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大学体验英语综合教程3 UINIT1


Unit 1> Caring for Our Earth

Listen and Talk
Listen to the following passage about global warming and try to fill the blanks.

Global warming may be the most harmful environmental problem 1) have created, and the most difficult to solve. Our society is largely 2) by the fossil fuels that cause global warming. Its growing consequences — ecological disruption, floods, droughts, disease — are convincing more and more people that we must cut down 3) pollution.

Many people view global warming as a problem too large and too 4) for anything they can do to 5) . However, in reality, there are lots of things we can do to stop, or at least to reduce it. * Plant a tree. Trees “6) ” carbon dioxide, but only as long as they’re living. * Install low-low shower heads and faucets.You’ll use less than half the water without 7) . * Buy energy-efficient electronics and appliances. Then, turn them off when they’re not in use. * Reduce! Reuse!Recycle!Recycling a stack of newspapers only 8) will save a good sized tree. *

Mount a local 9) against global warming. Educate your community about how to cut greenhouse gas pollution. Support measures at the national and local levels that increase energy efficiency, and that 10) the use of clean, renewable solar and wind technology.

Answer:

1. human beings 2. powered 3. greenhouse 4. far away 5. make a difference 6. breathe in 7.

decreasing performance 8. four inches high 9. campaign 10. encourage Discuss the following topics with help of the pictures.

Passage A

Read About It Frog Story
A couple of odd things have happened lately.

I have a log cabin in those woods of Northern Wisconsin. I built it by hand and also added a greenhouse to the front of it. It is a joy to live in. In fact, I work out of my home doing audio production and environmental work. As a tool of that trade I have a computer and astudio. I also have a tree frog that has taken up residence in my studio. How odd, I thought, last November when I first noticed him sitting atop my sound-board over my computer.I figured that he(and I say he,though I really don’t have a clue if she is a he or vice versa) would be more comfortable in the greenhouse. So I put him in the greenhouse. Back he came. And stayed. After a while I got quite used to the fact that as I would check my morning email and online news, he would be there with me surveying the world. Then, last week, as he was climbing around looking like a small gray / green human, I started to wonder about him. So, there I was, working in my studio and my computer was humming along.I had to stop when Tree Frog went across my view.He stopped and turned around and just sat there looking at me.Well,I sat back and looked at him. For five months now he had been riding there with me and I was suddenly overtaken by an urge to know why he was there and not in the greenhouse,where I figured he’d live a happier frog life. “Why are you here,” I found myself asking him. As I looked at him, dead on, his eyes looked directly at me and I heard a tone. The tone seemed to hit me right in the center of my mind. It sounded very nearly like the same one as my computer. In that tone I could hear him “say” to me, “Because I want you to understand.” Yo. That was weird. “Understand what?” my mind jumped in. Then, after a moment of feeling this communication, I felt I understood why he was there. I came to understand that frogs simply want to hear other frogs and to communicate. Possibly the tone of my computer sounded to him like other tree frogs. Interesting. I kept working. I was working on a story about global climate change and had just

received a fax from a friend. The fax said that the earth is warming at 1.9 degrees each decade. At that rate I knew that the mapletrees that I love to tap each spring for syrup would not survive for my children. My beautiful Wisconsin would become a prairie by the next generation. At that moment Tree Frog leaped across my foot and sat on the floor in front of my computer. He then reached up his hand to his left ear and cupped it there. He sat before the computer and reached up his right hand to his other ear. He turned his head this way and that listening to that tone. Very focused. He then began to turn a very subtle, but brilliant shade of green and leaped full force onto the computer. And then I remembered the story about the frogs that I had heard last year on public radio. It said frogs were dying around the world. It said that because frogs’ skin is like a lung turned inside out, their skin was being affected by pollution and global climate change. It said that frogs were being found whose skin was like paper. All dried up. It said that frogs are an “indicator species”. That frogs will die first because of the sensitivity. Then, I understood. The frogs have a message for us and it is the same message that some sober folks have had for us. “There are no more choices.” We have reached the time when we must be the adults for the planet, for the sake of the future generations of humans and for frogs. Because we are related. Then I understood that there are no boundaries, that there is no more time. That we, for the sake of our relatives, must act now. And then I understood, not only why the frog was there, but, also why I am here. Think About It: 1. What is the message that the tree frog tries to send us? Answer: We must take the responsibility for the planet to stay livable before it is too late. 2. What has happened to frogs? Answer: The frog was endangered by the worsening environment. 3. How are we and frogs related? Answer: Man and animals are related as we live in the same environment.

