一、冠词 The Article 知识要点： 冠词是一种虚词，放在名词的前面，帮助说明名词的含义。冠词分不定冠词（The Indefinite Article） 和定冠词（The definite Article）两种。a (an) 是不定冠词，a 用在辅音之前：如 a book, a man; an 用在元音 之前，如：an
old man, an hour, an interesting book 等。the 是定冠词。 一、不定冠词的用法 1、 指人或事物的某一种类 （泛指）这是不定冠词 a (an)的基本用法。 She is a girl. I am a teacher. Please 。 如： pass me an apple. 2、指某人或某物，但不具体说明何人或何物。如：He borrowed a story-book from the library. A Li is looking for you. 一位姓李的同志正在找你。 3、表示数量，有“一”的意思，但数的概念没有 one 强烈。如： I have a mouth, a nose and two eyes. 4、用于某些固定词组中。如： a bit, a few, a little, a lot of, a piece of, a cup of, a glass of, a pile of, a pair of, have a good time, for a while, for a long time 等。 5、用在抽象名词前，表具体的介绍——a + 抽象名词，起具体化的作用。如： This little girl is a joy to her parents. 这女孩对她父母来说是一个乐趣。 It is a pleasure to talk with you. 跟您交谈真是一件愉快的事情。 It is an honour to me to attend the meeting. 参加这个会，对我来说是一种荣誉。 二、定冠词的用法： 1、特指某（些）人或某（些）事物。这是定冠词 the 的基本用法。如： Beijing is the capital of China. The pen on the desk is mine. 2、指谈话双方都知道的人或事物。如： Where is the teacher? Open the window, please. 3、指上文提过的人或事物（第二次出现） 。如： There was a chair by the window. On the chair sat a young woman with a baby in her arms. The baby was thin. 4、用在世界上独一无二的事物前。如： the earth, the moon, the sun. 5、用在序数词和形容词最高级前。 （副词最高级前的定冠词可省略）如： He is always the first to come to school. Bob is the tallest in his class. 6、用在某些专有名词前（由普通名词构成的专用名词） 。如： the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, the Science Museum, the Children?s Palace, the Party 等。 7、用在一些习惯用语中。如： on the day, in the morning (afternoon, evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next year, by the way 等。 8、用在江河湖海、山脉前。如： the Yellow River, the Pacific Ocean, the Alps, the Himalayas 9、用在报刊、杂志前。如： the People?s Daily, the Evening Paper, the Times 泰晤士报。 10、表示某一家人要加定冠词。如：
The Browns are at home to receive visitors today. 布朗一家今天要接待客人。 11、用在形容词前，表某一类人。如： the poor, the wounded, the living, the dead, the rich, the sick 等。 12、定冠词可以表示一事物内部的某处。如： The driver always sits in the front of the bus(car). 三、零冠词（即不用冠词） ： 1、专用名词和不可数名词前。如： China, America, Grade One, Class Two, milk, oil, water, paper, science 等。 2、名词前已有作定语用的 this, that, my, your, some, any 等代词。如： Go down this street. 3、复数名词表示一类人或事物时。如： We are students. I like reading stories. 4、节日、日期、月份、季节前。如： Teachers? Day, Children?s Day, National Day, in summer, in July 等。 Today is New Year?s Day. It is Sunday. March 8 is Women?s Day. 5、在称呼语或表示头衔的名词前，尤其作表语、宾补时。如： What?s the matter, Granny? We elected him monitor. 6、在某些习惯用语中的名词前。如： at noon, at night, at first, at last, at most, at least, by bus(train, air, sea), in bed, in time, in front of, go to school, go to bed, go to college, on foot, at table, in ink, in pencil 等。 7、在三餐饭和球类运动前。如： She goes to school after breakfast every morning. We are going to play football. We usually have lunch at school. 8、科目前不加。如： We learn Chinese, maths, English and some other subjects. 【专项训练】 ： 1、 We can?t live without air. A．an B．× C．the D．some 2、——Have you seen pen? I left it here this morning. ——Is it black one? I think I saw it somewhere. A．a; the B．the; the C．the; a D．a; a 3、I?ve been waiting for him for hour and half. A．×; × B．the; a C．a; the D．an; a 4、What fine weather we have today! A．a B．× C．some D．an 5、Have you ever seen as tall as this one? A．a tree B．such tree C．an tree D．tree 6、Children usually go to school at age of six. A．×; the B．a; an C．the; × D．the; the 7、 Himalayas is highest mountain in world. A．×; the;× B．The; the; the C．A; a; a D．×;×;×
8、They each have __book. Li Hua?s is about writer. Wang Lin?s is on science. A．a; a; × B．the; ×; the C．×; the; × D．a; the; a 9、 Physics is science of matter and energy. A．The; × B．×; × C．×; the D．A; a 10、 sun rises in east and sets in west. A．A; an; a B．The;×;× C．The; the; the D．A; the; a 11、Many people agree that__knowledge of English is a must in international trade today. A．a;× B．the; an C．the; the D．×; the 12、 __Mr Jones called while you were out (neither of us knows this man). He was in bad temper. A．×;a B．A;× C．The; the D．A; a 13、They were at dinner then. It was delicous one. A．a; the B．×;× C．×;a D．a; a 14、what kind of car do you want to buy? A．× B．the C．a D．an 15、Alice is fond of playing piano while Henry is interested in listening to music. A．×; the B．×;× C．the; × D．the; the 16、Beyond stars, the astronaut saw nothing but space. A．the; × B．×; the C．×;× D．the; the 17、Alexander Graham Bell invented telephone in 1876. A．× B．a C．the D．one 18、——Where?s Jack? ——I think he?s still in bed, but he might just be in bathroom. A．×;× B．the; the C．the; × D．×; the 19、Many people are still in habit of writing silly things in public places. A．the; the B．×;× C．the; × D．×; the 20、——I?d like information about the management of your hotel, please. ——Well, you could have word with the manager. He might be helpful. A．some; a B．an; some C．some; some D．an; a 【答案】 ： 1、B air 是不可数名词。 2、 此题为 97 年高考题。 D 根据句意， 第一空是泛指， 第一次出现； 第二空仍是泛指， 且表数量 “－” 。 3、D 元音前用 an。 4、B weather 是不可数名词。 5、A 此题为 85 年高考题。泛指。 6、A go to school 是固定短语。 7、B 山脉、形容词最高级及世界上的唯一的名词前加定冠词。 8、A 第一、二空泛指，第三空，science 是不可数名词。 9、C 第一空，科目前不加冠词；第二空特指，有定语。 10、C 11、A 第一空，a + 不可数名词表具体的介绍；第二空，trade 不可数。 12、D 第一空是指有一位琼斯先生在您不在的时候来访。 （括号里说明，我们俩都不认识这个人，因 此不是特指。 ）第二空是固定短语，情绪不好。 13、C 第一空 at dinner 正在吃饭，固定短语。 14、A 泛指 15、C 此题是 89 年高考题：乐器前加定冠词；music 是不可数名词。 16、A 此题是 90 年高考题：stars 前应加定冠词；space 不可数。
17、C 18、D 19、C 20、A
此题是 91 年高考题：发明应是特指。 此题是 92 年高考题。in bed 是固定短语，不加冠词。 此题是 93 年高考题。第一空后有定语，固是特指。第二空， public places,公共场所，泛指。 此题是 95 年高考题。information 是不可数名词；have a word with sb.是固定短语。 二、名词 Nouns
知识要点： 一、名词的种类： 1、专有名词： 1）China, Japan, Beijing, London, Tom, Jack（不加冠词） 2）the Great Wall, the Yellow River, the People?s Republic of China, the United States 等。 （由普通名词构 成的专有名词，要加定冠词。 ） 2、普通名词： 1）不可数名词 ?
?物质名词： water ， rice ， oil ， paper ? ?抽象名词： health ， trouble ， work ， pleasure ， honor ?
注意：?不可数名词前一般不加冠词，尤不加不定冠词：若加 a(an)则使之具体化了。 如：have a wonderful time. ?不可数名词作主语，谓语动词用第三人称单数形式。 ?不可数名词一般无复数形式。部分物质名词在表不同类别时，可用复数形 式。 如：fishes, newspapers, waters, snows?? | | | | 各种各样的鱼 各种报纸 河湖、海水 积雪 ?有些抽象名词也常用复数，变为可数的具体的事物。如：times 时代，works 著作，difficulties 困难 ?在表数量时，常用“of”词组来表示。如： a glass of milk, a cup of tea, two pieces of paper?. 2）可数名词： ?可数名词除用复数形式表一类之外，一般都要加冠词：A birdcaufly. The frog is a kind of hibernating animal. Vegetables sold at this shop are usually fresh. ?有复数形式： a）规则变化——加“s”或“es” （与初中同，略） b）不规则变化——child (children), foot (feet), tooth (teeth), man (men), woman (women), mouse (mice), goose (geese), Englishman (Englishmen), phenomenon(phenomena)? 注意：c）单、复数同形：sheep, deer, Chinese, Japanese, fish（同一种鱼）??。如， a sheep, two sheep d）只用复数形式： thanks, trousers, goods, clothes, socks, shoes,? e）形复实单：physics, politics, maths, news, plastics（塑料） ，means. f）形单实复：people (人民，人们） ，the police, cattle 等 g）集合名词如：family, public, group, class 等。当作为整体时，为单数；当作 为整体中的各个成员时，为复数。如： My family is a big one. My family are music lovers. h）复合名词变复数时，a）只把复合名词中的主体各词变为复数形式。如： sister(s)-in-law 嫂子，弟妹；step-son (s)继子；editor (s) -in-chief 总编辑。
b）如没有主体名词则在最后一个词的后面加“s” 。如：grown-up(s)成年人，go-between(s) 中间人 c）woman, man 作定语时，要与被修饰的名词的数一致。如：a man servant—men servants, a woman doctor—women doctors 二、名词的所有格： 1、表有生命的东西（人或动物）的名词所有格，一般在名词后加“?s” 。如：Mike?s bag, Children?s Day, my brother?s room, women?s rights? 注意：1）名词复数的词尾是-s 或-es，它的所有格只在词后加“s” 。如：Teachers? Day, the workers? rest-home（工人疗养院） ，the students? reading-room 2）复合名词的所有格，在后面的词后加“?s” 。如：her son-in-law?s photo（她女婿的照片） ； anybody else?s book（其他任何人的书） 3）如果一样东西为两人或两人以上共有，则在最后的一个名词后面加“?s” ； 如果不是共有，则每个词后都要加“?s” 。如：Jane and Helen?s room. 珍妮和海伦的房间（共有）. Bill?s and Tom?s radios. 比尔的收音机和汤姆的 收音机（不共有） 4）表地点（店铺，某人的家等）的名词所有格后面，一般省去它所修饰的名词。如： the tailor?s (裁缝铺) the doctor?s (诊所) Mr Brown?s (布朗先生的家) 5）有些表时间、距离、国家、城镇的无生命的名词，也可加“?s”表所有格。 如：half an hour?s walk (半小时的路程) China?s agriculture (中国的农业) 2、表示无生命的东西的名词一般与 of 构成词组，表示所有格。如：the cover of the book 3、表示有生命的东西的名词也可以用 of，特别是名词较长，有较多的定语时。如： the story of Dr Norman Bethune Do you know the name of the boy standing at the gate? 4、 “of 词组+所有格”的用法： 在表示所属物的名词前有冠词、 数词、 不定代词或指示代词 （如： two, some, a few, this, that, these, those a, 等）时，常用“of 词组+所有格”的形式来表示所有关系。如： a friend of my father?s 我父亲的一位朋友。 some inventions of Edison?s 爱迪生的一些发明 those exercise-books of the students? 学生们的那些练习本。 【专项训练】 ： 1、There are only twelve in the hospital. A．woman doctors B．women doctors C．women doctor D．woman doctor 2、Mr Smith has two , both of whom are teachers in a school. A．brothers-in-law B．brother-in-laws C．brothers-in-laws D．brothers-in law 3、——How many does a cow have? ——Four. A．stomaches B．stomach C．stomachs D．stomachies 4、Some visited our school last Wednesday. A．German B．Germen C．Germans D．Germens 5、The of the building are covered with lots of . A．roofs; leaves B．rooves; leafs C．roof; leaf D．roofs; leafs 6、When the farmer returned home he found three missing. A．sheeps B．sheepes C．sheep D．sheepies 7、That was a fifty engine.
A．horse power B．horses power C．horse powers D．horses powers 8、My father often gives me . A．many advice B．much advice C．a lot of advices D．a few advice 9、Mary broke a while she was washing up. A．tea cup B．a cup of tea C．tea?s cup D．cup tea 10、Can you give us some about the writer? A．informations B．information C．piece of informations D．pieces information 11、I had a cup of and two pieces of this morning. A．teas; bread B．teas; breads C．tea; breads D．tea; bread 12、As is known to us all, travels much faster than . A．lights; sounds B．light; sound C．sound; light D．sounds; lights 13、She told him of all her and . A．hope; fear B．hopes; fear C．hopes; fears D．hope; fears 14、The rising did a lot of to the crops. A．water; harm B．water; harms C．waters; harm D．waters; harms 15、——How far away is it from here to your school? ——It?s about . A．half an hour?s drive B．half hours drives C．half an hour drives D．half an hour drive 16、The shirt isn?t mine. It?s . A．Mrs Smith B．Mrs? Smith C．Mrs Smiths? D．Mrs Smith?s 17、Miss Johnson is a friend of . A．Mary?s mother B．Mary?s mothers? C．Mary mother?s D．Mary?s mother?s 18、Last week I called at my . A．aunt B．aunts C．aunt?s D．auntes? 19、The beach is a throw. A．stone B．stones C．stones? D．stone?s 20、I can hardly imagine sailing across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A．Peter? B．Peter C．Peters D．Peters? 【答案】 ： 1、B 2、A 3、C stomach（胃）虽是“ch”结尾，但其发音为[k]，所以加“s” ，不用加“es” 。 4、C 5、A roof, chief, gulf, belief 等词的复数形式，直接加“s” 。 6、C 7、A 名词作定语一般不用复数。8、B 9、A 根据句意，打破的应是杯子，而不是茶；名词作定语表类别不用加“?s” 。 10、B 11、D 12、B 13、C 14、C 15、A 16、D 根据上句，此处应是史密斯太太的衬衫。 17、D 18、C 19、D a stone?s throw 是固定短语，意为“近在咫尺” 。
20、B 此句中 Peter 作动名词 sailing 的所有格，本应用 Peter?s，但因其在动词后作宾语，所以可用 宾格，因此 B 为正确答案。 三、主谓一致 Agreement 知识要点： 在英语的句子中，谓语动词的形式应与主语的人称和数保持一致。如何判定，则要看句子的意思。多 数情况下，根据句子的主语形式就能判定，但有的则要看整句的意思，及强调的内容。下面我们就常用的、 易混的几种情况作一下解释。 1、以单数名词或代词、不定式、动名词短语或从句作主语时，谓语动词要用单数形式。如： 1）The book is on the table. 2）He is reading English. 3）To work hard is necessary.（It is necessary to work hard.） 4）How you get there is a problem. 2、复数主语跟复数动词。如： Children like to play toys. 3、在倒装句中，动词的数应和它后面的主语的数一致。如以 here,there 开头，be 动词与后面第一个 名词一致。如： 1）There is a dog near the door. 2）There were no schools in this area before liberation. 3）Here comes the bus. 4）On the wall were two famous paintings. 5）Here is Mr Brown and his children. 4、 连接两个或两个以上的并列主语时， and 谓语动词用复数。 如果主语后跟有 with, together with, except, but, perhaps , like, including, as well as, no less than, more than, rather than 等引起的短语，谓语动词仍与短语 前的主语的形式保持一致。如： 1）Jane, Mary and I are good friends. 2）He and my father work in the same factory. 3）His sister, no less than you, is wrong. 4）The father, rather than the brothers, is responsible for the accident. 5）He, like you and Xiao Liu is very diligent. 6）Every picture except these two has been sold. 7）Alice with her parents often goes to the park on Sundays. 8）Alice as well as her friends was invited to the concert. 9）Nobody but Mary and I was in the classroom at that time. 5、并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时，谓语动词用单数，and 后面的名词没有冠 词。如： 1）The writer and worker is coming to our school tomorrow. 这位工人作家明天要来我们学校。 2）Bread and butter is their daily food. 面包和黄油是他们每日的食品。 3）The writer and the worker are coming to our school tomorrow. 那位作家和那位工人明天将来我们学校。 （两个人） 6、and 连接的并列单数名词前如有 each, every, no, many a 修饰时，谓语动词要用单数形式。如： 1）Every boy and girl has been invited to the party. 所有的孩子都被邀请参加这次聚会。 2）No teacher and no student is absent today. 今天没有老师和学生缺席。
3）Many a student is busy with their lessons. 许许多多的学生都忙着复习他们的功课。 7、each, either, one, another, the other, neither 作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。如： 1）Each takes a cup of tea. 2）Either is correct. 3）Neither of them likes this picture. 8、由 every, some, any, no 构成的合成代词作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。如： 1）Is everyone here? 2）Nothing is to be done. 没有什么要干的事儿了。 9、关系代词 who, that, which 等在定语从句中作主语时，其谓语动词的数应与句中先行词的数一致。 如： 1）Those who want to go please sign their names here. 2）Anyone who is against this opinion may speak out. 3）He is one of the students who were praised at the meeting. 10、表示时间、距离、价格、度量衡等的复数名词或短语作为一个整体看待时，其谓语动词常用单数 形式。如： 1）Three years is not a long time. 2）Ten dollars is what he needs. 3）Five hundred miles is a long distance. 11、复数形式的专有名词作为整体看待（如人名、地点、国家、组织、书籍、报刊等） ，动词用单数 形式。如： 1）The United States is in North America. 2）The United Nations has passed a resolution(决议)。 3） “The Arabian Nights”《天方夜谭》 an interesting book. （ ）is 12、有些集体名词如 family, team, group, class, audience（听众，观众） ，government 等作主语时，如看 作是一个整体，谓语动词则用单数形式；如强调各个成员时，谓语动词要用复数形式。如： 1）My family is going to have a long journey. 我家要进行一次长途旅行。 2）My family are fond of music. 我家人都喜欢音乐。 3）The class has won the honour. 这班获得了荣誉。 4）The class were jumping for joy. 全班同学都高兴得跳了起来。 13、all, more, most, some, any, none, half, the rest 等作主语时，既可表示复数意义，也可表示单数意义， 谓语动词要根据实际情况而定。如： 1）All of the apple is rotten. 整个苹果都烂了。 2）All of the apples are rotten. 所有的苹果都烂了。 3）Most of the wood was used to make furniture (家具)。 14、the + 形容词（或分词）作主语时，常指一类人，谓语动词用复数形式。如指的是抽象概念，谓 语动词则用单数形式。如： 1）The young are usually very active. 年轻人通常是很活跃的。 2）The wounded are being taken good care of here now. 现在伤病员们在这里受到了很好照顾。 15、or, either?or?, neither?nor?, whether?or, not only?but (also)连接的是主语，谓语动词与后一个 主语一致。如：
1）Either you or I am going to the movies. 2）Not only you but also he is wrong. 16、不可数名词没有复数形式，作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。如： 1）Water is a kind of matter. 2）The news at six o?clock is true. 17、集合名词如：people, police ,cattle 等作主语，谓语动词用复数形式。如： 1）The police are searching for him. 2）The cattle are grassing (吃草)。 18、population 当人口讲时，谓语动词用单数形式；当人们讲时，谓语动词用复数。如： 1）The population of China is larger than that of Japan. 2）One third of the population here are workers. 19、the number of + 名词复数，是表示“?的数字” ，作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式；a (large / great) number of + 名词复数，表示许多，作主语时；谓语动词用复数形式。 1）The number of the students in our school is increasing year after year. 2）A number of students have gone for an outing. 20、means, politics, physics, plastics 等作主语时，谓语动词用单数形式。 【专项训练】 1、Nothing but cars in the shop. A．is sold B．are sold C．were sold D．are going to sell 2、No one except Jack and Tom the answer. A．know B．knows C．is knowing D．are known 3、Seventy percent of the students in our school from the countryside. A．is B．are C．comes D．are coming 4、 of the money used up. A．Three-five, are B．Three-fifths, have been C．Three-fifths, has been D．Third-fifths, is 5、The number of the people who cars increasing. A．owns, are B．owns, is C．own, is D．own, are 6、One of Marx?s works written in English in the 1860s. A．was B．were C．would be D．are 7、The sheets for your bed washing. A．needs B．are needing C．want D．are wanting 8、On each side of the street a lot of trees. A．stands B．grow C．is standingD．are grown 9、Some person calling for you at the gate. A．are B．is C．is being D．will be 10、All that can be eaten eaten up. A．are being B．has been C．had been D．have been 11、Tom?s teacher and friend Mr. Smith. A．are B．is C．are being D．has 12、Your new clothes fit you, but mine me. A．doesn?t fit B．don?t fit C．doesn?t fit for D．don?t fit for 13、Neither he nor I for the plan. A．am B．are C．is D．were 14、Many a student that mistake before. A．has made B．have made C．has been made D．had made
15、Peter, perhaps John, playing with the little dog. A．is B．are C．were D．seems 16、Laying eggs the ant queen?s full-time job. A．is B．are C．has D．have 17、Between the two buildings a monument. A．stand B．stands C．standing D．is standing 18、I, who your good friend, will share your joys and sorrow. A．am B．is C．are D．was 19、The United Nations in 1945. A．were found B．were founded C．was founded D．was found 20、 were also invited to the party. A．Mr Smith B．The Smith C．The Smiths D．Smiths 21、The glass works in 1959. A．were set up B．was set up C．were put up D．were built 22、Three hours with your girl friend to be a short time. A．seem B．seems C．is seeming D．has seemed 23、It was reported that six including a boy. A．was killed B．were killed C．was killing D．had killed 24、The police a prisoner. A．is searching for B．are searching forC．is searching D．are searched for 25、Deer faster than dogs. A．run B．runs C．are running D．will run 26、The wounded good care of here now. A．is taken B．are being taken C．are taking D．is taking 27、The whole class greatly moved at his words. A．was B．were C．had D．is 28、Over 80 percent of the population of China peasants. A．was B．is C．are D．will be 29、There a knife and fork on the table. A．seems to be B．seem to be C．is seeming to be D．are 30、Those who singing may join us. A．are liking B．likes C．enjoy D．is fond of 31、His family music lovers. A．all are B．are all C．is D．are being 32、A professor and a writer present at the meeting. A．was B．is C．were D．had been 33、The pair of shoes worn out. A．was B．were C．have been D．had been 34、The students in our school each an English dictionary. A．have B．has C．had D．are having 35、More than one answer to the question. A．have been given B．has been given C．were given D．had given 36、The boy sitting by the window is the only one of the students who from the countryside in our school. A．are B．is C．were D．was 37、Our family a happy one. A．is B．are C．was D．were
