the teacher’s advice He demand that we (should) take the teacher’s advice He ordered that we (should) take the teacher’s advice 注:insist 如果翻译成坚持某种动作才用虚拟语气翻译成坚持某种观点就不用虚拟语气。 如:He insist he is a student. 他坚持说他是个学生。 这个语句表示的是事实,因此在这个语句中不能使用虚拟语气。 suggest 意为“建议”才用虚拟语气,意为“暗示”则不用虚拟语气。 如: His face suggests that he looks worried .他的表情暗含着他很担心。 这个句子本身是事实,因此它就没有用到虚拟语气。 ③表情绪.观点的形容词或名词也要用虚拟语气.如:necessary. important. impossible. natural. strange. surprising. funny. right. wrong. better. a pity 等。 句型:It is.......that 结构后的主语从句,从句的谓语动词都要用 should+原型 或只用动词原型。 ④虚拟语气在方式状语从句的应用。详百度百科之方式状语从句词条。 2、 在 even if, even though 所引导的让步状语从句中,可用虚拟语气,主句、从句的结构与 if 所引导的条件 从句结构相同。如: Even if he were here himself, he should not know what to do. 即使他亲自来也不知该怎么办。 Nobody could save him even though Hua Tuo should come here. 即使华佗在世也救不了他。 3、 在 whatever,whichever,whenever,whoever, wherever,however, no matter wh-word 等引导的让步状语 从句中,从句虚拟语气结构为: ① may +动词原形(指现在或将来)。如: We will finish it on time no matter what / whatever may happen. 不管发生什么事,我们都要按时完成。 We will find him wherever / no matter where he may be. 无论他在哪里,我们都要找到他。 I will wait for him no matter how late he may come. 不管他来的多么晚,我都会等他。 ② may +完成式(指过去) ,主句结构不限。如: You mustn’t be proud whatever / no matter what great progress you may have made. 不管你取得了多么大的进 步,你也不能骄傲 We must respect him no matter what / whatever mistakes he may have made. 不管他犯过什么错误,我们必须尊

敬他。 4、一般 would rather, had rather, would sooner 等之后的宾语从句常表示与客观事实不相符的一种愿望,故使 用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: 表示所发生的时间虚拟语气结构 过去 had + 过去分词; 现在 过去时(be 用 were ) 将来 过去时(be 用 were ) 如:I’d rather you had seen the film yesterday. 我倒想你昨天看过了这场电影。 I’ d rather you were here now. 我倒想你现在在这儿。 We’d rather you went here tomorrow. 我们倒想你明天去那儿 5、虚拟语气还可用在定语从句中,表示: “早该做某事了”时,定语从句中的谓语动词须用虚拟语气,其虚 拟语气的结构为:It is (high / about) time that + 主语+ 动词的过去式/ should + 动词原形,即从句用虚拟过去式。 如 It is time that I went to pick up my daughter at school. 我该去学校接我的女儿了。 It is high time you should go to work. 你早该上班了。 6、 简单句中的虚拟语气 (1) 说话时,为了表示客气、谦虚、委婉而有礼貌,言语常使用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构形式常为: would / could / might / should + 原形动词。如: Would you mind my shutting the door? 我把门关起来你介意吗? You should always learn this lesson by heart. 你要把这个教训牢记于心。 I should agree with you. 我应该同意你的观点。 (2) 表示“祝愿”时,常用“may + 主语+ 动词原形+ 其他” 。如: May you have a good journey! 祝你一路顺风。 May your youth last for ever! 祝你青春永驻。 (3)表示强烈的“愿望” 、 “祝愿”时,常用动词原形。如: Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国共产党万岁。 God bless us. 上帝保佑。 (4) 习惯表达中常用的虚拟语气。 (1) 提出请求或邀请。如: Would you like to have a talk with us this evening? 今天晚上来跟我们聊天好吗? Could I use your bike now? 我可以用一下你的单车吗? (2) 陈述自己的观点或看法。如: I should glad to meet you. 见到你我会很高兴。 I would try my best to help you. 我会尽力帮助你。 (3) 提出劝告或建议。如: You’d better ask your father first. 你最好先问一问你的父亲。 You should make a full investigation of it first. 你应该先全面调查一番。 (4) 提出问题。如: Do you think he could get here on time? 你认为他能按时来吗? Do you expect he would tell us the truth? 你期望他会告诉我们真相吗? (5) 表示对过去情况的责备时,常用虚拟语气。其虚拟语气的结构为: “情态动词 + have + 过去分词” 。如: You should have got here earlier. 你应该早就到这里了。