Sentence Explanation
1. I was suddenly overtaken by an urge to know why he was there and not in the greenhouse, where I figured he’d live a happier frog life. Suddenly I had a strong urge to know why he was there and not in the greenhouse, where I

thought he’d live a happier frog life. 2. The tone seemed to hit me right in the center of my mind. The tone seemed to attract my intense attention. 3. “Understand what?” my mind jumped in. “Understand what?” the question came into my mind. 4. The fax said that the earth is warming at 1.9 degrees each decade. The fax said that the earth is getting 1.9 degrees warmer every ten years.

Translation
蛙的故事 最近发生了几桩怪事儿。 我在北威斯康星州的树林中有一座小木屋。是我亲手搭建的,前面还有一间花房。住在里面相当惬意。 实际上我是在户外做音频制作和环境方面的工作——作为干这一行的工具,我还装备了一间带电脑的工作 室。 还有一只树蛙也在我的工作室中住了下来。 去年十一月,我第一次惊讶地发现他(只是这样称呼罢了,事实上我并不知道该称“他”还是“她”)坐 在电脑的音箱上。我把他放到花房里去,认为他待在那儿会更舒服一些。可他又跑回来待在原地。很快我 就习惯了有他做伴,清晨我上网查收邮件和阅读新闻的时候,他也在一旁关注这个世界。 可上周,我突然对这个爬上爬下的“小绿人或小灰人”产生了好奇心。 于是有一天,我正在工作室里干活,电脑嗡嗡作响。当树蛙从我面前爬过时,我不得不停止工作。他 停下了并转过身来,坐在那儿看着我。好吧,我也干脆停下来望着他。五个月了,他一直这样陪着我。我 突然有一股强烈的欲望想了解他:为什么他要待在这儿而不乐意待在花房里?我认为对树蛙来说,花房显 然要舒适得多。 “你为什么待在这儿?”我情不自禁地问他。 我目不转睛地盯着他,他也直视着我。然后我听到一种叮咚声。这种声音似乎一下子就进入了我的大 脑中枢, 因为它和电脑里发出来的声音十分接近。 在那个声音里我听到树蛙对我“说”: “因为我想让你明白”。 唷,太不可思议了。“明白什么?”我脑海中突然跳出了这个问题。然后经过短暂的体验这种交流之后,我 觉得我已经理解了树蛙待在这儿的原因。我开始理解树蛙只是想听到其他同类的叫声并与之交流。或许他 误以为计算机发出的声音就是其他树蛙在呼唤他。 真是有趣。 我继续工作。我正在写一个关于全球气候变化的故事。有个朋友刚好发过来一份传真,说地球的温度 正以每十年 1.9 度的速度上升。我知道,照这种速度下去,每年春天我都爱去提取树浆的这片枫林,到我 孩子的那一代就将不复存在。我的故乡美丽的威斯康星州也会在下一代变成一片草原。