38、Most of the mistakes because of carelessness. A．were made B．are made C．has been made D．were making 39、Most of his time in reading novels. A．are spent B．is spent C．were spentD．was spending 40、The rest of the novel very interesting. A．were B．are C．is D．seem 41、I know that all getting on well with her. A．was B．is C．are D．were 42、When and where this took place still unknown. A．are B．were C．is D．has 43、Not only the workers but also the machine not there. A．are B．were C．is D．has 44、Very few his address in the town. A．knows B．know C．are knowing D．has known 45、Ten thousand dollars a large sum of money. A．are B．is C．were D．seem 46、Twenty miles a long way to cover. A．were B．are C．is D．seem to be 47、Nine plus three twelve. A．makes B．make C．is making D．are making 48、There are two roads and either to the station. A．leads B．lead C．are leading D．is leading 49、My father, together with some of his old friends, there already. A．have been B．has been C．had been D．will be 50、My family as well as I glad to see you. A．am B．are C．is D．was 【答案】 ： 1、A 因有连词 but，所以谓语形式跟 Nothing 一致，用第三人称单数。见讲解 4。 2、B 同上 3、B 见讲解 2。 4、C 见讲解 16。 5、C 定语从句看被修饰的先行词：the number of 作主语用单数形式。见讲解 9，19。 6、A 见讲解 1。 7、C 见讲解 2。 8、B 倒装句，要看后面的主语。见讲解 3。 9、B some person 指“某人”是第三人称单数。见讲解 13。 10、B 主语“all”指的是“food” ，所以代不可数名词，是第三人称单数。见讲解 13。 11、B Tom?s teacher and friend，因 friend 前没有冠词，所以实际指的是同一个人。 见讲解 5。 12、B 根据前一分句的意思，第二分句中的 mine 指的是“my new clothes” ，因 此主语是复数。 13、A neither?nor?连接主语，动词与后面的主语保持一致。见讲解 15。 14、A 见讲解 6。 15、A 见讲解 4。 16、A 见讲解 1，动名词作主语。 17、B 倒装，见 讲解 3。 18、A 见讲解 9。 19、C 见讲解 11。 20、C 因谓语动词是复数，所主语应是复，The Smiths 是指史密斯一家人。 21、B works 在此句中是指工厂，所以是单数。 22、B 见讲解 10。 23、B six 在这儿指的是人，因此用复数形式。 24、B 见讲解 17。 25、A deer, sheep 是单、复数同形，根据后面的 dogs，前面的 deer 应是复数（单 数 前 应 有 a ） 。 26、B 见讲解 14。 27、B 见讲解 12，因人才能受感动，所以 the whole class 是指全班的成员。 28、C 见讲解 18。 29、A 见讲解 5。刀、叉是一副而论，所以看作单数。 30、C 见讲解 9。 31、B 见讲解 12。 32、C 见讲解 4，注意与第 11 题比较。 33、A 因此句主语是 pair，所以用单数。
34、A 因此句主语是 the students，所以用复数。如果 each 作主语，谓语动词则用第 三 人 称 单 数 形 式。如：Each of the students / Each student has an English dictionary. 35、B 此句中的主语是 one answer，所以谓语动词应与它保持一致。 36、B 根据句意，这个男孩是学校中唯一来自农村的学生，自然后面的定语从句 的主语是单数，所 以谓语动词用单数形式，又因主从句时态保持一致，故 B 是唯一正确答案。 37、A 见讲解 12。 38、A 见讲解 2。39、B 见讲解 16。 40、C 这部小说的剩余部分，还没超出“一” ，用单数。 41、C 见讲解 13，不定代词 all 在此句中代“与她相处的人” ，所以是复数。 42、C 见讲解 1，when and where this took place 是一个从句。 43、C 见讲解 15。 44、B few 在此代人，是复数。 45、B 见讲解 10。 46、C 同上。 47、A 同上。 48、A 见讲解 7。 49、B 见讲解 4。 50、B 同上。 四、虚 拟 语 气
艺考生的救命稻草！ 突破 130 分，快速提高 30 分的锦囊妙计！ 6 步搞定任何高考英语阅读真题，一般人不告诉他（她）！
2013 吴军高考英语阅读理解 3 天提分秘术
众说周知，得阅读、完形者得天下！ 文章看没看懂不重要，关键是要选对！ 高考英语阅读的核心暗示点：词和短语！ 题目（或题干）有暗示，秘笈为你精准导航！ 选项与出题点之间存在逻辑关系，3 天帮您梳理！ 速度比完美更重要，思路比题海要有效！
2013 高考英语阅读 3 天提分秘术， 既不是神人的牛 B 押题，也不是最牛高考班的密卷！ 而是沈阳高分英语家教吴军老师从 2000-2012 年 2700 多篇高考英语阅读真题答案内幕规律衍 生出的迅捷提分秘诀！ 2013 高考英语阅读 3 天提分秘术是纸质的解析讲解类自学教案，而不是如同上大课般的 名师讲座光盘（如高分突破，提分宝典，四步兵法，高频考点等），你可以站着，躺着，甚 至在卫生间里也可以阅读自学！ 立竿见影！以一顶百！9 年来我们在自我独门秘笈的基础上，20%参阅了 132 种全国知名 高考英语教案或资料（如：新东方，张清波，北京四中李俊和，管卫东，提分宝典，高频考 点等） 。但发现很多名师教案与高考提分关联度小，因为相当一部分名师只是把自己在考研和 雅思领域的研究成果生搬硬套到高考英语教学中（讲述的高频词汇严重超纲，甚至是大学 6
级的） ，而不是深入到 2700 篇历届阅读真题中潜心研究，效果可想而知。还有些重点高中一 线老师，将自己上课用的教案制作成光盘用以贩卖，其实质不过是高频考点和词汇的串讲， 有的甚至用 35%的篇章讲述如何记忆单词，而广告却说是提分秘笈，真是让人遗憾！ 好消息！吴军老师 2012 高考英语 3 天提分秘诀仅释放了其 30%的功力，就达到了 90% 以上的客户满意度，为了配合文科其他科目的上市，2013 年吴军高考英语将释放其 70%的功 力，2013 年高考英语提分速度和幅度将再升一倍，看完下列示例后，还不赶紧抢购呀！
目录： 一、2013 阅读吴军猜题秘术: 备选项高频答案特征 二、2013 阅读吴军暗示点秒杀: 备选项高频答案词 三、擒贼先擒王:主旨题、写作目的题吴军答题密码 四、阅读出题点与细节题吴军答题法则 五、阅读文章结构、题材与推论题吴军突破秘诀 六、阅读词汇、文章及作者态度题吴军破解规律
2013 阅读吴军猜题秘术: 备选项高频答案特征（10 条秘诀）
【2010 辽宁卷 B 篇】I hated dinner parties. But I decided to give them another shot because I'm in London. And my friend Mallery invited me. And because dinner parties in London are very different from those back in New York. There, “I?m having a dinner party' means: "I'm booking a table for 12 at a restaurant you can't afford ' and we'll be sharing the checque evenly, no matter what you eat." Worse, in Manhattan there is always someone who leaves before the bill arrives. They'll throw down cash, half of what they owe, and then people like me, who don?t drink, end up paying even more. But if I try to use the same trick, the hostess will shout: "Where are you going?" And it's not like I can say I have somewhere to go: everyone know I have nowhere to go. But in London, dinner parties are in people's homes.(转折对比,说明前面 New Yorkers 评价是 Self-centred.) Not only that, the guests are an interesting mix. The last time I went to one, the guests were from France, India. Denmark and Nigeria; it was like a gathering at the United Nations in New York. The mix is less striking. It's like a gathering at Bloomingdale's, a well-known department store. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61. What does the writer dislike most about dinner parties in New York? A There is a strange mix of people. B. The restaurants are expensive.
C. The bill is not fairly shared.
D. People have to pay cash
63. What is the author's opinion of some New Yorkers from her experience？ A. Easy-going. B. Self-centred. C. Generous. D. Conservative.
【2012 四川卷 E 篇】 far, efforts to cut emissions 排放） planet-warming greenhouse gases are not seen So （ of as enough to prevent the Earth heating up beyond 2℃ this century — a point scientists say will bring the danger of a changeable climate in which weather extremes are common, leading to drought, floods, crop failures and rising sea levels. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------60. What can be inferred from the last two paragraphs about the world’s temperature? A. It has risen nearly 0.2℃ since 1979. B. Its change will lead to weather extremes. C. It is 0.8℃ higher in 1979 than that of 1990. D. It needs to be controlled within 2℃ in this century.
【2012 四川卷 A 篇】The seasons change just outside the door. We watch the maples turn every shade of yellow and red in the fall and note the poplars?（杨树）putting out the first green leaves of spring. The rainbow smelt fills the local steam as the ice gradually disappears, and the wood frogs start to sing in pools after being frozen for the winter. A family of birds rules our skies and flies over the lake. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------43. What does the underlined sentence in the last paragraph mean? A. The change of seasons is easily felt. B. The seasons make the scenes change. C. The weather often changes in the forest. D. The door is a good position to enjoy changing seasons.
【2012 陕西卷 C 篇】 authors of both studies stress that these risks are relatively small for healthy people The and certainly modest compared with other risk factors such as smoking and high blood pressure. However, it is important to be aware of these dangers because everyone is exposed to air pollution regardless of lifestyle choices. So stricter regulation by the EPA of pollutants may not only improve environmental air quality but could also become necessary to protect public health. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------55. What can we learn from the text? A. Eating fatty food has immediate effects on your heart. B. The EPA conducted many studies on air quality. C. Moderate air quality is more harmful than smoking, D. Stricter regulations on pollutants should be made.
【2012 江西卷 D 篇】For those who make journeys across the world, the speed of travel today has turned the countries into a series of villages．Distances between them appear no greater to a modern traveler than those which once faced men as they walked from village to village. Jet plane fly people from one end of the earth to the other, allowing them a freedom of movement undreamt of a hundred years ago. Yet some people wonder if the revolution in travel has gone too far. A price has been paid, they say, for the conquest (征服) of time and distance. Travel is something to be enjoyed, not endured (忍受). The boat offers leisure and time enough to appreciate the ever-changing sights and sounds of a journey. A journey by train also has a special charm about it. Lakes and forests and wild, open plains sweeping past your carriage window create a grand view in which time and distance mean nothing. On board a plane, however, there is just the blank blue of the sky filling the narrow window of the airplane. The soft lighting, in-flight films and gentle music make up the only world you know, and the hours progress slowly. Then there is the time spent being “processed” at a modern airport. People are conveyed like robots along walkways; baggage is weighed, tickets produced, examined and produced yet again before the passenger move again to another waiting area. Journeys by rail and sea take longer, yes, but the hours devoted to being “processed” at departure and arrival in airports are luckily absent. No wonder, then, that the modern high-speed trains are winning back passengers from the airlines. Man, however, is now a world traveler and can not turn his back on the airplane. The working lives of too many people depend upon it; whole new industries have been built around its design and operation. The holiday maker, too, with limited time to spend, patiently endures the busy airports and limited space of the flight to gain those extra hours and even days, relaxing in the sun. speed controls people?s lives; time saved, in work or play, is the important thing—or so we are told. Perhaps those first horsemen, riding free across the wild, open plains, were enjoying a better world than the one we know today. They could travel at will, and the clock was not their master. -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73.According to Paragraph3, passengers are turning back to modern high-speed trains because_____． A.they pay less for the tickets B.they feel safer during the travel C.they can enjoy higher speed of travel D.they don?t have to waste time being “processed” 75.What is the main idea of the passage? A.Air travel benefits people and industries． B.Train Travel has some advantages over air travel． C.Great changes have taken place in modern travel. D.The high speed of air travel is gained at a cost.
2013 阅读吴军暗示点秒杀: 备选项高频答案词（17 项不到 90 个单词）
秘诀 9：lead to
【2012 浙江卷 C 篇】
(result in, bring about, cause)是选项中答案高频暗示词!
First of all, students need to realize that conflict is unavoidable. A report on violence among middle school and high school students indicates that most violent incidents between students begin with a relatively minor insult (侮辱). For example, a fight could start over the fact that one student eats a peanut butter sandwich each lunchtime. Laughter over the sandwich can lead to insults, which in turn can lead to violence. The problem isn't in the sandwich, but in the way students deal with the conflict. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------51. From Paragraph 2 we can learn that________ . A. violence is more likely to occur at lunchtime B. a small conflict can lead to violence C. students tend to lose their temper easily D. the eating habit of a student is often the cause of a fight 具体! 具体!
【 2011 湖 北 卷 D 篇 】 our own generation has access to more nutritious food .more convenient transport .bigger houses, better ears .and of course, more pounds and dollars than any who lived before us .This will continue as long as we there things to make other things, This more we specialize and exchange, the better off we?ll be. 2) Brilliant advances One reason we are richer, healthier, taller, cleverer, longer-lived and freer than ener before is that the four most basie human needs -food, clothing, fuel and shelter- have grown a lot cheaper. Take one example. In 1800 a candle providing one hour?s light cost six hours? work. In the 1880s the same light from an oil lamp took 15 minutes? work to pay for. In 1950 it was eight seconds. Today it?s half second. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------65. The candle and lamp example is used to show that A. oil lamps give off more light than candles B. shortening working time brings about a happier life. C. advanced technology helps to produce better candles. D. increased production rate leads to lower cost of goods. .
Control (handle, deal with )是选项中答案高频暗示词!
【2012 天津卷 D 篇】 Those who choose to be creators look at life quite differently. They know there are individuals who might like to control their lives, but they don?t let this get in the way. They know they have their weaknesses, yet they don?t blame themselves when they fail. Whatever happens, they have choice in the matter. They believe their dance with each sacred(神圣的)moment of life is a gift and that storms are a natural part of life which can bring the rain needed for emotional and spiritual growth. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------52. According to Paragraph 2, creators __________.
A. seem willing to experience failures in life C. handle ups and downs of life wisely
B. possess the ability to predict future life D. have potential to create something new
【2012 山东卷 D 篇】 Last year, it was a refrigerator that tweeted. This year, it?s Wi-Fi-enabled laundry machines and fridges that can tell you when your groceries are going bad. The washers and dryers, available starting in the spring, connect to any smartphone through a downloadable application. The phone can then be used as a remote control, so the machines can be turned on and off while their owners is at work or on the bus. Samsung says it?s not just something new — the app connection actually has some practical uses. “If you started to dry clothes in the morning and forgot to take them out, you can go to your phone and restart your dryer for the time when come home, so your clothes are refreshed and ready to go,” said spokesperson Amy Schmidt. The company also says that with electricity rate(电价)varying depending on the time of day, more control over when the machines are used can help save money. Perhaps, but what they will probably really accomplish is what all good technologies do —enable laziness. Rather than getting up to check on whether the laundry is done, users will instead monitor it on their phones while watching TV. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------73. What can we learn about the new laundry machines? A. They can tell you when your clothes need washing B. They can be controlled with a smartphone C. They are difficult to operate D. They are sold at a low price
(missing) ; lose (lost)是选项中答案高频暗示词!
【2011 全国新课标卷 A 篇】 There is sadly no home milk delivery today. Big companies allowed the production of cheaper milk thus making it difficult for milkmen to compete (竞争). Besides, milk is for sale everywhere, and it may just not have been practiced to have a delivery service. Recently, an old milk box in the countryside I saw brought back my childhood memories. 1 took it home and planted it on the back porch (门廊). Every so often my son's friends will ask what it is. So I start telling stories of my boyhood, and of the milkman who brought us friendship along with his milk. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------59. Why did the author bring back home an old milk box? A. He missed the good old days. B. He wanted to tell interesting stories.
C. He needed it for his milk bottles.
D. He planted flowers in it.
【2010 江西卷 A 篇】 Andy rode slowly on his way to school, day-dreaming about the fishing trip that his father had promised him. He was so busy dreaming about all the fish he would catch that he was unaware of everything else around him. He rode along until a strange sound drew him to the present. He came to a stop and looked curiously up to the heavens. What he saw shocked and terrified him. A huge swarm of bees filled the sky like a black cloud and the buzzing mass seemed to be heading angrily towards him. With no time to waste, Andy sped off in the opposite direction, riding furiously—but without knowing how to escape the swarm. With a rapidly beating heart and his legs pumping furiously, he sped down the rough road. As the bees came closer, his panic increased. Andy knew that he was sensitive to bee stings(蜇). The last sting had landed him in hospital—and that was only one bee sting! He had been forced to stay in bed for two whole days. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------56. Why did Andy fail to notice the swarm of bees earlier? A. He was riding to school. B. He was listening to a strange sound. C. He was going fishing with his father. D. He was lost in the thought of the fishing trip.