You should have returned it to him. 你应该把它还给他了。 (三) 、完形填空解题技巧 完形填空又称综合填空,完形填空是一项考查词汇、句子结构、语法及语篇理解等能力的综合题型。完形填 空中所填的词是与文章的上下文紧密联系的。因此,要做好完形填空,必须要在通读全文、把握结构与大意的前 提下,根据所提供的选项及句子的结构、语法、语篇等信息,通过逻辑推理、对比等手段最后确定答案。根据完 形填空这一测试特点,做题时,应采取以下五个步骤逐一进行。 步骤一,了解大意 所谓了解大意即通读整篇文章,弄清文章的大意和结构,确立正确的背景知识,为正式的填空做好充分的准 备。我们需要掌握以下内容: 1、文章体裁。不同体裁的文章往往有不同特点,我们可以通过首句对文章体裁进行推测,这将有利于我们更好 从整体上理解和把握全文。 2、全文主旨。把握文章的主旨,有助于摸清文章的线索,有利于更好地理解和把握全文。 3、下文内容。分析首句有利于顺着作者思路预测下文内容,因为只有合乎逻辑的分析和预测,才能做好完形填 空题。 4、作者的态度。完形填空的语篇中常常渗透作者对叙述的人或事件的态度,而作者的态度有助于我们决定应该 选择哪个选项。 很多学生担心自己的阅读水平差, 有的甚至碰到空格的地方就莫名的紧张了, 认为阅读一篇满是空格的文章必然 无功而返,与其这样浪费时间,倒不如看一句,填一空。其实,这就陷入了一个误区。 所以,在正式填空前,大可不必为理解上的障碍而省略了这至关重要的一步。此外,学生在第一遍阅读中, 要善于从文章开头的几句话中把握短文的背景、主题或结构,并结合常识判断构建一定的预期,并在随后的阅读 中,不断修正,以求与原文一致。通常情况下,文章开头的一、两句话都是完整的信息,这些句子揭示文章的背 景知识或主题思想,大家在阅读中一定要仔细研读,为后面的阅读扫清障碍。 步骤二,初选答案 文章读完了,了解大意后,学生便可以开始填空了。在填每个空格时,可以从出题者的出题思路着手,初步 作出每个题的答案。总的来说,出题人有以下四种出思路。 (一)词义与词形的辨析 选项与选项之间构成同义词、反义词、形近词的关系。有时出题者也借助选项,考察考生对某些单词词义的 精确理解。举例: Geographers compare and contrast 71 places on the earth. 71. A) similar B) various C) distant D) famous 译文:地理学家比较和对照地球上的“什么”地方。 很明显要求填一个形容词来修饰 places. 如果单从语法的角度而言,A、B、C、D 四个选项都能入选,出题 者精心设计只为考察 compare 和 contrast 的精确含义。compare 意为“to exam for similarities and differences” , contrast 意为“to compare in order to show differences” 。综合两个词的含义,应为“找出其相似之处与不同之处” 。 这样一来,答案不言自明。B)various“各种各样”为正确答案 (二)逻辑关系 所填空格的句子,与上下文构成指代、列举、因果、比较、对比、让步、 补充、递进等逻辑关系。上下文 逻辑关系的考察,是完形填空区别于单纯的句子与结构测试中最重要的一点。不仅在国内考试中,在美国研究生 入学考试(GRE)中,也常常考到考生运用逻辑关系解题的能力。试举一例:

The foreign research scholar usually isolates himself in the laboratory as a means of protection; 77 , what he needs is to be fitted into a highly organized university system? A) otherwise B) moreover C) however D) also 根据上下文,空格前的意思为“外籍研究学者通常把自己隔离在实验室里作为一种保护的手段” 。空格后为 “他需要融入的是高度的组织化的大学系统” 。前者是 一种孤离的状态“isolate” ,而后者都是一种组织化的系 统“be fitted to a higly organized university” ,从逻辑的角度而言,前后已然成为对立、矛盾的关系。所以 77 空所 填的连词必然是能将前后平衡的表示对比(转折)关系的连词 however. “In the United States professors have many other duties 86 teaching, such as administrative or research work . 87 , the time that a professor can spend with a student outside of class is limited.” 86. A) but B) except C) with D) besides 87. A) However B) Therefore C) Furthermore D) Nevertheless (三)结构识别 这里讲到的结构, 是指英文中表祯句子结构的固定词组, 如 it is ?that, so that, not only?but?,as well, some? the others?, still others?等。 (四)习惯搭配 这里的习惯搭配,是指动词与名词、动词与副词及动词与介词和介词与名词、介词与形容词的搭配。如:同 样是“利用??”, 却有不同的搭配 take advantage of sth. /make use of sth. 除了按照以上四种思路从正面逐一解题外,学生还可以灵活多变地从反面入手,利用排除法获得正确答案。 步骤三,寻找线索 完形填空不同于句子与结构,必须要从整篇文章入手,通篇考虑,结合上下文答案,寻找线索就秉诚了这一 思想。有些题从单纯的句子来考虑,我们会发现四个选项均可以入选,但从上下文的线索入手,就能迅速排除其 它三个,找到正确答案,从某种意义上来说, “寻找线索“不仅可以考察学生的语言知识,而且更强调对文章内 容的整体把握。 步骤四,回头补缺 在做题时,如果有的难题一时做不出来,应立刻跳过此题,继续往下做。不提倡在考试的时候考生在某一题 上花费大量的时间。 道理不言自明, 只要考生坚持往下做, 随着空格变得越来越少, 对文章的理解也越来越轻松, 有时就能从下文的线索和暗示中找到答案,这样再回过头来填上答案,也未为晚也。 步骤五,核实答案 题目填完后(除个别难度较大的题目外) ,学生应利用一到两分钟将答案带入原文通读,通读的目的是通过 “语感”来核实答案。这样读下来,不仅可以改正填错的词,而且还可以在这一过程中得到启发,把做不上来的 题目填出来。 综上所述,这五个步骤在整个完形填空的做题过程中缺一不可。对文章大意的了解是前提条件,答案的初选 是做题的核心,在这一过程中,除了逻辑关系以外,其余 5 种出题思路更主要的是针对学生平时的积累和记忆的 程度,考察学生的语言功底。完形填空的成功离不开对篇章的整体把握,孤立地、片面地看问题,终会使你失望 而归。 倒装句、虚拟语气是英语语法知识中的重难点,掌握一些完形填空解题技巧可以帮助大家更好的解答这种 题型。


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