此刻,树蛙从我脚背跳过去站在电脑前的地板上。然后他伸出手来从后面拢起左耳凝神倾听,接着他 又站在电脑前伸出右手拢起另一支耳朵。他这样转动着脑袋,聆听那个声音,非常专心致志。他的皮肤起 了微妙的变化,呈现出一种亮丽的绿色,然后他就用尽全力跳到电脑上。 我猛然想起去年在收音机里听到的一则关于青蛙的消息,说是全世界的青蛙正在死亡。消息说因为青 蛙的皮肤就像是一个内里朝外的肺,所以正在受到污染和全球气候变化的影响。据说已经发现有些青蛙的 皮肤已变得像纸一样干瘪。还说青蛙是一个“物种指示器”,由于对环境敏感,这个物种会先遭灭顶之灾。 这时我明白了。 青蛙向我们传递了一个信息。一些头脑清醒的人士也曾向我们传递过同样的信息,那就是“我们别无选 择。”我们已经进入了关键时刻,为了人类的子孙后代,也为青蛙,我们必须对这个星球负起主人的责任。 因为我们休戚相关。 我还明白了我们之间没有界限,明白了时间的紧迫。 为了我们的亲人,我们必须马上行动起来。 于是我明白了这只青蛙此行的目的,也知道自己在这儿该做些什么。

Read and think
partner the frog, or vice versa. The conversation should cover the following steps.

1.

You and the frog greet each other.

Answer: open

2.

You ask the frog why he prefers the studio to the greenhouse.

Answer: open

3.

The frog tells you why he comes to you.

Answer: open

4.

You tell the frog what you will do.

Answer: open

2. Find out more supporting details in the passage for the following statements, especially the underlined parts.

1.

A couple of odd things have happened lately. (Para. 3) Answer: A tree frog has taken up residence in my studio. I put the frog in the greenhouse.Back he came. And stayed.

(Para.1)

(Para.4)

(Para. 6) Answer: He stopped and turned around and just sat there looking at me.

2.

I felt I understood why he was there.(Para. 8) Frogs simply want to hear other frogs and to communicate. (Para. 8) Answer: Possibly the tone of my computer sounded to him like other tree frogs. (Para. 8)

3.

I remembered the story about the frogs. (Para. 12)

Answer: Frogs were dying around the world. Because frogs’ skin is like a lung turned inside out, their skin was being affected by pollution and global climate change. (Para. 12) Answer: Frogs were being found whose skin was like paper. (Para. 12) Answer: Frogs are an “indicator species”. (Para. 12)

4.

Then, I understood.(Para. 13) (Para. 14) Answer: The frogs have a message for us. (Para. 14) Answer: We must be the adults for the planet. We (humans and fogs)are related.(Para. 15) (Para. 14) Answer: There are no boundaries, that there is no more time. We must act now. (Para. 17)

3. Fill each of the blanks with an appropriate word. I found a tree frog in my studio some months ago. I took it to my g , as I thought it would be a better place for the frog.But it came back and insisted taking the r in the studio. Why? I couldn’t get an idea. Then, after five months of being together, we seemed to be able to c with each other. It may sound w , but I did feel I came to understand what it wanted me to do. The frog came to me probably attracted by the h tone of my computer, which sounded like that of other tree frogs, or with a m to tell me that frogs were dying around the world because of their s to the pollution and global climate change. As frogs are an“ i species”, what has happened to them may happen to us, if we sit back and do nothing. We must act now, or it would be too late.

Answer:

greenhouse

residence

communicate wired

humming

message

sensitivity indicator 4. Pair each word in the left column with a word associated in meaning in the right column, and then make a sentence with the paired words.

Model:

1. soda b 2. overtake a

a. urge b. thirsty

1 I was so thirsty that I drank up the soda. 2 Seeing the poor conditions of the village school on TV, thousands of people were overtaken by an urge to help.

1. tone 2. sensitivity 3. climate 4. tap (v.) 5. environment

a. smell (n.) b. affect (v.) c. concern (n.) d. threatening e. resource

Answer:

1. d

2. a

3. b

4. e

5. c

1. tone threatening

2. sensitivity smell

3.

affected climate

4. tap resources

5. concerns environment

5. Fill the blanks with the words given below. Change the form where necessary.
audio focus boundary overtake cup (v.) species decade subtle directly tone

1. The essayist’s language expresses rich and meanings. 2. The stockbrokers by the sharp drop in the stock market last Tuesday. 3. Biologists have estimated that there are around one million animal and plant living and growing in the rainforests. 4. In the United States the cost of living has been steadily rising in the past few 5. The quickly growing company has ambitious plans to expand beyond national 6. That computer store is having a sale of software; let’s go and have a look. into your eyes.