方法一：找中心句 第一段首、末句(一段末出现转折) 二段一句、二句(二段对一段进行总结或否定) 尾段首末句, 90%在末句
【2012 全国新课标卷 B 篇】 Honey(蜂蜜)from the African forest is not only a kind of natural sugar, it is also delicious. Most people, and many animals, like eating it. However, the only way for them to get that honey is to find a wild bees' nest(巢)and take the honey from it. Often, these nests are high up in trees, and it is difficult to find them. In parts of Africa, though, people and animals looking for honey have a strange and unexpected helper 一 a little bird called a honey
guide. The honey guide does not actually like honey, but it does like the wax (蜂蜡) in the beehives (蜂房). The little bird cannot reach this wax, which is deep inside the bees? nest. So, when it finds a suitable nest, it looks for someone to help it. The honey guide gives a loud cry that attracts the attention of both passing animals and people. Once it has their attention, it flies through the forest, waiting from time to time for the curious animal or person as it leads them to the nest. When they finally arrive at the nest, the follower reaches in to get at the delicious honey as the bird patiently waits and watches. Some of the honey, and the wax, always falls to the ground, and this is when the honey guide takes its share. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------63. What can be the best title for the text? A. Wild Bees C. Beekeeping in Africa B. Wax and Honey D. Honey-Lover's Helper
yet, however, instead,today,now,Although,so, therefore,
thus, as a result, because(since,as,for), one of the reasons was……, The results are……
It was a village in India. The people were poor. However, they were not unhappy. After all , their forefathers had lived in the same way for centuries. Then one day, some visitors from the city arrived . They told the villagers there were some people elsewhere who liked to eat frog?s legs. However, they did not have enough frogs of their own, and so they wanted to buy frogs from other places. This seemed like money for nothing . There were millions of frogs in the fields around, and they were no use to the villagers. All they had to do was catch them . Agreement was reached, and the children were sent into the fields to catch frogs. Every week a truck arrived to collect the catch and hand over the money. For the first time ,the people were able to dream of a better future. But the dream didn?t last long. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------From Paragragh 1 we learn that the villagers A.worked very hard for centuries C.were poor but somewhat content 【2012 全国新课标 D 篇】 Grown-ups are often surprised by how well they remember something they learned as children but have
B.dreamed of having a better life D.lived a different life from their forefathers
never practiced still swim as well as ever since. A man when he gets back who has not had a chance to go swimming for years can in the water. He can get on a bicycle after many years and still ride away. He can play catch and hit a ball as well as his son. A mother who has not thought about the words for years can teach her daughter the poem that begins "Twinkle, twinkle, little star"。remember the story of Cinderella or Goldilocks and the Three Bears. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67. What is the main idea of paragraph 1? A. People remember well what they learned in childhood. B. Children have a better memory than grown-ups. C. Poem reading is a good way to learn words. D. Stories for children are easy to remember.
【2012 重庆卷 E 篇】 In his 1930 essay “Economic Possibilities for Our Grandchildren “, John Keynes, economist, rewrote that human needs fall into two classes: absolute needs ,which are indeed what other have , and relative needs ,which make us feel superior to our fellows. He thought although relative needs may indeed be insatiable (无止境的) this is not true of absolute. Keynes was surely correct that only a small part of total spending id decided by the super- iority He was greatly mistaken, however, in seeing this derive as the only source of demands Decisions to spend are also driven by ideas of quality which can influence the den almost all goods, including even basic goods like food. When a couple goes out for an dinner, for example, the thought of feeling superior to others probably never comes to them. The goal is to share a special meal that stands out from other meals. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------75.The author of the passage argues that ______. A. absolute needs have no limits B. demands for quality are not insatiable C. human desires influence ideas of quality D. relative needs decide most of our spending 【2012 陕西卷 C 篇】 Eating too much fatty food, exercising too little and smoking can raise your future risk of heart disease. But there is another factor that can cause your heart problems more immediately: the air you breathe. Previous studies have linked high exposure (暴露）to environmental pollution to an increased risk of heart
problem, but two analyses now show that poor air quality can lead to heart attack or stroke (中风）within as little as a few hours after exposure. In one review of the research, scientists found that people exposed to high levels of pollutants (污染物）were up to 5% more likely to suffer a heart attack within days of exposure than those with lower exposure. A separate study of stroke patients showed that even air that the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers to be of “moderate” (良好）quality and relatively safe for our health can raise the risk of stroke as much as 34% within 12 to 14 hours of exposure. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53. The text mainly discusses the relationship between A. heart problems and air quality C. heart problems and smoking .
B. heart problems and exercising D. heart problems and fatty food
写作目的题秘诀 13：广告文体写作目的题一般用 advertise!
【2012 重庆卷 B 篇】Top lists are lecturing people on everything from"100 books to read ". Aren't you just tired of being told what to do with your time? Now you have a list to end all lists! Take a look at the following two examples from the list of "101 things not to do": …… Go to See the Mona Lisa? There must be something about the mysterious(神秘的)smile. The 6 million people who the lady in the Louvre every year can?t all be wrong after all. But they can be quite and standing in front of you, holding up their cameras to prevent you from seeing anything. In fact hard for you to see the painting clearly because you have to stay away from it for security read. After queuing for hours, many tourists can remain in front of the painting only for 15 seconds most. So, still long to see the Mona Lisa? If you want to find out more about the list, read 101 Tings NOT to Do Before You Die. Visit www.not2dobeforeidie.co.uk and buy the book at a 20％ discount. 63. What is the main purpose of the passage? A. To advertise a book C. To comment on popular lists B. To introduce a website D. To recommend tourist activities.
写作目的题秘诀 17：一般说明文写作目的题常用 inform!
【2012 浙江卷 C 篇】 There will always be conflict in schools, but that doesn't mean there needs to be violence. After students in Atlanta started a conflict resolution program, according to Educators for Social Responsibility, "64 percent of the teachers reported less physical violence in the classroom; 75 percent of the teachers reported an increase in student cooperation; and 92 percent of the students felt better about themselves". Learning to resolve conflicts can help students deal with friends,. teachers. parents, bosses, and coworkers. In that way, conflict resolution is a basic
life skill that should be taught in schools across the country. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------54. The writer?s purpose for writing this article is to_______. A. complain about problems in school education B. teach students different strategies for school life C. advocate teaching conflict management in schools D. inform teachers of the latest studies on school violence But 后面 violence 是重心！
写作目的题秘诀 18：新闻报道写作目的题常用 report!
【2012 全国 II 卷 D 篇】 ADDIS ABABA, Ethiopia - One of the world's most famous fossils (化石) - the 3.2 million-year-old Lucy skeleton ( 骨骼 ) unearthed in Ethiopia in 1974 - will go on an exhibition tour abroad for the first time in the United States, officials said Tuesday. Even the Ethiopian public has only seen Lucy twice. The Lucy on exhibition at the Ethiopian National Museum in the capital. Addis Ababa is a replica while the real remains are usually locked in a secret storeroom. A team from the Museum of National Service in to U.S. tour. Texas spent four years disscusing with the Ethiopians for the U.S. tour. Which will start in Houston next September. "Ethiopia's rich culture of both the past and today, is one of the best kept secrets in the world,"said Joel Bartsch, director of the Houston museum. The six-year tour will also go to Washington, New York. Denver and Chicago. Officials said six other U.S. cities may be on the tour. But they said plans had not yet been worked out. Traveling with Lucy will be 190 other fossils. Lucy, her name taken from a Beatles song that played in a camp the night of her discovery, is part of the skeleton of what was once a 3?-foot-ball ape-man (猿人). ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------53. The author writes this text mainly to _ A. introduce a few U.S. museums C. discuss the value of an ape-man _. B. describe some research work D. report a coming event
秘诀 9：找到信息点后核对选项，发现照抄原文的不是答案，同义替换的通常是答案， 有时结合答案特征，发现的更快！
Tanni?s enduring success had been part motivation(动机), part preparation, “The training I do that enables me to be a good sprinter(短跑运动员) enables me to be good at a marathon too. I train 50 weeks of the year and that keeps me prepared for whatever distance I want to race…. I am still competing at a very high lever, but as I get older things get harder and I want to retire before I fall apart.” ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------22
58. The underlined word “that” in the 5th paragraph refers to _______. （此题容易错选 A ，但正确答案是 C ，怎样避开陷阱？） A. fifty weeks? training C. training almost every day B. being a good sprinter D. part motivation and part preparation
推论题秘诀 3： 没有中心句（中心词四选项都有） ，尾段也没有核对点，则找出题点核对！
【2012 福建卷 B 篇】 At exactly eleven Sir Percival knocked and entered, with anxiety and worry in every line of his face. This meeting would decide his future life，and he obviously knew it. "You may wonder, Sir Percival,?? said Laura calmly, “if I am going to ask to be released (免除）from my promise to marry you. I am not going to ask this. I respect my father's wishes too much.“ 核对点！ His face relaxed a little, but one of his feet kept beating the carpet. "No, if we are going to withdraw.(退出）from our planned marriage, it will be because of your wish, not mine. “Mine?” he said in great surprise. “What reason could I have for withdrawing?? "A reason that is very hard to tell you," she answered. "There is a change in me. ” His face went so pale that even his lips lost their color. He turned his head to one side. "What change?" he asked, trying to appear calm. “ When the promise was made two years ago, ” she said, my love did not belong to anyone. Will you forgive me, Sir Percival, if I tell you that it now belongs to another person?” “I wish you to understand, “ Laura continued, “that I will never see this person again, and that if you leave me, you only allow mc to remain a single woman for the rest of my life. All I ask is that you forgive mc and keep my secret." ?I will do both those things, “ he said. Then he looked at Laura, as if he was waiting to hear more. "I think I have said enough to give you reason to withdraw from our marriage, “ she added quietly. “ No. You have said enough to make it the dearest wish of my life to marry you, “ he said. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------61. We can learn from the passage that . 汉语标注处是出题
A. Laura had once promised to marry Percival B. Laura's father wished to end her marriage C. Percival had been married to Laura for two years
D. Percival asked to be released from the marriage
文章取材题秘诀 5：若首段有小括号,里面有新华,搜狐,网易,新浪,路透,BBC 等提示,如 (XINHUA NET),或每段首句有具体时间信息点,则选项一定与 news 有关!
【2012 辽宁卷 C 篇】 If Confucius（孔子）were still alive today and could celebrate his September 28 birthday with a big cake, there would be a lot of candles.He?d need a fan or a strong wind to help him put them out. While many people in China will remember Confucius on his special day, few people in the United States will give him a passing thought. It?s nothing personal. Most Americans don?t even remember the birthdays of their own national heroes. But this doesn?t mean that Americans don?t care about Confucius. In many ways he has become a bridge that foreigners must cross if they want to reach a deeper understanding of China. In the past two decades, the Chinese studies programs have gained huge popularity in Western universities. More recently, the Chinese government has set up Confucius Institutes in more than 80 countries. These schools teach both Chinese language and culture. The main courses of Chinese culture usually included Chinese art, history and philosophy（哲学）.Some social scientists suggest that Westerners should take advantages of the ancient Chinese wisdom to make up for the drawbacks of Westerners philosophy. Students in the United States, at the same time, are racing to learn Chinese. So they will be ready for life in a world where China is an equal power with the United States. Businessmen who hope to make money in China are reading books about Confucius to understand their Chinese customers. So the old thinker?s ideas are still alive and well. Today China attracts the West more than ever, and it will need more teachers to introduce Confucius and Chinese culture to the West. As for the old thinker, he will not soon be forgotten by people in the West, even if his birthday is. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------67. The passage is likely to appear in ___________. A. a biography C.a newspaper B. a history paper D. a philosophy textbook
文章取材题秘诀 6：文章首尾句看是否有关键信息点,比如 book,可能是书的前言或简 介,若有价格,与钱有关或访问某网站,则可能是广告(advertisement)!
【2010 湖北卷 C 篇】 This brief book is aimed at high school students , but speaks to anyone learning at any stage of life. Its formal ,serious style closely matches its content ,a school-masterly book on schooling .The author , W .H .
Armstrong ,starts with the basics : reading and writing . In his opinion , reading doesn?t just mean recognizing each word on the page ; it means taking in the information,digesting it and incorporating it into oneself just as one digests a sandwich and makes it a part of himself .The goal is to bring the information back to life , not just to treat it as dead facts on paper from dead trees . Reading and writing cannot be completely separated from each other ; in fact ,the aim of reading is to express the information you have got from the text .I?ve seen it again and again ：some-one who can?t express an idea after reading a text is just as ineffective as someone who hasn?t read it at all. Only a third of the book remains after that discussion ,which Armstrong devotes to specific tips for studying languages ,math , science and history . He generally handles these topics thoroughly(透彻地) and equally ,except for some weakness in the science and math sections and a bit too much passion(激情) regarding history to his students , that was a hundred times more than my history teachers ever got across .To my disappointment , in this part of the book he ignores the arts .As a matter of fact ,they demand all the concentration and study that math and science do,though the study differs slightly in kind .Although it?s commonly believed that the arts can only be naturally acquired ,actually ,learning the arts is no more natural than learning French or mathematics. My other comment is that the text aged. The first edition apparently dates to the 1960s—none of the references(参考文献)seem newer than the late 1950s. As a result, the discussion misses the entire computer age. These are small points, though, and don?t affect the main discussion. I recommend it to any student and any teacher, including the self-taught student. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------66. This passage can be classified as________. A. an advertisement C. a feature story B. a book review D. A news report
【2012 北京卷 A 篇】 The Basics of Math—Made Clear Basic Math introduces students to the basic concepts of mathematics, as well as the fundamentals of more tricky areas. These 30 fantastic lectures are designed to provide students with an understanding of arithmetic and to prepare them for Algebra(代数) and beyond. The lessons in Basic Math cover every basic aspect of arithmetic. They also look into exponents(指数), the order of operations, and square roots. In addition to learning how to perform various mathematical operations, students discover why these operations work, how a particular mathematical topic relates to other branches of mathematics, and how these operations can be used practically. Basic Math starts from the relatively easier concepts and gradually moves on to the more troublesome ones, so as to allow for steady and sure understanding of the material by students. The lectures offer students the chance to
“make sense” of mathematical knowledge that may have seemed so frightening. They also help students prepare for college mathematics and overcome their anxiety about this amazing—and completely understandable—field of study. By the conclusion of the course, students will have improved their understanding of basic math. They will be able to clear away the mystery(神秘性) of mathematics and face their studies with more confidence than they ever imagined. In addition, they will strengthen their ability to accept new and exciting mathematical challenges. Professor H. Siegel, honored by Kentucky Educational Television as “the best math teacher in America,” is a devoted teacher and has a gift for explaining mathematical concepts in ways that make them seem clear and obvious. From the basic concrete ideas to the more abstract problems, he is master in making math lectures learner-friendlier and less scary. With a PhD in Mathematics Education from Georgia State University, Dr. Siegel teaches mathematics at Central Arizona College. His courses include various make-up classes and a number of lectures for future primary school teachers. If the course fails to provide complete satisfaction to you, you can easily exchange it for any other course that we offer. Or you can get your money back. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------59. Where is the passage most likely to have been taken from? A. A news report. C. A lesson plan. B. A book review D. An advertisement
文体结构题秘诀 4：指定段落有 a man, one man, such as 等信号词时, 结构为举例 (examples).
【2012 江西卷 D 篇】 Yet some people wonder if the revolution in travel has gone too far. A price has been paid, they say, for the conquest (征服) of time and distance. Travel is something to be enjoyed, not endured (忍受). The boat offers leisure and time enough to appreciate the ever-changing sights and sounds of a journey. A journey by train also has a special charm about it. Lakes and forests and wild, open plains sweeping past your carriage window create a grand view in which time and distance mean nothing. On board a plane, however, there is just the blank blue of the sky filling the narrow window of the airplane. The soft lighting, in-flight films and gentle music make up the only world you know, and the hours progress slowly. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------72．How does the writer support the underlined statement in Paragraph2?
A．By giving instructions． C．By following the order of time．
B．By analyzing cause and effect． D．By giving examples．
【2012 全国新课标 D 篇】 One explanation is the law of overlearning , which can be stated as follows: Once we have learned something, additional learning trials(尝试)increase the length of time we will remember it. In childhood we usually continue to practice such skills as swimming, bicycle riding, and playing baseball long after we have learned them. We continue to listen to and remind ourselves of words such as "Twinkle, twinkle, little star" and childhood tales such as Cinderella and Goldilocks. We not only learn but overlearn. The multiplication tables(乘法口诀表)are an exception to the eeneral rule that we forget rather quickly the things that we learn in school, because they are another of the things we overlearn in childhood. --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------68.The author explains the law of overlearning by_________. A. presenting research findings C. making a comparison B. setting down general rules D. using examples
词汇答题秘诀 12： 模凌两可处如何处理？向该词就近信息点靠拢！ 向高频答案词特征靠拢！ 选择范围大的！
【2011 重庆卷 A 篇】 There was a gardener who looked after his garden with great care. To water his flowers, he used two buckers. One was a shiny and new bucket. The other was a very old and dilapidated one, which had seen many years of service, but was now past its best. 56. What does the underlined word “dilapidated” probably mean? A. Dirty C. Worn-out 被动答案特征！ B. Dark D. Plain-looking.
作者态度题秘诀 11：高频答案词 caring（关心的； 有同情心的）
【2012 天津卷 B 篇】
45. Which of the following can best describe Ms. Yates? A. Reliable and devoted. C. Proud but patient. 【2012 辽宁卷 B 篇】 61. Which of the following best describes the families of the astronauts on the ISS ? A. The are caring and thoughtful B. The are impatient and annoyed C. The are impatient and annoyed. D. The are excited and curious. B. Tough and generous. D. Strict but caring.
【2010 全国Ⅱ卷 A 篇】 45.Which of the following best describes Brownie? A. Shy B. Polite C. Brave D. Caring
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单买： 2013 高考英语阅读 3 天提分秘术教案 2013 高考英语完形 3 天提分秘术教案 2013 高考英语语法词汇 3 天提分秘术 2012 高考英语阅读矩阵法则教案 2012 高考英语完形易经法则教案 2012 高考英语语法词汇高频考点 2012 高考英语高频答案词一本通 2011 高考英语阅读高分密码 原价 5000 元 原价 5000 元 原价 3000 元 原价 3200 元 原价 3200 元 原价 2000 元 原价 2500 元 原价 3000 元 现6折 现5折 现5折 现3折 现3折 现3折 现2折 现2折 3000 元 2500 元 1500 元 960 元 960 元 600 元 500 元 600 元
原价 2500 元
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请上 www.sypeterwu.com 或上百度,输入"沈阳高分英语家教吴军"查询!
花言巧语的广告轰炸和信誓旦旦的保分承诺是让很多家长经不起的诱惑！其实很多品牌家教派给您孩 子的家教不过是以前在马路上举牌仅值 30-50 元/小时的应往届毕业生而已！最终，拿回承诺的退费比登山 还难，即使退了，也换不来孩子的分数和本应美好的未来！ 在职教师有着令人信服的耀眼光环，但该好的当然是好，但该坏的照样是坏的！重点高中的孩子并不 是你在职教师教出来的，因为学苗好，都 125-130 分了，谁教都会一样的好！把普通学校的学生拿给在职 教师教，再用在职教师滚瓜烂熟的知识点串讲辅导和拿个五三套题让学生去做，其结果，很难短期内事半 功倍！
什么北京 XX 高分突破，60 分钟高考英语提分秘诀，2012 高分核按纽，选择 题高分模板等层出不穷，到底哪个才有效啊？与吴军高分密码有什么区别？ 有的用名头砸人（比如用北京或上海英语学科带头人，参加过高考出题，享受国务院特殊津贴等作为 卖点） ；有的用卖成功学陈 XX 那样的文字广告框人；有的干脆模仿或照抄相关广告文案去骗人，甄别起 来，还真是有点困难！
真想区别开来，其实是可以找到答案的： 骗子是很好鉴别的，一是可以让您的孩子问一些高考英语中阅读和完型很具体的问题，看他或她回答 的如何？另外，骗子一般都不留自己的联络地址和电话号码，只留邮箱，QQ 号码和银行卡号，让你被骗 之后无从寻找。另外，他们还会承诺，不满意，可以退回资料，马上退款，还负责汇款手续费，让你觉得 深信不已！其实，仔细想一想，资料都暴漏了，谁拿到后都可以马上复印，若可以退的话，岂不是所有人 都可以免费拿到资料了吗？
比如，2011 年高考的时候就有人假借吴军老师的名义实施骗局！他在网上贴吧和博客上出卖的教案根 本不是吴军的核心授课教案,是免费公益版的;另外淘宝网上卖的也是假的,是武汉某某在沈阳吴军高分英语 家教网站上或百度文库,英语周报英语教师网及新浪爱问共享资料上免费下载的,是可以免费得到的,然而他 却卖你 3000 元,但其并非吴军本人核心授课教案!声明:没有与沈阳吴军本人联络,且未将款项打入沈阳吴军 个人银行帐号的交易与吴军无任何关系,其后果自负!已经上当的家长,请看一下你得到的是类似如下吴军高 分教案吗? 不要图便宜,还是与吴军本人亲自交易吧!
辨别有没有效，好不好使，其实方法也很简单:一要看你教的学生是不是真实的? 广告中提分的学员 是否留有学校,班级和学生真实姓名及提分幅度?这样一来,知道了班级和姓名就很容易核实了,不符则可称 为诈骗,可追究法律责任! 不敢留学生真实姓名,只是写上张某某(或从别处粘贴了外地高考状元的照片)并 随意说提了 50 分是不可信的,目的也是可想而知!吴军英语的广告中声称的提分效果,都写明了学校班级和 学生姓名及提分幅度,是可信的,也是敢于让公众监督的! 比如，吴军英语关于提分在其官网上是这么写的：
2012 年高考已经结束，吴军老师今年承接了一对一或一对二，共计 87 位考生。其中刨出一个最高分 136 分（本身来时就 130 分左右）及考前半个月左右才来学的 2 位考生，平均提分 36.7，再创辉煌！其中 值得一提的是，吴老师所授的一名学员英语单科成绩竟然提了 90 多分，再次刷新了吴老师 2009 年创造的 提 73 分的最高记录！令人兴奋！
最高提 90 分，刷新 2009 年最高提 73 分记录！
方美乔，鲁美附中高三 3 班(考前 2 个月内在翰林补课班上学)，考生号：12210104130592，考场在 50 中学,高二下学期来吴军老师处学习时,成绩最高时仅 36 分，通过在 1 年多每周一次课的学习，2012 年高考 成绩为 126 分，提分 90 多分，刷新了 2009 年吴老师创造的最高提 73 分的记录。作为沈阳隆方房地产公 司老板的女儿，家庭条件相当优越，但其从不缺乏刻苦专研精神，最后即将以艺考 482 分的优异成绩考取 鲁迅美术学院!
刘赫绅,22 中高三 9 班,考生号：12210106150716,考场在 53 中学,通过某位重点高中参加过高考英语出 题的在职教师近 1 年的一对一补课,成绩始终徘徊在 70 分左右,但考中国民航大学飞行员的英语小分必须达 到 90 分.后来其母亲沈阳雏鹰小学马老师通过 2011 年考取一本 B 段涉外高护专业的沈阳 4 中胡兢元的母亲 鼎立推荐,找到了吴军老师,此时距离 2012 年高考还有不到 2 个半月的时间,通过每周一、三、五下午 17:30-19:00 近 30 课的学习,最终将以 2012 年高考英语 101 分的成绩如愿以偿!
高考前 3 个月,词汇量能达到初三下学期水平,本身有强烈的提分欲望,能刻苦专研，没有心理障碍的学 员，基本上，或者说 2005-2012 历年 99%提分。 徐可，沈阳 4 中高三 0 班，考生号：12210106110515，考场在 15 中学, 总分 605（过理科一本线） 。 2012 年高考英语为 125 分。来时 100 多分，通过短期 10 课的学习，分数提了近 20 分； 王天池， 沈阳 120 中， 考生号：12210105150840， 考场在省实验中学，总分 478（过理科二本线） 。2012 年高考英语为 89 分。来时接近 40 分，通过短期集中 20 多课的学习，分数提了近 50 分； 袁小力，鲁美附中高三 1 班艺考生，考生号：12210104130667，考场在 50 中学, 总分 436。按其成绩 排名基本上可以考取鲁美。通过短期集中 20 课的学习，其由来时的 30 多分，上升到本次高考 66 分，分 数翻倍，险过小分！ 蒋同学，沈阳 31 中高三艺考生，考生号:12210102170004，考场在 38 中学,通过 8 次课的集中学习， 成绩由原来的 80 分左右提到 2012 年高考英语 109 分！
更多提分详细资料，请亲临咨询！对于携带记者证或预交 1 课学费者，可以全部查询相关提分信息， 并任意抽查 3-5 位同学父母的联络方式核实！也可根据其所在学校班级，二次核实！ （链接 2011 年吴军老师亲授学员成绩公告）
吴军亲授考生共 83 人参加了 2011 年高考,去掉一个最高分东北育才本部 137 分,去掉一个艺考最低分 (临时只学了 7 次课,来时 33 分,2011 年高考 61 分),平均提分 31.5 分! 2011 年沈阳高分英语家教吴军一对一亲授中考生学员共计 39 人， 分以上占 97.17%； 140 130-140 之间 为 0%；120-130 之间占 2.73%，没有 120 分以下的。其中 21 人达到了 145 分或以上，有“两匹黑马”值得一 提，他们一个是辽宁省实验中学北校区初三 8 班的杨淇，另一位是沈阳 7 中初三 21 班的童俊豪，他们来 吴军老师这儿学习时均为 120 分或以下，本次 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩均达到了 146 分。
---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------许译 鲁美附中高三 1 班,考生号:11210104130303； 宁莹莹 鲁美附中高三 3 班 2011 届高三文科艺考生,考生 号:11210702130017； 黄钰乔 沈阳 27 中高三 13 班,考生号:11210105130331,2011 年高考英语分别提高了 30-55 分不等， 已被 一批本科鲁迅美术学院和中央美术学院录取！ 卢涵 沈阳铁路中学高三 11 班 2011 届高三艺考生,考生号:11210105130901, 李奕宣 沈阳同泽女中学高三 3 班 2011 届
高三艺考生,考生号:112101053130422, 2011 年高考英语成绩分别提高了 30-35 分不等，已被中国传媒大学文编专业和天津师 范大学播音专业录取！ 李晨晖 沈阳 2 中 2011 届高三考生,考生号:11210103151002,总分:651 分,理科,一本线重点大学,来吴军高分英语前 110-120 分,本次高考英语成绩为 127 分; 杨嘉睿 东北育才双语 2011 届高三 4 班考生,考生号:11210102111097,总分:559 分, 理科,预估一本线,来吴军高分英语前 120 分,本次高考英语成绩为 130 分; 鲁菲 沈阳 120 中 7 班 2011 届高三考生,考生号:11210105110762,总分:544 分, 理科,一本线,来吴军高分英语前 110 分,考 前共学 5 课,本次高考英语成绩为 119 分。 姜萧栩 沈阳雨田中学初三 2 班 考号：061020116 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 145 分； 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 146 分； 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 146 分； 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 144 分； 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 146 分； 2011 年沈阳中考英语成绩为 144 分。
杨淇 辽宁省实验中学北校区初三 8 班 考号：051008906 王一乾 沈阳雨田中学初三 2 班 袁若琳 沈阳雨田中学初三 1 班 考号：061020406 考号：061021102
童俊豪 沈阳 7 中初三 21 班 考号：031009521 张天爱 沈阳雨田中学初三 1 班 考号：061019414
2012 吴军高考英语 3 天提分秘诀辽宁卷效果示例
举几个 2012 高考英语辽宁卷单选的例子： 吴军老师帮您筛选的 30 多个形容词和副词，大家看一看，是不是都在下列备选项中？ 22. We used to see each other A. especially , but I haven?t head from him since last year. C. particularly D. approximately
有些连知识点都不用，只是通过吴军老师教你的正负 / 过程和结果解题法就所向披靡了！通过正负，
可知 A 和 D 可选！再通过过程和结果，可知 A. with pleasure 强调的是结果，说明借过后，表示荣幸，所 以不符！电话还没借呢，故只有 D 符合。 23. — I?m terribly sorry to interrupt, but may I use your phone? It?s rather urgent. — Yes, . B. no burry C. it doesn?t matter D. of course
A. with pleasure
2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-1 第 25 页，Shall 用于第二、第三人称，表示说 话人给对方命令、警告、允诺或威胁。这儿是说根据学校规定学生在校时都必须要穿校服。 24. One of our rules is that every student A. might B. could wear school uniform while at school. C. shall D. will
2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-2 第 25 页，有宾语主动,无宾语被动！follow 后 面有宾语，with 的宾语后面可加形容词、副词、分词、不定式、名词等作宾补，这儿 pet dog 与 follow 构 成主谓关系，所以用 following. 25. The old couple often take a walk after supper in the park with their pet dog A. to follow B. following C. followed D. follows them.
2012 吴军高考英语高频答案词一本通第 108 页，Rod 喜欢拆卸钟表，然而，他从来都不能再重新装 好。所以选 B 项。另外 However 两边句子相反，看到 put…… together, 当然相反的就是 taking apart 啦！ 26. Rod loves A. taking apart clocks. However, he never manages to put them together again. B. giving away C. making up D. turning off
2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-1 第 6 页， 作“一个”， one “一本”， “一件”等解， 用来代替上文提到过的 paper。相当于 a copy of paper. 28. If you?re buying today?s paper from the stand, could you get A. one B. such C. this D. that for me?
2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-2 第 13 页，把你的钥匙留给你的邻居，以防你 把自己锁在外面了。所以选 C 项。 30. Leave your key with your neighbor A. as long as B. even though you lock yourself out one day. C. in case D. as if
2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-3 第 4 页，Not until 位于句首时句子要倒装， consider having a holiday abroad 这个动作发生在 retire 之后，所以用一般过去时。 32. Not until he retired from teaching three years ago having a holiday abroad.
A. he had considered C. he considered
B. had he considered D. did he consider
2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-1 第 26 页， 在句型 “It’s high/ very time that…” 中， 从句中的谓语动词用 did 或 should do.所以选 D 项。 33. Jack is a great talker. It?s high time that he A. will do B. has done C. do something instead of just talking. D. did
2012 吴军高考语法与词汇单项选择题 3 天提分密码 B-2 第 18 页，名词性从句 4 个高频答案词，介词 for 后面加的是宾语从句，且从句中 find 缺少宾语，故用 whatever，选 C。 34. The newcomer went to the library the other day and scarched for Twain. A. wherever B. however C. whatever D. whichever he could find about Mark
举几个 2012 高考英语辽宁卷完形填空的例子来回忆一下吴军老师的完形易经，骄傲一下自己当时精 明的选择！ 首尾或上下段落呼应，复现解决问题！ When Glen Kruger picked a small cat from an animal shelter, he did not expect much. Yet right from the start, eight years ago, there was an uncommon connection between him and the small black cat. He Inky. “ I grew up on a hundred-acre farm and had only cats man,says. “My hearing was damaged by the 39. A. animals B. friends 38 37 playmates,”Kruger,The seventy-year-old 39 . 36 her
of farm epuipment , so I learned to connect with D. neghbors
in a pool of blood on the basement floor, Kruger felt
47 going into shock （休克） He shouted for . 49 Kruger
help , 48
his wife, Brenda , was asleep in their bedroom at the opposite end of the house.
noticed Inky watching from the top of the stairs. “Go get Brenda, ” Krugger said to Inky. Inky 50 to the bedroom door and scratched 51 until Brenda opened it. Then Inky led her to the 52
Brenda found her husband 53 52. A. bedroom
the stairs and called 911. C yard D. house
通过同现解决问题！ 看到 rushed 后就知道很匆忙，故 50 空纠结时，通过同现校正答案，就不能误选 C 了，ran 与 rushed 同现；51 空是 C 还是 D 呢？Inky 是猫，madly 更贴切；53 空，叫 911 送医院了，说明掉楼梯底下了。 Inky 50 to the bedroom door and scratched 51 until Brenda opened it. Then Inky led her to the 52
Brenda found her husband 53 50. A. walked 51. A. rapidly
the stairs and called 911. Kruger was rushed to the hospital. C. returned C. madly C. at the top of D. withdrew D . urgently D. in the front of
B. ran B. suddenly
53. A. at the bottom of B. in the middle of
通过正负解决问题！ “My hearing was damaged by the 38 of farm epuipment , so I learned to connect with 39 .
They react to what they see and what you do. ” 38. A. sound B. alarm C. noise D. voice
找不到主旨句或四个选项都带中心词时，看出题点，即每段首尾句和有汉语标注的地方等，然后通过 复现和同现就解决了！ Astronauts on shorter shuttle missions（使命）often work very long days. Tasks are scheduled so tightly that break times are often used to finish the day?s work. This type of schedute is far too demanding for long missions on the Internaitional Space Sttation（ISS）. ISS crewmembers usually live in space for at least a quarter of a year. They work five days on and two days off to mimic the normal way they do things on Earth as much as possible. Weekends give the crew valuable. Weekends give the crew valuable time to rest and do a few hours of housework. They can communicate with family and friends by email, isternet phone and throhgh Private video conferenes. While astronauts cannot go to a baseball game or a movie in orbit, there are many familiar activetics that they can still enjoy. Before a mission. The family and friends of each ISS crewmember put together a collection of family photos, messages, videos and reading material for The astromauts to look at when they will be floating 370 kilometers above the Earth. During their missiom, the crew also receives care packages with CDs, books, magazines, photos and letters . And as from early 2010, the internet became available on the ISS , giving astronaouts the chance to do some “web surfing （冲浪）”in their personal time. Besides relaxing with these more commom entertainments, astromauts can simply enjoy the experience of living in space. Many astronauts say that one of the most relaxing things to do in space is to look out the window and stare at the universe and the Earth?s vast land mass and oceans. 63. The passage mainly discusses how astronauts A. work for longer missions in space C. observe the Earth from space . （2012 辽宁卷阅读 B 篇）
B. connect with people on the Earth D. spend their free time in space
词汇 13 大解题思路使您茅塞顿开！本题仅用代入法就解决了问题！ Astronauts on shorter shuttle missions（使命）often work very long days. Tasks are scheduled so tightly that break times are often used to finish the day?s work. This type of schedute is far too demanding for long missions on the Internaitional Space Sttation（ISS）. ISS crewmembers usually live in space for at least a quarter of a year. They work five days on and two days off to mimic the normal way they do things on Earth as much as possible. Weekends give the crew valuable. Weekends give the crew valuable time to rest and do a few hours of housework. 60. What does the word “minic”in Paragraph 1 probably mean?（2012 辽宁卷阅读 B 篇） A. Find B. Copy C. Change D. Lose
找到 minic 这个动词的宾语 way， way they do things 做事的方式， Find 发现？； Copy 模仿？Change 改 变？Lose 失去？way they do things 做事的方式，当然是模仿做事的方式喽！ A 大于 B，则选 A。 In the past two decades, the Chinese studies programs have gained huge popularity in Western universities. More recently, the Chinese government has set up Confucius Institutes in more than 80 countries. These schools teach both Chinese language and culture. The main courses of Chinese culture usually included Chinese art, history and philosophy（哲学）. Some social scientists suggest that Westerners should take advantages of the ancient Chinese wisdom to make up for the drawbacks of Westerners philosophy. Students in the United States, at the same time, are racing to learn Chinese. So they will be ready for life in a world where China is an equal power with the United States. Businessmen who hope to make money in China are reading books about Confucius to understand their Chinese customers. 65. We can learn from Paragraph 4 that American students______。 （2012 辽宁卷阅读 C 篇） A. have a great interest in studying Chinese B. take an active part in Chinese competitions C. try to get high scores in Chinese exams D. fight for a chance to learn Chinese 65 题根据题干关键字 American students 文章定位，就近原则参考点为 racing to learn Chinese. 有些 同学在 A 和 D 之间纠结。如果确实区分有困难的话，可以根据“A 大于 D，则选 A。”原则，则选 A。
矩阵法则解题:出题点;与中心词沾边;答案特征;答题步骤;核对规则. 69. According to the passage, which of the following is TRUE? （2012 辽宁卷阅读 D 篇） A.The customers who cannot pay can word as volunteers instead. B.More volunteers will go to new Orleans for the hurricane cleanup. C.Many new cafes will be opened to offer free lunches in the town. D.The lunch menu has remained the same since the caféwas started.
69 题出题点在尾句,更有出题信号词 instead ;选项中 A 是前后矛盾的句子,符合答案特征; 选项 A 中含 有的 volunteers 是文章反复出现的中心词,所以答案就可以选 A 了.
四、洞穿 7 选 5 秘诀, 吴军高考英语运筹帷幄！
答题步骤:首句定位;排比;逻辑关系;指代+同现或复现;连接词+同现或复现;先易后难,缩小范围,从而高 分突破! How to Make Friends Friendship is a very important human relationship and everyone needs good friends. Good friendship has many benefits. It offers companionship, improves self-worth and promotes good health. There are times in our lives such as when we have recently moved into a new town, or changed our jobs or schools. Such changes often leaves us without a friend 71 . But for many of us the process is difficult and requires courage. Below are some helpful suggestions on how to make and keep friends. 1. Associate with others. The first step to making friends is associating with other people. You can go to public places to meet new people. Besides, you will need to make yourself known by becoming an active member of such places. 2.Start a conversation Starting a conversation is the second most important step in making new friends. 72 You can always start the conversation. Being able to make small talk is a very useful skill in relating with other people. 3. 73 Choosing friends with common interests is important in building friendship as these interests would always bring you and your friend together, Hanging out will always be a pleasant experience. 4.Let it grow. It is a good thing to stay in touch. However, try not to press your new friend with calls, messages or visits as this would likely wear him or her out and finally you may lose your friend. 74 . The best friendships are the ones that grow naturally. 5.Enjoy your friendship The best way to enjoy your friendship is to allow your friends to be themselves. 75 Try not to change them from who they are to what you want them to be. Become the kind of friend you will want your friend to be to you. A. Be cheerful. B. Do things together. C. Do not wait to be spoken to. D. Try not to find fault with your friends. E. Making new friends comes easy for some people. F. For a friendship to develop you need to stay in touch. G. So you will need to give your friend time to react to you.
71 空发现复现词 friend,根据吴军高考英语 7 选 5 法则转折关系(形容词或副词相反,转折),选 E; 则同现原则, spoken to 与 conversation 关联,所以选 C; 72 空根据吴军 7 选 5 法
73 空看到每段都是祁使句,而只有 B 项中有与原文中的复现词 37
together,所以选 B; 74 空就近原则指代一致 you,复现一致 your friend,所以选 G; 再加上否定句结构排比 Try not to,所以 75 空选 D.
75 空后面有 them,说明前面有复数名词,
五、改错探秘, 吴军教案看 7 遍,错点全部找到！
Dear Diana, Thank you for the lovely day we have with you. It was so kind for you to let us bring Anne's had of
friend. Gina. Unfortunate, the only problem was the journey home. There had been a terrible Unfortunately accident on the highway and, for a result, there was a long line of traffic for at least six mile. In as miles
the end, we drove to a service station and waited there unless the road was clear. In the car park until here,Gina nearly got knocked over as ∧car drove out far too quickly from behind a lorry. They there a We
finally dropped Gina off at her parents' and made our own way to home.
请购买 2012 高考英语 3 天提分秘诀教案(增购 7 选 5 和改错版)的顾客仔细核对:
1. 第 1 句 have→had, 参考吴军改错教案一 23 页,由后面的 was 可知，这儿应该用过去时态。 2. 第 2 句 for→of, 参考吴军改错教案二 3 页押中原题,It?s kind of you 为固定用法。 3. 第 3 句 Unfortunate→Unfortunately, 参考吴军改错教案一 18 页押中原题,用副词作状语。 4. 第 4 句 for→as, 考吴军改错教案二 2 页,as a result 固定搭配。 5. 第 4 句 mile→miles, 参考吴军改错教案一 4-5 页,mile 是可数名词，并且前面是 six. 6. 第 5 句 unless→until, 考吴军改错教案二 4-5 页,这儿后面一句是一个时间状语从句，意思是我们一直等到路通了。 7. 第 6 句 here→there, 参考吴军改错教案一 16-19 页,叙述的是别的地方发生的事，所以用 there. 8. 第 6 句 car 前加 a, 参考吴军改错教案一 1 页,car 不是特指，并且是可数名词，所以前面要加 a. 9. 第 7 句 they→we, 参考吴军改错教案一 9 页押中原题,叙述的是我们做的事，所以用 we. 10. 第 7 句去掉 to, 参考吴军改错教案二 2 页押中原题,make one?s way home 中 home 为副词，所以前面不用介词 to。
2013 吴军高考英语迅捷提分秘术! 版权所有,侵权必究! 同行抄袭可耻,转载注明出处! 虚拟语气分三种情况来掌握： 1、虚拟条件句。 2、名词性虚拟语气。
3、虚拟语气的其他用语。 一、虚拟条件句： 条件状语从句是非真实情况，在这种情况下要用虚拟语气。 1、条件从句与现在事实不一致，其句型为： If 主语＋过去时，主语＋should（could, would, 或 might）＋动词原形，如： If I were you, I would study hard. If it rained, I would not be here now. 2、条件从句与过去事实不一致，句型为： If 主语＋had＋过去分词，主语＋should（could, would, 或 might）＋have＋过去分词，如： If the doctor had come last night, the boy would have saved. If I had not studied hard, I would have failed in the exam last term. 3、条件从句与将来事实不一致，句型为：
If 主语＋should ? ? ＋do，主语＋should（could?）＋ 原形 do were to ?