7. To be safe, you may put on your dark glasses to avoid the sun shining 8. When the kitchen is finished, I’m going to

my attention on the garden shed.

9. In a serious of voice, the doctor warned him to keep off sugar. 10. She her hands around the mug of hot coffee to warm them.

Answer:

1. subtle 2. were overtaken 3. species 4. decades 5. boundaries 6. audio 7.

directly 8. focus 9. tone 10. cupped 6. Complete the following sentences with phrases or expressions from the passage. Change the form where necessary. 1. I didn’t expect you to be so efficient; , the task will be finished ahead of schedule. 2. safety, you must keep all medicines away from children. 3. When we know these new employees better, we will assign more suitable tasks to each of them. 4. This evening dress is rather expensive since it is made 5. In the World Cup, England tried to beat its long-term rival Argentina and qualify from the “Group of Death” and

Answer:

1. at that rate 2. For the sake of 3. come to 4. by hand 5. vice versa

7. Translate the following sentences into English. 1. 年轻人有时会抱怨无法和父母沟通。(communicate with) Answer: Young people sometimes complain of being unable to communicate with their parents. 2. 能在中国云南的一个苗家村落住下来一直是玛丽长久以来的梦想, 现在她终于梦想成真了。 (to take up residence) Answer: It has been Mary’s long cherished dream to take up residence in a Miao village in Yunnan, China. Now her dream has finally come true. 3. 家养的动物习惯于依赖人,因此很难能在野外活下来。(survive)

Answer: Domestic animals are used to depending on humans, so it is difficult for them to survive in the wild. 4. 他突然有种恐惧感,觉得自己会因为经济不景气而被公司裁员。(overtake) Answer: He was suddenly overtaken by a fear that he would be laid off by the company because of depression. 5. 我估计公交路线上堵车了,因为我都等了 30 分钟也没见一辆车开过去。(figure) Answer: I figure that there is a traffic jam on the route of the bus, for I’ve waited for 30 minutes without seeing one passing by. 8. Read and compare the English sentences, paying attention to the italicized parts and translate the Chinese sentences by simulating the structure of the English sentences. 1. Choice Sentence I say he, though I really don’t have a clue if she is a he or vice versa. Simulated Reproduction There is no reason for anyone to threaten us or vice versa. Simulated Translation 尽管存在贸易摩擦,美国离不开中国,反之亦然。 Answer: In spite of trade frictions, the US cannot do without China or vice versa. 2. Choice Sentence “Why are you here,” I found myself asking him. Simulated Reproduction After one month of working in the company, John found himself doing paperwork all day long. Simulated Translation 如果你发现自己工作没有效率,你最好休息一会儿。 Answer: If you find yourself working without efficiency, you’d better relax for a while. 3. Choice Sentence He turned his head this way and that listening to that tone. Simulated Reproduction The former CEO tried to change the company this way and that but succeeded in nothing. Simulated Translation 演讲者先扫视了一下听众,然后才开始发言。

Answer: The speaker glanced around the audience this way and that before he started speaking. 4. Choice Sentence Possibly the tone of my computer sounded to him like other tree frogs. Simulated Reproduction His voice on the phone sounded to me like a drowning man. Simulated Translation 父亲对我调换工作的意见让我听上去就像警告似的。 Answer: My father’s opinion on my job change sounded to me like a warning. 5. Choice Sentence That we, for the sake of our relatives, must act now. Simulated Reproduction Many retired Americans have moved from the northern states to Florida for the sake of sunny weather. Simulated Translation 为了更多的工作岗位,工会同意了放弃增加工资的要求。 Answer: The labor union agreed to give up a pay increase for the sake of more job opportunities.
9. Look at the pictures below and talk about the causes and effects of the natural disasters with the help of the tips given.