过去时（与现在事实条件句一样） 。 If it should rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. If I were to go to the moon one day, I could see it with my own eyes. If you missed the film to night, you would feel sorry. 注意问题： 1、If 条件句中绝对不可出现“would” 。 2、根据句中的时间状语，有时可能出现“混合虚拟”的情况，即主句可能是现在的情况，条件句也 许是发生在过去的情况，但都是遵守上述句型。 3、在条件句中如果出现 were, had, should 可省去 if，将主语与这些词倒装，例如： Had the doctor come last night, the boy would have saved. Were I to go to the moon one day, I would see it with my own eyes. Should it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home. 二、名词性虚拟语气： 在表示命令、建议要求、惊叹时的名词性从句中需用虚拟语气，基本句型： 主语＋（should）＋动词原形，如： Mother insisted that John go to bed at 9 o?clock.（宾语从句） We suggested that the meeting should not be held. It was required that the crops should be harvested at once.（主语从句） The suggestion that he be invited was rejected.（同位语从句） That is their demand that their wages be increased.（表语从句） 注意：在这种句子中绝不出现“would” “must” “could”等。 三、虚拟语气在一些特殊词中的使用或含蓄条件句： 1、wish 后的宾语从句： 与现在愿望不一致 主语＋过去时； 与过去愿望不一致 主语＋had＋过去分词； 与未来愿望不一致 主语＋would（could）＋原形。 I wish I were you. I wish I had visited the white House when I was in the states. I wish I met you tomorrow at the party. 2、It?s time 句型：当 It?s time 后用 that 从句时应该为： 主语＋should＋原形 或 主语＋过去时，例如：
It?s time that you went to school. 或 It?s time that you should go to school. 3、If only 引起的感叹句相当于“How I wish＋宾语从句” If only he could come! 他要能来就好了。 If only I had known the answer! 我要早知答案就好了。 4、would rather, as if（though）引导的句子也需使用虚拟，表示过去的情况用过去完成时，表示现在 与将来的情况用过去时，如： I?d rather you posted the letter right away. I?d rather you had returned the book yesterday. She loves the children as if they were hers. Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there. 5、without, but, but for, otherwise 引起的短语或句子常暗含着含蓄条件。 Without you, I would never know him. But for your cooperation, we wouldn?t have done the work so well. But that she was afraid, she would have said no. I would be most glad to help you, but I? am busy now. I would have come to the party yesterday, but I was working. I am busy now, otherwise I would do you the favor! 【专项训练】 1、It is important that a college student a foreign language. A．will master B．master C．masters D．would master 2、It is strange that she without saying a word. A．should have gone out B．went C．should go out D．goes out 3、If my lawyer here last Saturday, he me from going. A．had been, would have prevented B．had been, would prevent C．were, would prevent D．were, would have prevent 4、 ——“He is a brave man.” ——“Yes, I wish I his courage.” A．have B．had C．will have D．may have 5、If it rain, the crops would be saved. A．should B．will C．is going to D．was to 6、He ordered that the medicine by a special plane. A．was sent B．would be sent C．should send D．be sent 7、If you the medicine, you better now. A．took, would feel B．had taken, felt C．had taken, would feel D．took, would have felt 8、She is my sister, but she often acts as if my mother. A．is B．was C．were D．had been 9、I went to bed early last night, but I wish I so. A．didn?t do B．hadn?t do C．haven?t done D．couldn?t do 10、I?d rather he tomorrow afternoon. A．will come B．comes C．coming D．came
答案： 1、B 6、D
4、B 5、A 9、B 10、D 五、倒装句 英语的基本句型是主语 + 谓语。 如果将主语与谓语调换, 称倒装句。 倒装句分全倒装句和半倒装句。 一、 全倒装: 主语与谓语交换位置不需任何助动词, 叫全倒装。全倒装有以下三种 情况: 1、当 here, there, out, in, up, down 等副词放在句首时, 句子需全倒装: There goes the bell! 铃响了！ There lived an old man. Here comes the bus. 注意: ①在这种情况下倒装仅限于不及物动词或 be 动词, 像 go, come, mush 等。 ②主语如果是代词时不需倒装如 Away he went. 他走远了。 2、方位状语在句首, 如: In front of the house stopped a police car. Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island. Under the tree sat a boy. 3 、直接引语在句首, 这种情况可倒装也可不倒装 "What does it mean?" asked the boy 或 the boy asked. 二、半倒装: 主语与谓语的助动词交换位置称半倒装, 有以下数种情况: 1、 否定意义的词在句首, 句子半倒装, 例如: little, never, not, no, hardly, rarely, seldom Never shall I forget you. At no time was the man aware of what was happening. Little did I understand what he said to me at that time. 2、 几对并列连词如 not only?but also, hardly? when 等连接两个并列句, 连词 在句首, 前句半倒装, 后句不倒装: Not only was everything he had taker away from him, but also his German citizenship was taken away. No sooner had I got to the bus stop than the bus started. 注意: ①not only?but also 连接两个并列主语时不需倒装, 如: Not only you but also I like playing chess. ②neither?nor 在句首时, 前后两句都需倒装, Neither do I have a sister nor does my husband. 3、only 在句首强调状语, 主句半倒装: Only then did I realize that I was wrong. Only in this way can I learn from my fault. Only when the war was over in 1918, was he able to get back to work. 注意: only 强调主语不倒装: Only the teachers can use the room. 4、so?that 句型, so 在句首时, 主句倒装, that 从句不倒装: So easy is it that a clild can learn it. So hard did he work that he finally won the fame. I saw the film, so did he.
1、倒装句（Inversion） 英语的基本语序是“主语+谓语” 。如果将谓语的全部或一部分放在主语之前，这种语序称为“倒装” 。 一、倒装的类型 类型 例 句 说 明 完 全 Out rushed the students to welcome the foreign friends. 整个谓语移至主语 倒 装 学生们涌出去欢迎外国朋友。 之前。 部 分 Seldom does he go to school late. 倒 装 他上学很少迟到。 只把系动词，情态 动词，助动词或表 语放在主语之前。
二、倒装结构的基本用法 1、由于语法结构的需要而使用的倒装 情 况 疑 问 句 中 例 句 说 明 Have you got a dictionary? 你有一本字典吗？ Where did he go last Monday? 上星期一他去什么地方了？ Are you listening to the radio? 你在听广播吗？ Who told you the news? 谁告诉你那个消息的？ Which boy broke this glass? 哪个男孩子把这个玻璃打破了？ 用完全或部分倒 装， 但以疑问词或 疑问词修饰的名 词作主语的疑问 句要用正常语序。
“there be”There are three wells in our village. 结构中 我们村里有三口水井。 There stands a big paper making factory by the river. 河边有座大型造纸厂。 在 以 here, Here is a letter for you. there, now, 这儿有你一封信。 then, in, There goes the bell. 铃响了。 away, up Now comes your turn to play. down 等副 现在轮到你玩了。 词 开 头 的 Away went the crowd one by one . 句子中 人们一个一个地离去。 Look, there he comes! 看，他来了。 Down she went 她下来了。 使用完全倒装结 构。 但如果主语是代 词则用正常语序。
在 以 I can?t swim, nor (neither)can she . 表示??也不这 neither nor 我不会游泳，她也不会。 样， neither 和 nor 或 no more He hasn?t been to the countryside, neither does he 意思相同， 可以替 开 头 的 句 want to go there. 换使用，no more 子中 他没有去过农村，他也不想去那里。 表示动作的程度 He did not turn up. No more did his wife. 并不比前面提到 他没有来，他妻子也没有来。 的稍强。意为也 不?。
用在 as （尽 Proud as the nobles are ,he is afraid to see me . 管）引导的 尽管这些贵族很傲慢，他却害怕见我。 让 步 状 语 Young as he is, he knows a lot . 从句中 虽然他年轻，却知道很多东西。
从属连句 as 用于 特殊语序， 含义与 though, although 相同，但“as”这 种结构可表示非 常强烈的对照， 必 须用倒装 （表语提 前）
2、为了加强语气而使用的倒装。 （使句子更加流畅，更加生动） 情 况 例 句 说 明
含 有否 定 Never before have we seen such a sight. 常 用 否 定 词 有 ： never,not,hardly, 意 义的 副 以前我们从来没有见过这样的情景。 scarcely seldom, little, 词 或连 词 Little did I think that he could be back alive. 放 在句 首 我没有想到他竟能活着回来。 not until, not only?but Not until New Year?s Day shall I give you a gift. also, no sooner ?than, 时 我要到元旦那天才能给你礼物。 hardly (scarcely)?when Not only was everything that he had taken away 等。一般主句用部分倒 from him, but also his German citizenship. 装结构。 不仅他所有的一切被没收了， 而且连他的德国 公民权也被剥夺了。 副词 only Only then did he realize his mistakes . 放 在句 首 只有在那时，他才认识到自己的错误。 Only in this way can you learn maths well . 时 只有用这种方法，你才能学好数学。 Only Mother can understand me . 只有母亲最理解我。 Only three of us failed in the exam. 我们中只有三个人考试不及格。 only 起强调作用，其句 型为“only +状语+部分 倒装” 。 如置于句首的 only 修饰 主语， 则不用倒装结构。
虚 拟语 气 Were they here, they would help us . 把 从 句 中 if 省 略 将 条 件从 句 他们要是在这儿，他们会帮助我们的。 were，had 或 should 放 Had I been informed earlier. I could have done 在主语的前面。 中 something. 我要是早得到通知，我就能干事了。 Should you fail, take more pain and try again. 万一你失败了，就要更加刻苦，重新再干。 直 接引 语 “He is a clever boy”said the teacher. 主句主语和谓语次序颠 的 全部 或 老师说： “他是个聪明的孩子。 ” 倒，用完全倒装。 一 部分 放 “Go, Dick, go!”cried Tom,“Go home and get 但如果主句主语为代词 在句首时 help” “走，狄克，走！ ”汤姆呼喊着， “快回 时 或 谓 语 部 分 比 主 语 家去求援” 长，一般不用倒装。 “What do you think of the film? ”he asked.
他问“你认为这部电影怎么样？” “I?m leaving for Hongkong next month”Mary told me yesterday. 玛利告诉我“我下月要去香港” 。 表 示祝 愿 May you succeed! 祝你成功。 的句子中 Long live the Communist Party of China. 中国共产党万岁！ 副词 so 在 He is interested in pop-songs, and so am I . 句首 他对流行歌曲感兴趣，我也如此。 They will learn chemistry next term, so will I . 他们下学期学化学，我也学。 I can drive a car, so can my younger brother. 我会开汽车，我弟弟也会开车。 —Tom won the first prize for the English competition. －So he did. 英语竞赛汤姆获得了一等奖。确实如此。 It was cold yesterday. So it was . 昨天天气冷。的确冷。 在 频 度 状 Often did we warn them not to do so. 语 often, 我们曾多次警告他们不要这样做。 always, Many a time has she helped me with my many a English. time 等开 她不止一次地帮助或学习英语。 头 的句 子 中 在 方式 状 Thus ended his life.这样结束了他的生命。 语 thus 开 So loudly did he speak that even people in the 头 的句 子 next room could hear him . 中 及程 度 他讲话的声音那样大， 连隔壁屋子里的人都听 状语 so 放 得见。 句首 介 词短 语 In the middle of the room stood a little girl. 作 状语 ， 在房间中央站着一个小女孩。 放在句首 In the distance was a horse. 马在远处。 在 强调 表 Such was Albert Einstein, a simple man of great 表语提前，不仅为了强 语 的句 子 achievements. 调，而且为了使句子结 中 阿尔伯特· 曼因斯坦就是这样一个人， 一个纯 构达到平衡协调，或使 朴而又取得巨大成就的人。 上下文紧密衔接。 Such is life. 生活就是这样。 Nearby were two canoes in which they had come to the island. 附近有两只他们来这个岛乘坐的独木船。 【专项训练】
谓语动词或谓语的一部 分放在主语的前面。 表示前面所说的情况也 适合于另一个人或另一 事物的肯定句中。
如果后面的句子只是单 纯重复前句的意思，不 表示也适用于另一人或 事，则不用倒装结构。
Ⅰ、选择填空 1、 that we all went out, lying in the sun. A．The weather so fine was B．So fine was the weather C．So the weather was fine D．So was fine weather 2、Under his arm a pair of shoes which he had bought from the shop a few days before. A．is B．are C．was D．were 3、 who had arrested him three times for carrying drugs. A．Before George stood the policeman B．Before George the policeman stood C．Before the policeman stood George D．Before George did the policeman 4、Then we had been looking forward to . A．came the hour B．the hour came C．comes the hour D．the hour is coming 5、Only when he started to explain the reason for this. A．she realized B．did she realize C．she had realized D．had she realized 6、 succeed in doing anything. A．Only by working hard we can B．By only working hard we can C．Only by working hard can we D．Only we can by working hard 7、Not for a moment the truth of your story. A．he has doubted B．he doubts C．did he doubt D．he did doubt 8、Nowhere else in the world cheaper tailoring than in Hong Kong. A．a tourist can find B．can a tourist find C．a tourist will find D．a tourist has found 9、Hardly when the bus suddenly pulled away. A．they had got to the bus-stop B．they got to the bus-stop C．did they get to the bus-stop D．had they got to the bus -stop 10、Mary doesn?t speak French, and does Joan. A．not B．neither C．either D．so 11、—Do you know Jim quarrelled with his brother? —I don?t know, . A．nor don?t I care B．nor do I care C．I don?t care neither D．I don?t care also 12、Not until the early years of the 19th century what heat is. A．man did know B．man knew C．didn?t man know D．did man know 13、After that we never saw her again nor from her. A．did we hear B．we heard C．had we heard D．we have heard 14、John won the first prize in the contest. . A．So he did. B．So did he. C．So he did, too. D．So did he, too. 15、 ,he doesn?t study well.
A．As he is clever B．He is as clever C．Clever as he is D．As clever he is 16、You can never use my tape recorder. time should you touch that machine. A．At no B．At any C．Any D．No 17、Scarcely the room the phone rang. A．I had entered?when B．Had I entered?then C．had I entered?when D．have I entered?when 18、Only save his life. A．can the doctor B．the doctor can C．will the doctor D．could the doctor 19、Hardly anybody the boy , because he is rude. A．does like B．likes C．do like D．like 20、So well that the teacher praised her. A．she had done her homework B．her homework had been done C．did she do her homework D．she did her homework 21、Only when to know him will you get along with him. A．do you come B．will you come C．you come D．you will come 22、Out , gun in hand. A．did he rush B．rushed he C．he rushed D．had he rushed 23、He had promised me to come to the party ,and . A．so did he B．so he did C．so he would D．so would he 24、Into the sky the light blue smoke. A．went up B．up went C．did go up D．had gone up 25、Little about his own life at the meeting. A．did he talk B．he talked C．he was talking D．had he talked 26、Under no circumstances first use nuclear weapons. A．will China B．China will C．does China D．do China 27、 taken that examination, she could have passed it . A．Were she B．Had she be able to C．If she would have D．Had she 28、 tomorrow , we would put off the match till next Monday. A．Should it rained B．Were it to rain C．If it would rain D．Had it rained 29、Look, here . A．Mr. Brown comes B．does Mr. Brown come C．comes Mr. Brown D．Mr. Brown has come 30、Often us good advice. A．did she give B．she did give C．she gave D．she has given 31、Not until I began to work how much time I had wasted. A．didn?t I realize B．did I realize
C．I didn?t realize D．I realize 32、Little about his own safety , though he was in great danger himself. A．does he care B．did he care C．he cares D．he cared 33、 began our new lesson. A．But B．Thus C．Such D．So that 34、By no means look down upon the poor. A．we should B．we should not C．do we D．should we 35、Only when 30 years old to learn English. A．was he , did he begin B．he was , he began C．was he , he began D．he was ,did he begin 36、Not once their plan. A．did they change B．they changed C．changed they D．they did changed 37、 “It?s very hot today.” “ .” A．So it is B．So is it C．So does it D．So it does 38、A fish needs water and without water it will die. A．So does a man B．So will a man C．So it is with a man D．So is it with a man 39、They arrived at the farmhouse, in front of which . A．sat a small boy B．a small boy sat C．is sitting a small boy D．a small boy sitting 40、Society has changed and in it . A．so have the people B．so the people have C．the people have so D．have the people so Ⅱ、改错 41、Only when was he 50 years old did he begin to learn French. 42、Little she knew Tom was was badly ill 43、Turn to the right and there are you. 44、And all around the fox in a circle was dogs. 45、—You can learn English well. —So can we. 46、I dare climb this tall tree, but do you? 47、Not once he kept his promise. 48、Many a time he has given us some good advice. 49、Such a noise there was that I couldn?t work in the room. 50、Only does my mother understand me. 【答案】 ： Ⅰ、 1、B 2、C 3、A 4、A 5、B 6、C 9、D 10、B 11、B 12、D 13、A 14、A 15、C 16、A 17、C 18、B 19、B 20、C 21、C 22、C 23、B 24、A 25、A 26、A 27、D 28、B 29、C 30、A 31、B 32、B 33、B 34、D 35、D 36、A
37、A 38、C 39、A 40、A Ⅱ、 41、was he —he was 倒装主句不倒装从句。 42、She knew—did she know 此句为半倒装句。 43、are you —you are 此句为全部倒装句如主语是代词则不倒装。 44、was—were 主语是 dogs 。 45、so we can 主语 we 与上一句中的主语 you 所指相同故不同倒装。 46、do you—dare you 前面句中用情态，后面要呼应。 47、he kept—did he keep 48、he has—has he 49、? 50、去掉 does，将 understand 改为 understands。only 后面跟状语倒装，后跟主语不倒装。 六、并列句 知识要点： 1、熟悉并掌握并列句的结构和常用的并列词的用法； 2、注意 while, when 和 for 等作并列连词的用法。 什么叫并列句： 由两个或两个以上的简单句并列连接起来的句子叫并列句。 并列句的基本句型： 简单句 + 并列连词 + 简单句 类型 说明 连接词 例 句 并列关系 and, not only? I help him and he helps me. 我帮助他，他也帮助我。 Not only did we write to her but also we telegraphed her. (联合关系) but(also), neither?nor 等 我们不仅给她写信而且还给她发了电报。 Neither I would consult him nor he would ask me for 并 advice. 我不想与他商量，他也不会征求我的意见。 转折关系 but, yet, still, He failed many times, but he didn?t despair. 他失败多次但 while, however, 并没有气馁。 She has difficulty in learning English, however, she works when 等 hard and is making rapid progress. 她学习英语有困难， 然后 她学习努力，进步很快。 选择关系 or, otherwise or We must hurry, or we?ll miss the train. 我们必须快点，否 else, either?or 则会赶不上火车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我 这儿来，或者我到你那去。 句 因果关系 for, so, thus, We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆 therefore, and 在家里，因为天正在下雨。 so He didn?t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力，因此这次考试不及格。 有 时 也 可 不 用 Hurry up, it?s getting dark. 快点，天要黑了。 连 词 ， 而 用 逗 Let?s start early, we have a long way to go. 我们要早动 号， 分号或冒号 身，因为路很远。 注意： （1）yet 和 still 是连接副词，也叫半连接词。它们是副词。又起连接作用，但不如 and, but, or 等强， 用了 yet 或 still，前面还可加 and 或 but。 He is tired, (but) still he will make another experiment. 他很累，但他仍然要做另一个实验。
I got up very early, (and) yet I failed to catch the first bus. 我起得很早，然而还是没有赶上头班车。 （2）while 意义相当于 at the same time 表示相反和对照，常用来连接两个意义对立的分句。 I like football, while my sister likes basketball. 我喜欢足球，而我姐姐喜欢篮球。 when = and then, just then 或 at that time, during the time. We were ready to rush away, when the snake moved. 我们正准备离开，这时蛇移动了。 while 和 when 作为并列连词使用时常是放在第二个分句前边，并有逗号和第一分句隔开。 3、for 表示附加或推断的理由、原因。therefore 比 so 更正式，and so 比较口语化。 【专项训练】 ： 一、用适当的并列连词填空： 1、He couldn?t know the truth about me, he wouldn?t treat me like this. 2、The bell is ringing the lesson is over. 3、Although he was ill, he kept on working. 4、I can?t make up my mind we will go to Shanghai we will stay in our city. 5、He doesn?t talk much, he thinks a lot. 6、It must have rained last night the ground is still wet. 7、The president will visit the town in May he will open the new hospital. 8、Jane was dressed in green Mary was dressed in blue. 9、 he did not speak distinctly I did not hear it clearly. 10、He is clever, , he often makes mistakes. 11、 did we write to her we called up her. 12、He hasn?t any money I?m going to lend him some. 13、The child was sick; he, , didn?t go to school. 14、Mary was neither happy, was she sad. 15、Put on more clothes, you?ll catch cold. 二、选择最佳答案： 16、Some are reading magazines, others are playing cards. A．or B．for C．so D．while 17、We must get up early tomorrow. we?ll miss the first bus to the Great Wall. A．so B．or C．but D．however 18、——I don?t like chicken fish. ——I don?t like chicken, I like fish very much. A．and, and B．and, but C．or, and D．or, but 19、We want high speed good quality. A．both, and B．either, or C．neither, nor D．not, but also 20、In spring it is hot cold here. A．both, and B．either, or C．neither, nor D．not only, but 21、 does he writes well, he also speaks well. A．Not only, but B．Not, but C．Either, or D．Both, and 22、Use your head, you?ll work it out. A．so B．or C．and D．for 23、I want to buy the jacket, I have not enough money with me. A．but B．so C．or D．for 24、 you I am going to help Tom. A．Either, or B．Not, but C．Not only, and D．Each, and 25、The soldier was wounded, he pushed on.
A．for B．and C．so D．yet 26、——Do you know Jim quarrelled with his classmate? ——I don?t know, . A．nor don?t I came B．nor do I care C．I don?t care neither D．I don?t care also 27、He is a teacher, a singer as well. A．but B．or C．nor D．and 28、 should a man have courage, he should have wisdom and knowledge. A．Not only, but B．Neither, nor C．Either, or D．Both, and 29、We have studied English for only one year, we can perform English short plays already. A．yet B．for C．and D．or 30、She had escaped, the ring had fallen off and been damaged in the great heat of the fire. A．so B．or C．but D．and 31、The work was difficult, ,he finished in on time. A．but B．however C．otherwise D．therefore 32、The sky was cloudless the sun was shining. A．but B．and C．for D．so 33、 many times, but he still couldn?t understand it. A．Having been told B．Though he had been told C．He was told D．Having told 34、I was walking along the street I heard someone calling my name. A．when B．while C．and D．for 35、To be healthy, you must have a meal too big too small. A．either, or B．neither, nor C．not only, but also D．not, but 36、Both Jane and Ellen, Mary, are studying at the same college. A．too B．and C．as well D．as well as 37、He has never studied English before, we should give him more help. A．and B．or C．therefore D．but 38、I see your point of view; , I don?t agree with you. A．or B．but C．so D．still 39、They must stay in the water they will die. A．but B．so C．otherwise D．and 40、We played outside till sunset it began to rain. A．when B．while C．yet D．so 三、改错： 41、Although he has great learning, but he always works far into the night. 42、Because the boy is very naughty, so I?m angry with him. 43、Not only he himself works hard but he often helps others. 44、It must have rained much of late, because the river is so high. 45、They didn?t tell me whether I should write to him nor whether I should see him personally. 46、If there were no plants, we would have no animals or no meat. 47、Now of course I don?t want to say anything bad about anyone however have you noticed his strange manners? 48、 “I?m more thankful to you, sir, than I can say” I said, “ and but I must make things clear.” 49、He neither knows nor cares for what happened. 50、He did not like your suggestion, and but he raised no objection(反对).
【答案】 ： 一、 1、or 2、and 3、still / yet 4、when, or 5、but 6、for 7、when 8、while 9、Either, or 10、however 11、Not only, but 12、so 13、therefore 14、nor 15、or 二、 16、D 17、B 18、D 19、A 20、C 21、A 22、C 23、A 24、A 25、D 26、B 27、D 28、A 29、A 30、C 31、B 32、B 33、C 34、A 35、B 36、D 37、C 38、D 39、C 40、A 四、 41、去掉 but 或改为 yet 42、去掉 so 43、he 前加 does；works－work 44、because－for 45、nor－or 46、or—and 47、however—but 48、去掉 and 49、去 for 50、去掉 and 或把 but 改为 yet 或 still 七、定语从句 一、定语从句 1．定语从句三步：第一找出先行词；第二看先行词在定语从句中的语法功能（做主语、宾语或状语） ；第 三选择合适的关联词。 2．定语从句在选择关连词 that 与 which 时，常常容易出错，所以应记住什么时候只能用 that，什么时候 只能用 which. （1） ．只能用 that 的情况归纳 4 种：即先得词被序数词最高级修饰过；先行词为 all 、everything、nothing 等不定代词；先行词同时是人和物并列时；最后先行词分别被 the only 、the very the same、the last 修饰。 请看下列四组例句，注意其先行词： ①．The first thing that we should do is to work out a plan . ②．I t almost seemed as if the good man were trying to teach us all that he knew at this lesson . ③．Later my father and Mr.Crosset talked for about half an four of things and persons that they remembered in school. ④．This is the very dictionary that I want to find . （2） ．只用 which is 情况有两种情况：一是非限制性定语从句，关连词要用 which；二是做介词宾语时只 能用 which。请看下列两组例句： I said nothing , which made him more angry . I have the book about which you are talking . 三、在定语从句的非限制性定语中，which 和 as 是容易混淆的。在很多情况下两者兼可互换，但在下列 情况中不可互换： 1、通常 As 可以放在整句的句首，而 which，只能在逗号之后，as 本身含有“正如” ，as 在定语从句 中既可是主语也可做宾语 As appear from her paper ,she has read widely in Romantic literature. She is remarkable, as I have told you . 2、 which 在做非限制性定语从句关联词时可以无明确先行词， 指前句整个的意思， she has warried 如：
again,which surprises us . 四、在定语从句中，许多人往往分不清 all that 和 what,what 实际上只引导名词性从句，它相当于 all that 两个字，例如： All that I know is that he has made up his mind to heave the country for a new place. = what I know is that ?? 一、限定性定语从句： 种类 定 先行词 （人）在 从句中 做主语 或宾语 关联词 who 例句 说明 This is the doctor who saved the who 在从句中做主语 boy?s life . whom 在从句中做宾语， 这就是救了孩子生命的医生。 口 语中 who 可 以代 替 She is the new student whom I want whom，也可以被省去， to introduce to you . 但做介词宾语时只能用 whom 她就是我要介绍给你的新学生 Please pass me the book which is lying on the table. 请递给我摆在桌上的那本书。 which 在从句中做主语。 The novel which Tom bought is which 充当宾语时可以 very interesting. 省去。 汤姆买的小说很有意思。 Can you lend me the magazine about which you talked yesterday? which 做介词宾语不可 你能把昨天谈到的那本杂志借给 省 我吗？
语 which 从 物 在从句 中做主 语或宾 语
种类 先行词 关联词
定 语 从 句
人 或 物 的
whose The professor whose daughter teaches you whose 在从句中做定 English is Dr. Williams 语 那位教授是威廉斯他的女儿教你英语。 指某人的也可以用? The professor, the daughter of whom teaches of whom 代替 whose you English is Dr. Williams. The bike whose brake was damaged has now 指物时也可以用?of been repaired. which 代替 whose 那辆坏了闸的自行车现在已经修好了。 =The bike the brake of which was damaged has now been repaired that The woman that is playing the piano is Miss that 指人做主语 Zhang. 正在弹钢琴的那位妇女是张小姐。 I?d like to see the films that are just on show. that 指物做主语 我想看那些刚上映的电影。 例 句 说 明
种类 先行词 关联词
物 that all, little much 和 some,an y every ,no 构成的 合成代 that 词
人 或 物 that 定 语 从 句 物 when 时 间 或 人
They talked for about an hour of things and 先 行 词 分 别 表 示人 persons that they remember in the school. 和物， 关系代词要用 他们谈起他们所记得起的学校里的人和事， that， 不 用 who 或 which 谈了大约有半个小时。 I?ll tell you all(that )I know about it . 先行词表示物， 关系 我要告诉你我所知道这件事的一切情况。 代 词 用 that 不 用 Is there anything (that) I can do for you? which, 在 从 句 中 做 有什么我可以帮助做的事吗？ 宾语可省去 。如果 I?ve brought everything (that )you need. 先行词是人时， 关系 我把你需要的东西都拿来了。 代 词 不 受 制 约 ，用 that 或 who (whom) 均可 This is the best film that I have seen . 这是我看过的最好的一部电影。 The first place that we?ll visit is Beijing Library. 先 行 词 被 形 容 词最 我们要参观的第一个地方是北京图书馆 高 级 或 序 数 词 修饰 时 定 语 从 句 用 that 引导。
He is the only person that is believable. 先 行 词 被 the only, 他是唯一可靠的人。 the very,the same 等 John is the very person that she wants to see. 修 饰 时 用 关 系 代词 that. 约翰正是她要见的人。 Who is the man that is talking with Tom ? 正在和汤姆谈话的人是谁？ Which of the books that you bought is easy to 当 主 句 以 who 、 read? which 开头的特殊疑 你买的那些书中哪一本容易读。 问句时， 定语从句要 用 that He came at a time when we. needed him most. 在 定 语 从 句 中 作时 他在我们最需要的时候来了。 间状语 We?ll never forget the day when the People?s Republic of China was founded. 我们永远不会忘记中华人民共和国成立的那 一天。
注：先行词是 time, minute, moment, next tim 很少用关系副词 when,可用 that 但通常省去。 地点 原因 理由 where This is the room where he put up for the 在定语从句中作地点状语 night. 这就是他渡过夜晚的那房子。 why I know the reason why she studies so well . 在定语从句中作原因状语 我知道她学习好的原因。
种类 先行词 关联词
非 限 制 性 定 语 从 句
who George ,who is my classmate, has who, whom 不能省去，也不能用 人 whom won a scholarship. that 代替 乔治获得了奖学金，他是我的同 学。 Dr. Li , whom I know very well, will come here tomorrow. 李大夫明天将来这儿，我跟他很 熟悉。 which I gave him a New Year card ,which which 指物，不可省去，也不能 he enjoyed very much. 物 用 that 代替 我给他一张贺年卡， 他很喜欢它。 He studies hard at school when he 没有固 which was young, which leads to his which 作主语指它前面的整个句 success in his later life . 定的先 子，不可用 that 代替，强调结果。 行词而 他年轻时在校学习努力，这导致 是一个 了他后来生活中的成功。 句子 He gets up early ，as is always his as habit. as 指全句，在从句中做主语。 他总是早起床，这是他的习惯。 John was admitted into the college, as we had expected. as 指全句意思， 在从句中做宾语。 约翰被大学录取了，这是我们期 待的。 The earth ,as is known to all ,is as 引导的定语从句可以放在句 round. 首，句中或句末。 人人皆知，地球是圆的。
This is the same book as I lost 用 于 the same ? as, such ? yesterday. as ,as?as 等结构中。 这本书与我昨天丢失的那本书一 样。 （3）限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句 从句与先行词的关系 非限制性定语从句 从句是先行词不可缺少的定 从句只是对先行词的附加说 语，如果省去，主句的意思就 明， 如果省去,主句的意思仍然 会不完整或不明确。 清楚或完整 从句和主句之间不用逗号分开 从句和主句之间通常用逗号分 开
关 系 代 词 修饰 翻译
指人 who (that) whom 指人 who（作主语）whom（做 指物 which (that) 宾语） 人和物 whose 指物 which 关系代词在从句中作宾语时可 人和物的 whose 以省去 关系代词一般不可省
定语从句译在被修饰词的前面 定语从句通常被译成另一个独 立的句子
【专项训练】 1．Football is a very interesting game , is played all over the world． A．that B．which C．it D．who 2．Is there anything else you require? A．which B．that C．who D．what 3．The last place we visited was the Great Wall． A．which B．that C．where D．it 4．He talked happily about the men and books interested him greatly in the school． A．which B．who C．it D．that 5．The reailway tunnel,though the train goes, will be completed soon． A．which B．that C．it D．whom 6．His uncle works in a factory bicycles are made． A．that B．which C．where D．there 7．There is no dictionary you can find everything． A．that B．which C．where D．in that 8．Next month, you?ll spend in your hometown is coming． A．which B．that C．when D．where 9．Next month, you?ll be in your hometown is coming． A．which B．that C．when D．where 10．I often thought of my childhood , I lived on a farm． A．which B．where C．when D．who 11．He wanted to know the time he needed to know ． A．that B．when C．where D．what
12．There isn?t so much noise in the country in big cities． A．that B．which C．where D．as 13．They could only read such stories had been rewritten in simple English ． A．that B．which C．as D．what 14．The stems of bamboo are hollow makes them very light． A．which B．as C．that D．it 15．Crusoe?s dog hecame ill and died , made him very lonely ． A．as B．which C．that D．this 16．They?ve invited me to their party , is kind of them． A．as B．which C．That D．this 17． we know now ,bats come out only at night ． A．As B．Which C ．That D．What 18．John got beaten in the game , had been expected ． A．as B．that C．what D．who 19． has been said above ,grammar is a set of dead rules． A．Which B．What C．That D．As 20．Do you know the reason he was late? A．that B．which C．for what D．for which 21．He built a telescope he could study the skies． A．in which B．with that C．through which D．by it 22．I have bought two ballpens , writes well ． A．none of which B．neither of which C．none of them D．neither of them 23．There are two thousand students in our school , are girls ． A．of whom two thirds B．two -thirds of them C．two -third in them D．two -thirds in which 24．Do you know the man ? A．whom I spoke B．to who I spoke C．I spoke to D．that I spoke 25．The factory we?ll visit next week isn?t far from here ． A．where B．in which C．which D．to which 26．This is one of the best films this year． A．have been shown B．that have shown C．that have been shown D．which has been shown 27．Can you lend me the book the other day ?
A．you talked about B．about that you talked C．that you talked D．which you talked 28．Is there any one in you class family is in the city ． A．who B．who?s C．which D．whose 29．I?ll never forget the days we stayed together． A．when B．in which C．which D．what 30．Is some German friends visited last week ? A．this school B．this the school C．this school one D．this school where 31．I?ll tell you he told me last month ． A．all which B．all what C．that all D．all 32．Do you know the reason she got so angry yesterday? A．for why B．for that C．which D．why 33．I still remember the day she first wore that pink dress． A．which B．in which?? C．on that D．on which 34．I?ll show you a store you may buy all you need ． A．in which , / B．where , which C．which , that D．that , that 35．Winter is the time of year the days are short and nights are long． A．where B．when C．that D．on which 36．The train she was travelling was late． A．which B．on which C．for which D．on that 37．The second World War millions of people were killed ended in 1945． A．during which B．in that C．where D．on which 38．Is oxygen the only gas helps fire burn ? A．that B．/ C．which D．it 39．This is the best hotel in the city I know ． A．which B．that C．where D．it 40．I?ve read all the books were borrowed from the library ． A．that B．/ C．which D．they 41．The scientist and his achievements you told me about are admired by us all． A．which B．who C．that D．whose 42．She hasn?t got enough money to buy the rings ． A．which B．that
C．with which D．for which 43．Finally came the day he bad to beging his study for the next term． A．which B．since C．that D．till 44．We hope to get such a tool he is using ． A．which B．as C．that D．where 45．Is there anything to you ． A．that is belonged B．that belongs C．which belongs D．that belong 46．You can take any seat is free ． A．which B．where C．that D．in which 47．The old woman has two sons ,one is a teacher． A．of them B．of which C．of whom D．of who 48．My hometown is no longer the same it used to be ． A．which B．as C．that D．like 49．You may take anything useful ． A．you want B．what you want C．you want them D．which you want 50．He tore up my photo and upset me ． A．that B．it C．which D．what 51．During the days , he worked as a servant at the Browns． A．followed B．following C．to follow D．that followed 52．The beautiful dress Miss Jones went to the ball was borrowed from a friend of hers ． A．that B．wearing which C．worn by D．in which 53．The clever boy made a hole in the wall , he could see what was going on inside the house． A．in which B．through which C．at which D．on which 54．The brave man , the tiger was shor is a good bunter． A．by which B．by whom C．by that D．of whom 55．The knife we used to cut the bread is very sharp ． A．with which B．with it C．with that D．which 【答案】 ： 1B 2B 3B 4D 5A 6C 7C 8A 9C 10 C 11 A 12 D 13 C 14 A 15 B 16 B 17 A 18 A 19 D 20 D 21 C 22 B 23 A 24 C 25 C 26 C 27 A 28 D 29 A 30 B 31 D 32 D 33 D 34 A 35 B 36 B 37 A 38 A 39 B 40 A 41 C 42 C 43 C 44 B 45 B 46 C 47C 48 B 49 A 50A
55 A 八、名词性从句
知识要点： 1、熟悉并掌握各个连接词、关系代词和连接副词的用法。 2、熟悉并掌握复合句即名词性从句（主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句） ，定语从句和状 语从句。 什么叫复合句 由一个主句和一个或一个以上的从句构成的句子叫复合句。在复合句中主句是全句的主体，从句是全 句的一个成分，不能独立。 从句通常是用关联词来引导的。在这里关联词还起联系从句和主句的作用。 主从复合句（Complex Sentences） 一、从句的种类： 主语从句（Subject Clauses） 1、名词性从句 表语从句（Predicative Clauses） Noun Clauses 宾语从句（Object Clauses） 同位语从句（Appositive Clauses） 2、定语从句 （Attributive Clauses） 3、状语从句 （Adverbial Clauses） 注：以 it 作形式主语，把主语从句后置的常用的句型有： （1）It + be + 形容词 + that 从句 （2）It + be + 名词词组 + that 从句 （3）It + be + 过去分词 + that 从句 （4）It seem, happen 等不及物动词 + that 从句 二、常用的关联词 1、从属连词 that（无词义） ；whether 是否；if 假如，是否 although(though)虽然；because 因为 when 当?时候；before 在?前；after 在?后 since 既然，自从；as 正如，尽管，一边，由于；while 在?期间 as soon as 一?就；as long as 只要；as if 好像 2、连接代词 3、连接副词 4、关系代词 5、关系副词 1、主语从句： 种类 连 词 关联词 that whether 例 句 说 明 That he will come and help you is certain. 他来帮助你是确实无疑的。 that 在句首不可省去 who, whom, which, what, whose when, where, why, how who, whom, whose, which, that when, where, why
Whether there is life on the moon is an 主 语 从 句 中 只 能 用 interesting question. 月球上有没有生命是个 whether 不可用 if。 有趣的问题。 What he wants to tell us is not clear. 他要跟 我们说什么，还不清楚。 Who will win the match is still unknown. 谁 主语从句放在句首，句 能赢得这场比赛还不得而知。 子常显得笨重，因此一般 It is known to us how he became a writer. 把它移到句子后面，前面
主 连 接 语 代 词 从 连
who what which whatever when
接 句 副 词
where why how
我们都知道他是如何成为一名作家的。 用引导词“it”来作形式 Where the English evening will be held has 主语。 not yet been announced. 英语晚会将在哪里 举行，还没有宣布。 例 句 说 明
2、宾语从句： 种类 陈述 意义 关联词 that I believe(that) he is honest. 我相信他 that 在句中不担任任何 是忠诚的。 成分，在口语或非正式的 We must never think(that) we are good in 文体中常被省去，但如从 everything while others are good in 句是并列句时,第二个分 nothing. 我们决不能认为自己什么 都 句前的 that 不可省。 好，别人什么都不好。 I wonder whether he will come or not. whether 常与 or not 连 我想知道他来还是不来。 用，不能用 if 代替。 Everything depends on whether we 作 介 词 宾 语 要 用 have enough money. 一切要看我们是否 whether 不能用 if。 有足够的钱。 I don?t know if(whether) it is interesting. 我不知道它是否有意思。 He doesn?t care if it isn?t a fine day. 他 从句是否定句时一般用 if 不在乎天气是否好。 引导。 Please tell me what you want. 请告诉 宾 语 从句 作 及 物动 词 我你需要什么？ 宾语也可做介词的宾语。 She always thinks of how she can work well. 她总是在想怎样能把工作做 好。 She will give whoever needs help a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人， 她都会 给予热情的支持。 We must make it clear that anyone who 如 果 宾语 从 句 后面 有 breaks the law will be punished. 我们必 宾语补足语， 则用 it 作形 须认清无论谁违反了法律都要受到惩 式宾语，将从句后置。 罚。 We don?t think you are here. 我们认为 think, believe, imagine, 你不在这。 suppose 等动词引出的宾 I don?t believe he will do so. 我相信他 语从句，要将从句中的否 不会这样做。 定形式，移动主句中。 例 句 说 明
特殊 who, whom, 疑问 which,whose, 意义 what, when, where, why, how,whoever, whatever, whichever 注1
3、表语从句： 种类 表 语 从 连 词 连 接 代 关联词 that The problem is(that) they can?t get here early enough. 在非正式的文 whether 问题是他们不能很早到达这里。 体中 that 可以省 as if It looks as if it?s going to rain. 看起来天要下雨。 去。 who what which That?s just what I want. 这正是我想要的。 表语从句位于 The question is who(which of you) will be the next 主句系动词之后 speaker. 问题是谁（你们哪一位）接着发言。
词 句 连 接 副 词 when where why how This is where our problem lies. 这就是我们的问题 所在。 That is why he didn?t come to the meeting. 那就是 他为什么不到会的原因。 例 句 说 明
4、同位语从句： 种类 同 位 语 从 句 关联词 由 连 词 The news that he had landed on the moon spread 同位语从句 说明其 that 引导， all over the world. 他曾在月球上登陆这个消息传 前面的名词的具体内 不 担 任 成 遍世界。 容，常用的名词如： 分，也可有 I have no idea when he will come back home. 我 fact, news, idea, hope, when, how, 不知道他什么时候回来。 thought,question, order, doubt, word, where 等引 The thought came to him that Mary had probably fear, 导。 fallen ill. 他想到可能玛丽生病了。 proof，belief, story 等。 He must answer the question whether he agrees to it or not. 他必须回答他是否同意此事这样一个问 题。
名词性从句包括四种从句即主语从句、表词从句、宾语从句和同位词从句。名词性从句的特点：that 、 who、 whom、 what 、whether 及 when、 where 引导名词性从句时必须是陈述句词序： 1、主词从句： That light travels in straight line is known to all . (That 引导主语从句不可省） When the plan is to take off hasn?t been announced ． 主语从句通常以 it 做形主语出现 It was my fault that I had him play foatball all faternoon. It is important that we should go to the school to talk with the teacher. 2、表语从句，即名词性从句放在表语位置就是表语从句，需要注意的，主语 是 reason 时，表语要用 that 引导而不是 because． The reason why he was late was that he missed the train by one minute this morning . 3、宾语从句 that 常可以省略，并且注意时态呼应，当主句为过去时时，从句 时态一定往前推移，不可出现现在时或现在完成时。 The teacher told us that Tomo had left us for America． 4、同位语从句注意与定语从句区别，同位语从句对前一名词做补充说明，在 从句中无语法位置，而定语从句所修饰词在从句中占一语法位置如： The idea that one can do the work without thinking is wrong．( 同位 idea 在从句中 无位置，而从句只是具体说明 idea 的内容） 。 The idea that you put forward at the meeting is wrong ．(定语从句，idea 做 put forward 的宾语)。 【专项训练】 1．I wonder how much ． A．cost these shoes B．do these shoes cost C．these shoes cost D．are these shoes cost 2．Nobody knew ． A．where he comes B．where he was from C．where he is from D．where does he come from 3．Excuse me ,would you please tell me ．
A．when the sports meet will be taken place ． B．when was the sports meet going to be held． C．when is the sports meet to begin ． D．when the sports meet is to take place ． 4．Cornputers can only give cut has been stored in them . A．that B．which C．what D．anything 5．She wanted to know ． A．whether I knew her and where did she work B．if I knew her and the factory she worked there C．wherther I knew her and the factory she worked D．if I knew her and the factory where she worked 6．My friend wouldn?t tell me his new car ． A．how much he paid for B．how much did he pay C．he paid how much for D．did he pay how much 7．A simple experiment shows air has some strength ． A．what B．that C．which D．who 8．He you are not going abroad． A．surprised that B．is surprised that C．surprised at D．is surprised whether 9．Father asked ． A．what was wrong with me B．what?s wrong with me C．what wrong was with me D．what wrong is with me 10．It doesn?t matter I rest or not ． A．if B．whether C．that D．when 11．The trouble is we are short of tools ． A．what B．that C．how D．why that 12．That is there appears a rainbow in the sky ． A．what B．when C．why D．however 13． I can?t understand is he wants to change his mind． A．That , that B．Which , what C．What , what D．What, why 14．It is possible he misunderstood I said． A．that ,that B．what, what C．what , that D．that , what 15．The thought he might fail in the exam worried him ． A．which B．that C．when D．/ 16．The fact he is an orphan is well known． A．what B．that C．which D．/ 17． I was free that evening
A．It happened to B．It happened that C．That happened D．It was happened that 18． I will accept the gift is none of your business． A．If B．Whether C．What D．Which 19． I have will be yours sooner or later ． A．No matter what B．No matter whatever C．Whatever D．That 20．He always thinks he can do more for the people． A．of how B．how C．of that D．why 21． in the newspaper that the Japanese Minister will arrive next Monday ． A．It says B．It is said C．It has said D．He is said 22．We think it important college students should master at least one foreign language ． A．which B．that C．what D．whether 23．Comrade Wang is to give us a talk on he saw and heard in Britain． A．what B．all what C．that D．which 24．The town is no longer it was ten years ago． A．which B．that C．what D．when 25． told yuou that was lying ． A．who B．whoever C．Anyone D．The person 26．Word came I was wanted at the office． A．which B．why C．that D．whether 27． nothing to do with us ． A．What he did is B．What he has done C．What did he do D．What he has done has 28．The problem is will go ． A．that B．that who C．who D．whoever 29． there is life on another planet is almost impossible． A．How B．That C．Why D．Whether 30． was a well -known fact． A．That their team was weak B．That their team being weak C．Their team was weak D．If their team was weak 【答案】 ： 1C 2B 3D 4C 5D 6A 7B 8B 9A 10 B 11 B 12 C 13 D 14 D 15 B 16 B 17 B 18 B 19C 20 A 21 B 22 B 23 A 24 C 25 B 26C 27 D 28 C 29 B 30 A 九、状语从句 Adverbial Clauses
知识要点： 状语从句是副词性从句，它在句子中担任状语，修饰主句的动词、形容词或副词。根据修饰的方面， 状语从句可以分为以下九种。 1、时间状语从句 2、地点状语从句 3、原因状语从句 4、目的状语从句 5、结果状语从句 6、条件状语从句 7、方式状语从句 8、 让步状语从句 9、 比较状语从句 1、时间状语从句 种类 从属连词 when 例 句 说 明 When I came into the room, he was writing when 指的是 “某一具体 a letter. 的时间” 。 当我进屋时，他正在写信。 whenever We shall go there whenever we are free. whenever 指的是“在任 我们什么时间有空，我们就去那里。 何一个不具体的时间” 。 when 间 I was walking along the street when when 意为 “这时” “在 或 suddenly someone patted me on the shoulder 那个时候” ,可以看作是 from behind. 并列句,这种用法的 我正在街上走着，这时忽然有人从后面拍 when 分句一般位于句 我的肩膀。 末。 While it was raining, they went out. 天下雨的时候，他们出去了。 I stayed while he was away. 他不在的时候我在。 while 指 “在某一段时间 里” ， “在?期间” while ， 引导的动作必须是持续 性的。
状 while 语 as 从 before 句 after till
He hurried home, looking behind as he as 引导持续性动作，强 went. 调主句和从句的动作同 他赶快回家，不时地一边走一边向后看。 时发生。 Be a pupil before you become a teacher. 先做学生，再做先生。 He arrived after the game started. 比赛开始后，他到了。 We waited till (until)he came back . 我们一直等到他回来。 例 句 如主句动词是持续性动 作，常用肯定式，表示 “直到?为止” 说 明 before 译为在?之前
种类 从属连句 until
She didn?t stop working until eleven o?clock . 如主句动词是瞬间动 她到 11 点钟才停止工作。 词，常用否定式，表 Until he had passed out of sight, she stood 示“直?才” “在?以 there. 前不”,从句放在句首 她站在那里看着，直到看不见他的身影。 表 示 强 调 ， 一 般 用
时 since 间 状 as soon as
until Great changes have taken place in China 状语从句在主句之前 since 1978. 时一般用逗号与主句 自从 1978 年以来中国发生了巨大的变化。 分开，如从句在主句 As soon as I arrive in Shanghai, I?ll write to 之后则不必用标点符 you.我一到上海就给你写信。 号。
语 hardly ? I had hardly got home when it began to rain. hardly ? when 和 no when 我刚一到家，就下雨了。=Hardly had I got sooner ? than 的 意 义 home when it began to rain. 从 相当于 as soon as,但只 no sooner? No sooner had we got to the station than the 表 示 过 去 发 生 的 事 train left. 句 than 情，主句为过去完成 我们刚到车站，火车就走了。 时，从句为过去时， Hardly had we begun when we were told to 如 hardly 或 no sooner stop. 位于句首时语气强， 我们刚开始就被叫停。 而且主句的谓语要用 部分倒装。 every time, Every time I travelled by boat, I got seasick. by the time, 我每次乘船都晕船。 the moment The moment I heard the song, I felt cheerful. 等 我一听到这首歌，就感到很愉快。 Next time you come ,you?ll see him. 下次你来的时候，就会见到他。 where 地 点 wherever 状 语 从 句 原 because 因 状 语 since 从 句 Where there is a will, there is a way. 有志者，事竟成。 Where there is water there is life. 哪里有水，哪里就有生命。 You are free to go wherever you like. 你可以随意到你喜欢的任何地方去。 Wherever you go, you must obey the law. 无论你去哪都要遵守法律。 在时间状语从句中， 不能用将来时或过去 将来时，而要用现在 时或过去时代替将来 时。 where 与 wherever 意 义基本相同，但后者 语气较强，多用于书 面语。
I came back late yesterday because I was on because 用来回答 why duty. 的问题，语气最强一 昨天我回来晚了，因为我值班。 般放在主句之后 Since everyone is here, let?s begin our since 表示既然或全已 meeting. 知的理由,稍加分析即 既然大家都到了，我们开始开会。 可表明的原因,多放句 首 例 句 说 明
种类 从属连句 as 原 因 状 语
As he didn?t know much English, he looked 从句常放在句首，说明 up the word in the dictionary . 原因，主句说明结果， 由于他英语懂得不多，他在字典中查阅这 常用于口语中。 个单词。
now that, Now (that) the weather has cleared up, we seeing (that), now that seeing that can start our journey. 和 since, as 意义相似，
鉴于天气已经晴朗，我们可以启程了。 他们都有“鉴于某个事 Seeing (that) he was badly ill, we sent for 实”的意思，that 可以 the doctor. 省去。 鉴于他病情严重， 我们派人去请医生去了。 I shall write down your telephone number 目的状语从句中常用情 that I may not forget. 态动词 may (might) can 我要把你的电话号码记下来，以免忘记。 (could) ,should 等放在 so that We?ll tell you the truth so that you can judge 动词之前，从句往往放 for yourself. 在主句之后，主从句之 我把真实情况告诉你，使你能自己作出判 间不用任何标点符号 断。 in order They worked harder than usual in order that that they could finish the work ahead of time . 他们比往常更加努力工作，为了能提前完 成工作。 lest = for Put on more clothes lest (= for fear that ) fear that you should catch cold. 多穿点衣服，以免患感冒。 that so that We turned up the radio, so that everyone so that 前有逗号为结果 heard the news. 状语从句。 我们把收音机的音量放大，大家都听到了 so?that 的 so 后面跟形 新闻。 容词或副词。 He was so excited that he couldn?t say a word. 他十分激动，以致一句话都说不出来。
目 的 状 语 从 句
结 果 状 语 从 句 such that so?that
? He gave such important reasons that he was such?that 的 such 后面 excused.他说出了这么重要的理由， 得到大 跟名词，如果名词是单 家的谅解。 数就要用 such a /an? It is such an interesting novel that all of us that 还可以转换用 so? want to read it. that，语气较强 It is so interesting a novel that all of us want to read it. 这是一本十分有意思的书，大家都想看。 例 句 说 明
种类 从属连句 if
Difficulties are nothing if we are not afraid unless 从句的谓语只能 of them. 用肯定式。 unless 和 if? 条 如果我们不怕困难， 困难就算不了什么了。 同义， not unless 是书面 We shall go there tomorrow unless it rains. 语，if?not 是口语，通 件 unless 除非下雨，我们明天就去那里。 常二者可以换用。 = We shall go there tomorrow if it doesn?t 条件状语从句中的谓语 rain. 状 动词的时态一般要用现 So/As long as you work hard, you will 在时或过去时代替一般 语 as/so long succeed. 将来时或过去将来时。 as 只要你努力工作，你就一定能成功。 In case I forget, please remind me about it . 从 in case 万一我忘了，请提醒我一下。
句 so far as
So far as I know, the book will be published next month. 据我所知，那本书下月出版。 Draw a cat as I taught you . 此处 as 译为， 按照或正 按照我教你的画一只猫。 如 Do as you are told. as if 或 as though 的意义 按照人家告诉你做的去做。 和用法基本一样。从句 She looks as if she is ill. 中可以用现在时表示可 看上去她好象是生病了。 能符合事实，也可以用 He acted as if (though) nothing had 虚拟语气。 happened. 他的行动就好象什么也没有发生。 They treat the black boy as if (though) he were an animal. 他们对待这黑孩子仿佛他是一头牲口。 Although (Though) he was over sixty, (yet) 在句子中一般用了“虽 he began to learn French. 然” 就不能再用 “但是” 虽然他六十多岁了，但仍开始学习法语 。 （but）但可以与 yet 或 We were not tired though (although) we had still 连 用 。 though / worked all day. although 意义相同，用 虽然我们干了一天活，但并不累。 法基本一样， 前者通俗， 口语化，后者正式多放 主句的前面。 I?ll go even if (though) it rains tomorrow. 即使明天下雨，我也要去。 even if 和 even though 的意思为 “即使”纵使” “ 有退一步设想的意味， 多用于书面语中。 说 明
as 方 式 as if? 状 as though 语 从 句 though 让 步 although 状 语 even if 从 even though 句 种类 从属连词 as 让
Child as he is , he knows a lot . as 引出的状语从句多用 虽然他是一个孩子，但他懂得很多。 于书面语，它比用 Cold as it is, (= Though it is cold,)the though 或 although 引导 children play outdoors. 的从句，语气强，更有 虽然天气冷，但孩子们仍在户外玩。 表现力，从句常放在句 首，语序部分倒装。
no matter Do it no matter what others say. no matter ? ? 与 (who, 不管别人怎么说,尽管干。 who-ever 引导的让步状 what No matter how busy he was, he studied 语从句意义基本一 样， when, English every day. no matter??引导的从 where 不管他多忙，他都每天坚持学习英语。 句可是以位于主句前或 which, No matter who takes up the matter for me ,I 主句后。 how?) shall be very grateful. 不管谁为我处理这件事， 我都将非常感激。
wh － ever Whatever happens / may happen , we shall wh－ever 从句中的动 (whatever not lose heart. 词有时可以和 may 连 whoever 无论发生什么，我们都不要失去信心。 用。 判断 wh－ever 引导 whenever Whoever comes, he will be welcome. 的是状语从句还是名词 whichever 无论谁来，都会受到欢迎。 性从句的一点是，名词 however) 性从句，主句中一定有 一个成分要在从句担 任，一般从句与主句之 间没有逗号。 不 可 将 no matter 与 wh—ever 连用 Mary is as old as my sister. 玛利和我姐姐一样大。 not so/as He doesn?t run so (as) fast as Jack (does). ?as 他不如杰克跑得那样快。 the same His book is the same as mine. ?as 他的书和我的一样。 such?as Henry is not such a good worker as Peter . 享利这个工人不如彼得那样好。 as?as than 连词表示同程度级的比 较，肯定句用 as?as 否 定句可用 not as?as 或 not so?as
比 较 状 语 从 句
She has made greater progress this year than 表示不同程度之比较， she did last year. 主句中用比较级的形容 她今年比去年进步更大。 词或副词。 He bought fewer books than I (did). 他买的书比我买的少。 例 句 说 明
种类 从属连句 比 较 状 语 从 句
the more The more you read, the better you the more?the more 意 ? the understand. 思为越?越?，通常的 more 你看的书越多，你懂得的就越多。 语序为从句在前主句在 The more tickets you sell, the more money 后，这两个 the 都是表 you will get. 示程度的副词，用在比 你卖的票越多，你的收入也越多。 较级的形容词或副词前 The harder you work, the greater progress 面。 you will make. 你工作越努力，你取得的进步就越大。 The sooner, the better. 句子意思明显，句子的 越快越好。 主语和动词都可省略。 The warmer, the better. 越暖和越好。 that We are sure (that )the four modernization that 引导的从句，往往 will be realized in China . 跟在一个做表语的形容 我们相信四化一定会在中国实现。 词后面，从句概念上看 I?m sorry (that) I didn?t have time to write 是宾语，所以有的语法 you sooner. 家把它看做是宾语从 很抱歉，我没有抽出时间早点给你写信。 句，但结构上看，也可 I am afraid that I can?t go with you. 以把它看作是一个特殊
特 殊 形 式 的 状
语 从 句
的状语从句，用来修饰 表语的形容词。这种从 句的连词常常被省略。
【专项训练】 ： Ⅰ、选择填空： 1、You like sports I?d like to read. A．when B．while C．but D．yet 2、 we were singing, the teacher came in. A．Before B．after C．As D．Until 3、I was about to leave my house the phone rang. A．while B． when C．as D．after 4、They did not stop fighting there was no enemy left. A．until B．after C．when D．since 5、I have not seen him he went to college. A．when B．before C．as D．since 6、It is five days we came here. A．when B．before C．as D．since 7、It was not long he got to know it. A．when B．before C．after D．until 8、We shall go we are free. A．whenever B．whatever C．wherever D．however 9、 I live I must serve the people heart and soul. A．When B．So long as C．As soon as D．On condition 10、I was reading a novel he was watchingTV. A．when B．while C．before D．as 11、Put the medicine you can easily get it. A．so that B．where C．which D．there 12、We will go the Party wants us to go. A．wherever B．there C．to the place D．which 13、 there is a will there is a way. A．When B．Where C．Whether D．How 14、I am going you went last week. A．where B．wherever C．when D．the place 15、 you go , you should bear the motherland in your mind. A．Where B．Wherever C．Whatever D．However 16、 weather permits, we?ll have an outing. A．For B．Though C．While D．If 17、You won?t succeed harder. A．unless you will work B．unless you work C．unless you don?t work D．if you won?t work 18、I wonder if he us, and I think if he us we?ll be able to complete the task ahead of time. A．helps, helps B．will help, helps C．helps, will help D．will help, will help 19、I don?t like to be interrupted if I . A．speak B．will speak C．am speaking D．spoke 20、If you this experiment you will understand the theory better.
A．will be doing B．have done C．will have done D． would do 21、I would like to do it I like it. A．since B．because C．because of D．now that 22、 everybody is here, Let?s set off. A．Since B．Because C．For D．After 23、It was he was ill that he was absent yesterday. A．because B．as C．since D．now that 24、 it is raining, we had better take a taxi. A．For B．As C．Because of D．When 25、 “Why can?t you do it now?” “ I?m too busy.” A．Since B．As C．Because D．For 26、He must have passed this way, here are his footprints. A．since B．because of C．now that D．for 27、 everybody is here, Let?s begin our meeting. A．Now that B．Because C．For D．When 28、His speech made deep impression on the audience that they could hardly forget it. A．such a B．so a C．so D．such 29、They worked hard they finished their work ahead of time. A．so B．so that C．such that D．so as to 30、He was weak he couldn?t stand up. A．such, that B．so, that C．very, that D．so, as to 31、The foreigner spoke his interpreter could hardly catch his words. A．such fast that B．so fast C．so fast that D．so fastly that 32、The book is it gives a wrong idea of the facts. A．so writing that B．such written that C．such writing that D．so written that 33、The house cost we didn?t buy it. A．so much money that B．so many money that C．such much money that D．such many money that 34、It is all of us can do it. A．so easy exercise that B．such easy an exercise C．such easy exercise D．so easy an exercise that 35、She has she remembers all the names of the students she has taught. A．so good memory that B．such a good memory that C．such good memory that D．good memory 36、They stopped at Tianjing they might visit the TV tower. A．so B．because C．so that D．in order 37、We all got up early we might start at six. A．in order that B．in order to C．so D．so as to 38、Let the dog loose so that it have a run. A．should B．must C．could D．need 39、 clearly so that your teacher you correctly. A．Write, can understand B．Having written, can understand C．To write, could understand D．Writing, will understand 40、He started early so that he there in time.
A．could get B．got C．had got D．would have got 41、 it was late , she went on working. A．Though B．Because C．Since D．Whether 42、 we fail , we trying. A．Even if , don?t stop B．Even though, won?t stop C．Even, will not stop D．Even although, shall never stop 43、 the pain was bad, he did not complain. A．Although, but B．Though, but C．Though, yet D．Even, still 44、 physics, he likes maths better. A．As he much likes B．Much as he likes C．Much likes as he D．Likes much as he 45、 telephones, tell him I?m out. A．No matter whoever B．Who C．Whoever D．Anyone 46、We?ll carry the reform to the end happens. A．no matter how B．whatever C．anything D．no matter which 47、It takes time to go there by plane than by ship. A．far fewer B．far less C．much fewer D．more less 48、He is taller than in his class. A．others B．all the students C．any other one D．the other 49、 it was finished in time. A．As the work was difficult B．Difficult as the work was C．Difficult as was the work D．As was the work difficult 50、I am sorry I have caused so much trouble. A．that B．for C．as D．since 51、 he came, he would bring us a lot of flowers. A．Every times B．one time C．Every time D．Once a time 52、I?ll tell him about it I see him. A．as soon as B．so soon as C．while D．as 53、I had hardly sat down the telephone rang A．than B．when C．as D．after 54、Sit you like. A．where B．at the place C．as D．wherever 55、 he wasn?t ready in time, we went without him. A．Since B．As C．For D．Because of 56、All plants need air they need water. A．like B．as if C．as D．so 57、Work hard you can succeed. A．in order to B．so that C．for fear that D．in case 58、If you I will go with you. A．go to B．went C．will D．should go 59、The hard he works, he will make. A．the greater B．the greater progress
C．and the more D．more 60、 we have thought it over , we?ll take steps. A．Till, not B．When , no C．Until, any D．Until, no Ⅱ、改错 1、It won?t matter even he refuses. 2、Jim imagined that the whole world knew of his achievements, when in fact only a few people had heard of it . 3、He realized that his house must have been broken into the minute he got home and saw that everything was in a mess. 4、He was looking for the dictionary whenever he thought he might have put it . 5、No matter if he is free, he must go to the library. 6、I have not missed a play or a concert when I was seventeen years old. 7、Next time that I plan to travel in London, I?m going to take a plane. 8、I?m not going to talk on the point any further, though it is neither important nor very interesting. 9、Much since I like all the books, I can?t afford to buy them. 10、Alic was waiting for the bus then she noticed a thief running out of a shop. 11、It has been two and a half months ago since he left. 12、Though the work was difficult, but we managed to finish it in time. 13、The test shows that Jack has a much quicker mind than any student in his class. 14、He left for Guangzhou by train last Monday. He ought to have arrived, I think.. 15、They wrote to the boss in order they could improve their working conditions. 16、He goes fishing wherever he has time, which is not often. 17、I don?t know when he comes tomorrow . If he comes , let me know at once. 18、When you read a book, you?d better make a mark that you have any questions. 19、Ships are much more slower than planes that few people take them on business. 20、She has such little education that she is unfit for the job. 【答案】 ： Ⅰ、 1、 B 2、C 3、B 4、A 5、D 6、D 7、B 8、 A 9、B 10、B 11、B 12、A 13、B 14、A 15、B 16、D 17、B 18、B 19、C 20、B 21、B 22、A 23、A 24、B 25、C 26、D 27、A 28、A 29、B 30、B 31、C 32、D 33、A 34、D 35、B 36、C 37、A 38、C 39、A 40、A 41、A 42、B 43、C 44、B 45、C 46、B 47、B 48、C 49、B 50、A 51、C 52、A 53、B 54、D 55、B 56、C 57、B 58、C 59、B 60、D Ⅱ、 1、even 后加 if 2、when—while 3、minute—moment 4、whenever—wherever 5、if —whether 6、when —since 7、that 去掉或改为 when 8、though—because 9、since—as 10、then—when 11、ago 去掉 12、but 去掉 13、any 后加 other 14、? 15、order 后加 that 16 、 wherever—whenever 17、第一个 comes—will come （宾从时态不限） 18、that—where 19、more 去掉 20、such—so 十、 “It”的用法和“There be”结构
知识要点： 一、代词 it 用 法 例 句 代替前文提到过 This is a new dictionary. I bought it yesterday. 的东西或事情， 这是一本新词典，我昨天买的。 用作人称代词。 Tom joined the army last mouth. Do you know about it? 汤姆上月入伍了，你知道这事吗？ 代替指示代词， Is this your car? No, it isn?t. 这是你的汽车吗？不是。 起着 this 或 that What?s that?—It?s a video. 那是什么？它是一台录像机。 的作用 Whose room is this?—It is theirs.这是谁的房间，是他们的。 指明某人或某物 Who?s there? It?s me. (It?s John) 谁在那儿？是我。 （是约翰） 的身分，还可指 Go and see who it is that rings. It?s Bill. 不明性别的婴儿 去看看是谁来的电话，是比尔。 The Greens have a new baby. It?s lovely. 格林家有一个新生婴儿。它很可爱。 指时间，距离， It?s Sunday today. 今天是星期天。 It?s 自然现象 （天气， three months since he came here. 气候，明暗）量 自从他来到这里，已经三个月了。 度，价值等 How far is it to the Great Wall .到长城有多远？ It?s getting dark. 天快黑了。 —How much is the coat? —It?s ninety dollars. 这件衣服多少钱？九十美元。 二、引导词 it 用 法 例 句 代 替不 定 It is up to you to decide. 这事要由你决定。 It makes me happy to hear you have recovered. 形 式短语 听说你恢复了健康，这使我很高兴。 式 代 替动 名 It?s no good smoking. 吸烟没有好处。 It?s worthwhile working the whole night on the problem. 词短语 主 用整夜的时间来研究那个问题是值得的。 代 替主 语 It doesn?t matter what you do. 你干什么都没有关系。 It seems that everyone has known the news. 语 从句 好象大家都知道这个消息。 I consider it better to be early. 代 替不 定 我认为能够早一些更好。 We found it impossible to get there before July . 形 式短语 式 我们觉得，要在七月以前到达那里是不可能的。 宾 代 替动 名 We thought it no use doing that. 语 词短语 我们认为做那事没有用。 代 替宾 语 The teacher makes it clear that everyone should hand in his homework on time . 从句 老师清楚地指出，每个人都应该按时交作业。 三、it 在强调结构中 强调句型：It is (was) +被强调部分+ that (who) + 其它
强调 部分 主
语 It is I who am to blame. 是我该受责怪。 原句的谓语动词如果是 It was your uncle that (who) came 现 在 或 将 来 时 态 用 It yesterday. is ?that(who)如果原句 昨天来的是你叔叔。 谓语动词是过去时态， 则 用 It was?that(who)。在 语 It was a new pen that Mother gave me . 母亲给我的是一支新钢笔。 地点 It was in the classroom that I left my umbrella. 我把雨伞就落在了教室里。 强调时间， 地点， 原因或 方 式 时 不 要 用 when, where, how, 必须用 that。
时间 It is at eleven that the train leaves. 状 火车是在十一点钟离开。 方式 It was just as he ordered that I acted. 我正是照他吩咐的那样做的。 语 原因 It was because he was in trouble that I tried my best to help him. 正是因为他处境困难我才尽力帮助他。 宾 补 It was red that we painted the gate. 我们把门油漆成红的颜色。 It was chairman that they elected him . 他们选他担任的是主席的职务。 there be 结构 基本句型 肯定句 there 否定句 be 结 构 例 句 there be +主+其它 There is a map on the wall. 墙上有张地图。 there be + not +主+ There is not a map on the wall. 其它 墙上没有地图。
一般疑问句 be + there +主+其 Is there a map on the wall? 结构 它 墙上有地图吗？ 肯定与否定 回答 特殊疑问 wall? 句及回答 特殊疑问词+ be + there +主+其它 Yes ,there is . No, there isn?t. 是的，有 不，没有 —How many maps are there on the 墙上有多少张地图？ —There are two. 有两张
注 There be 句型也可以由其它动词代替 be，常用的词有 seem to be , 1： happen to be ,appear to be, used to be 等词组或用 live, come, stand, lie, occur, exist, flow 等动词。 There seems to be much hope of our team beating theirs. 好象我们队很有希望打败他们队。 Only there lived an old fisherman in a village by the sea. 从前有一位老渔夫住在海边的一个村子里。 注 There be 之后如有几个并列主语时， is 或用 are 要取决于第一个主语 用
2： 是单数还有复数，单数用 is,复数则用 are. There is a pen, a pencil and two books on the desk. 桌上有一支钢笔，一支铅笔和两本书。 There are two books, a pen and a pencil on the desk. 桌上有两本书，一支钢笔和一支铅笔。 【专项训练】 it 的用法 1、 “Do you like fish?” “Yes, I like .” A．× B．it C．that D．them 2、 today? A．How is it B．What is it C．What is it like D．How is the weather. 3、 “Do you want a watch?” “ .” A．Yes, I want it . B．Yes, I want one. C．No, I?ve got it. D．No, I?ve got the watch. 4、 “Whose exercise-book is that?” “ hers” A．That is B．This is C．It?s D．Its 5、 won?t take long to get to Shanghai by air. A．That B．He C．It D．This 6、What he has done helps us a lot, ? A．isn?t he B．doesn?t he C．isn?t it D．doesn?t it 7、We all thought no use doing that. A．it B．that C．this D．there 8、I took it for granted you would come to our party. A．when B．why C．for what D．that 9、How happy to be able to study and live together with you! A．that will be B．is it C．will it be D．it will be 10、I thought it to be . A．him B．he C．its D．she 11、 very foolish of you to say so. A．It?s B．Its C．That?s D．This 12、It?s not his habit for things. A．asks B．ask C．to ask D．asked 13、It has been a great honour coming to visit me. A．they B．you C．she D．he 14、I found to hear what he said. A．that difficulty B．it difficulty C．that difficult D．it difficult 15、He is fifty , but doesn?t A．look at it B．look for it C．look it D．look him 16、It was who telephoned me yesterday. A．him B．his C．himself D．he 17、The sentence is wrong. A．its B．it C．itself D．it?s
18、 is no doubt that he will succeed in his experiment. A．It B．This C．That D．There 19、It seems John?s not coming after all. A．this B．that C．if D．to 20、 was a handbag that John gave Mary at Christmas. A．It B．This C．That D．Such 21、Was the room the famous writer had ever lived in? A．that, it B．it , that C．it , where D．that, which 22、 is said that he has been to many places in the United States. A．This B．He C．It D．That 23、What you want me to do? A．it is B．that C．is this D．is it that 24、Is not important who will go? A．it B．that C．this D．× 25、Why is it everyone thinks he?s a thief? A．because B．as C．when D．that 26、 being Sunday, the library was closed. A．What B．It C．That D．This 27、Is believed he is ill? A．it, that B．he, that C．it, if D．he, for 28、 is known to us Mary dances best. A．She, × B．It, that C．It, she D．She, who 29、 “What?s this?” “ a flag.” A．This is B．That?s C．It?s D．Its 30、Jack is ill. Have you heard about ? A．him B．it C．this D．that There be 结构 31、Is a typewriter in the room? A．he B．there C．it D．has 32、There?s no one in the house, is ? A．it B．he C．there D．they 33、 must be something wrong. A．It B．He C．There D．They 34、 there anyone around? A．Was B．Were C．There D．Has 35、 used to be a church round the corner. A．Here B．There C．It D．It is 36、It is reported that is going to be a storm. A．it B．there C．× D．the weather 37、There still a lot of work to be done before the house is ready for occupation. A．are B．were C．is D．have 38、There is a girl for the bus. A．to wait B．waiting C．waited D．wait 39、There a pine tree at the top of the hill. A．stands B．lies C．lives D．has 40、 will be a good film on at the Rex next week.
A．There B．It C．That D．This 改错,下列每句所给的选项中，各有一项是错的，请指出并改正。 41、He is certain that the secretary will be there. A B C D 42、I think that a good idea to get up early. A B C D 43、It makes me feel sad that see you. A B C D 44、Do you find it very dull live here? A B C D 45、It is no use to cry over spilt milk. AB C D 46、There it must have been a mistake. A B C D 47、There is going to have an English party at the weekend. A B C D 48、Is there any one who waiting to see me ? A B C D 49、There have a man sitting beyond that fence. A B C D 50、It was a car ready for us. A B C D 【答案】 ： 1、B 2、D 3、B 4、C 5、C 6、D 7、A 8、D 9、D 10、A 11、A 12、C 13、B 14、D 15、C 16、D 17、C 18、A 19、B 20、A 21、B 22、C 23、D 24、A 25、D 26、B 27、A 28、B 29、C 30、B 31、B 32、C 33、C 34、A 35、B 36、B 37、C 38、B 39、A 40、A 41、A He－it 42、B that－it 43、C that－to 44、D live 前加 to 45、C to cry－crying 46、B it 去掉 47、B have－be 48、C who 后加 is 或把 who 去掉 49、A have－is 50、A It －There 十一、交 际 英 语 知识要点： 一、Greeting（问候） 1、Good morning! (afternoon, evening) 2、Hello! (Hi) 3、How do you do? 4、How are you? 5、How are you getting on with your studies? 6、How's everything with you? 7、Did you have a nice holiday? (summer vacation) 二、Introduction（介绍） A．Introduction:
1、 This is my friend, Tom.. 2、Let me introuduce you to my friend, Tom. 3、May I introduce myself? I'm Tom. 4、Please allow me to introduce my friend, Tom. 5、I'd like you to meet my friend Tom. B．Responses: 1、How do you do? Pleased to meet you. (Glad to meet you. Nice to meet you.) 2、It's my pleasure to have this chance to meet you. 三、Farewells（告别） A．Farewells: 1、It's getting late. I must be going. 2、It's five o'clock already. I must be off now. 3、Oh, God, it's late, I've got to go. 4、It's time I was going, I'm afraid. 5、I think I must go now. 6、I think I'd better leave. 7、I'm glad to have met you. B．Responses: 1、Come again whenever you are free. 2、If you pass my home, drop in. 3、Good night, have a nice dream. 4、Can't you stay a little longer? 5、I hope we'll meet again sometime. 四、Asking and Directing the Way（问路和指路） A．Asking the way: 1、Can you tell me the way to the post office? 2、Is this the way to the post office? 3、Excuse me, how can I get to the post office? 4、Which is the nearest way to the post office? 5、Is the post office far from here? 6、How long will it take me to get to the post office? 7、Excuse me, is there a post office near here? 8、Excuse me, does this bus go to the post office? B．Responses: 1、Go ahead till you come to the next crossing. 2、No, it's not far from here. It's only about ten minutes' walk. 3、It's about 200 yards down the street. 4、Take Bus No. 3 and it will take you right there. 5、Go down the street and take the second turning on the left. 五、Asking for Time and Date（询问时间与日期） A．Asking: 1、What time is it now? 2、What's the time by your watch? 3、What day is it today? 4、What is the date today? 5、Is your watch correct?
B．Responses: 1、It's ten. 2、It's Wednesday. 3、It's October, 8th. 4、My watch says it's 7:30. 5、My watch always keeps good time. 六、Asking about Health（询问健康） A．Asking: 1、How are you these days? 2、What's wrong with you? 3、Have you seen the doctor? 4、You look tired. What's wrong? B．Responses: 1、I'm not quite myself today. 2、My stomach hurts. 3、I don't feel like eating anything today. 4、I've got a bad cold. 七、Talking about Weather（谈论天气） 1、It's a fine day, isn't it? 2、What's the temperature today? 3、What's the weather like today? 4、How is the weather? 5、What's the weather going to be like at the weekend? 6、Do you like the weather in Beijing? 7、Do you think that we are going to have snow today? 八、Invitations（邀请） A．Invitations: 1、Would you like to come to my birthday party? 2、Will you be able to come to my birthday party? 3、I'd be very glad if you would come to my birthday party. 4、Can you fix a time for a picnic? 5、Are you free tomorrow? What (How) about having a picnic? 6、Won't you come with me? 7、You will come to have dinner with me, won't you? B．Responses: 1、I'd be glad to, thank you. 2、It's very kind of you to invite me. 3、I'd like to, but I'm too busy. 4、Thank you for your kind invitation, I will. 5、I'm afraid not. I will have to look after my sick mother. 6、I'm sorry, I can't. Thank you very much. 九、Making an Appointment（约会） A．Making an appointment: 1、Are you free this afternoon? 2、How about tomorrow evening? 3、Shall we meet at 7:00 at the gate of the cinema?
4、When will you be able to see us? 5、What time can I call on you? 6、Will you be at home next Sunday? 7、Don't forget to come to my birthday party. B．Responses: 1、Tomorrow evening will be all right. 2、Yes, I'll be free then. 3、No, I won't be free then, but I'll be free next Wednesday. 十、Making a phone call（打电话） A．Making a call: 1、Hello, is Mary in? 2、Hello, is that Mary speaking? 3、Can I have your telephone number, please? 4、Hello, may I speak to Mary? 5、Could you ask him to call me, please? 6、Who is it, please? B．Responses: 1、This is Mary speaking. 2、Hold on please. 3、Mary, you are wanted on the phone. 4、Mary isn't here right now. Can I take a message for you? 十一、Shopping（购物） A．Shop assistant: 1、What can I do for you? 2、Can (May) I help you? 3、How much do you want? 4、What about this (these)? B．Customer: 1、I'd like to have a look at the sweater. 2、That's too expensive (dear), I'm afraid. 3、That's fine. I'll take it. 4、How much is it? 十二、Seeing the Doctor（看病） A．Doctor: 1、What's wrong (the matter) with you? 2、How long have you been like this? 3、Let me examine you. 4、Take this medicine three times a day. 5、Drink plenty of water and take a good rest. 6、It's nothing serious. Take it easy. B．Patient: 1、There's something wrong with my stomach. 2、I've got a pain here. 3、I feel terrible (sick). 4、This place hurts. 5、I don't feel like eating anything.
十三、Requests and Offers（请求与提供帮助） A．Requests: 1、Can (could) you do something for me? 2、Will (would) you do something for me? 3、May I have some ice—cream? 4、Please do me a favor. 5、Please don't open the window. 6、Do (Would) you mind turning down the radio? 7、I wonder if you could lend me some money. B．Offers: 1、Can (Shall) I help you? 2、What can I do for you? 3、Is there anything (else) I can do for you? 4、Would you like me to do this for you? 5、Would you like some help? 十四、Asking for Permission（请求允许） A．Ask for permission: 1、May I park my car here? 2、Can (Could) I smoke in this room? 3、Do (Would) you mind if I smoke (smoked) here? 4、I wonder if I could smoke here. B．Responses: 1、Certainly. (sure, of course), go ahead 2、Yes, please. 3、All right (OK). 4、I'm sorry, it's not allowed. 5、I'm afraid not. 十五、Advice and Suggestions（劝告和建议） 1、You'd better go to see the doctor. 2、You should do it at once. 3、Why not go on a picnic next Sunday? 4、What (How) about going there by boat? 5、Have you considered going there by boat? 6、Shall we take a walk after supper? 7、I suggest you do more reading. 8、I advise you to take more exercises. 【专项训练】 一、Greeting 1、—Hello, Joan. — Kate. Glad to see you. A．Hi B．Hello C．Good morning D．How do you do 2、—Hi, haven't seen you for ages! You look fine. — . You look well too. A．Great B．Thanks C．Oh, no D．Not at all 3、—How are you! Jane?
— A．How are you, Mary? B．Fine, thanks, and you? C．All is right. D．That's good. 4、—How do you do? — . A．Very well, thank you. B．Why, yes. I'm fine. C．How do you do? D．What about you? 5、—How's everything with you? — . A．Fine, thanks B．It's all right C．Thank very much D．I'm very well 6、—How's your work going? — A．Not too well, I'm afraid. B．Quite good. What about you? C．Fine, how are you, then? D．Well, thanks a lot. 7、—Did you have a good summer holiday? —Yes, thanks. Kate? —She's OK, thanks. A．what's is B．How is C．What's wrong D．and 8、—Glad to meet you again. How are you? —I'm just .（老样子） A．my old self B．old myself C．myself old D．as old myself 9、—It's nice to see you in New York. How's your family? — . My wife asked me to say hello to you. A．It's very well B．They are fine C．That's all right D．They are good 10、—How's the young man? — . A．He's twenty B．He's a doctor C．He's much better D．He's David
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