. Tips: Effects: Picture 1: breathing difficulty,traffic jams,communication failure, horrible view,... Answer: The sandstorm is a horrible phenomenon. The clouds of dust are so heavy that you can hardly breathe. It is so dark that it may cause trafic accidents. Picture 2: crops losses, food / water shortages,... Answer: Droughts result from lack of water, which is essential for plants and animals. The failure of crops leads to food shortage, and sometimes even famine. Picture 3: life and property losses, homeless, diseases,... Answer: The flood washes away houses, destroys ields, and causes life and property losses. People may be left homeless and suffer diseases.Causes: The increase of disasters is mainly caused by human activities. With the growth of population, we need more resources from the Earth. Deforestation, over-cultivation, together with other factors, lead to the imbalance of the ecosystem. And this in turn causes more natural disasters. Causes: population growth, deforestation, over-cultivation, pollution, global warming, imbalance of the ecosystem,...
10. Read the sample below and write a short passage (100 — 120 words) to describe the urgent situation of an endangered species and call for help.

Sample The Jaguar’s Weeping Cry

I bet you already know that there are over 900 endangered species in our world! I hate being one of them. I am a jaguar. We jaguars are truly beautiful, and we are excellent climbers and fantastic swimmers. My relatives and I are not critical about food. Some people even say that we use our tails to lure fish to us. Personally, I do not like to give out Jaguar my greatest hunting tricks, but this is true. We are becoming extinct because humans hunt us for our beautiful fur. Besides, we are losing our home to farmers who just don’t seem to care about us. But we are very important to the world. Please help us. We’re counting on you!

Write your passage below:

Reference Key
The Panda’s Weeping Cry I’m one of the endangered species. I do not have many relatives left in this world, and that’s why people usually can only see us in the zoos. Although we are taken good care of and live comfortably there, we long for bushes in the mountains. As you know, we pandas are very critical about food. Young and fresh bamboo branches are our favorite. But sometimes bamboos would bloom and die. When this happens, many of us would have a hard time surviving and some may even die of hunger. Most people love us for what we are, but some still risk to hunt us for money and make us even rarer in the world. Please help us. We count on you!

Passage B

Read About It Mission Zero
Ray C. Anderson (July 28, 1934 - August 8, 2011) was founder and chairman of Interface, Inc., one of the world’s largest manufacturers of modular carpet for commercial and residential applications. He was “known in environmental circles for his advanced and progressive stance on industrial ecology and sustainability.” “If it exists, it must be possible”, asserts Amory Lovins , co-founder and chief scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute2 think tank. He is talking about my company. Fellow industrialists, I dare say,
thought my ambition impossible to realize when fourteen years ago I described my aspirations 1

fo

r Interface Inc. to turn into what it actually is becoming today.

Indeed, around then, the CEO of a major competitor looked at me in the eye, and said, “Ray, you are a dreamer.” Yet, as Amory says, “If it exists …”

The “impossible” that exists today is a petroleum-intensive carpet manufacturer (for both energy and raw material) that has reduced netgreenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by 88 percent, in absolute tons, and its water usage by 79 percent since 1996, even as sales have grown by two-thirds andearnings have doubled. In 1994 Interface set out on a mission “to be the first industrial? company that, by its deeds, shows the entire industrial world whatsustainability is, in all its dimensions: people, process, product, profit, and place.” Our definition of sustainability is to operate our petro-intensive company so as to take from the Earth only that which is naturally and rapidly renewable, and to do no harm to the biosphere. Cumulatively, we have avoided $372 million in costs by eliminating waste, in a quest that is half way to achieving waste-free perfection by 2020. We define waste as any cost that does not add value for our customers. This translates ambitiously into doing everything right the first time, every time. We even define energy that still comes from fossil fuels as waste, something to be eliminated. Indeed, while offsets have a critical role to play in helping Interface (and, indeed, all of us) to reach our sustainability goals, we will not achieve them until we begin to redefine fossil fuel energy in this way. Sounds incredible? Remember, “If it exists …”. Indeed our belching smokestacks, our gushing effluent pipes, our mountains of waste

— all completely legal — provided tangible proof that business was good. They meant jobs, orders coming in, products going out, and money in the bank. That all changed with a question that came from our customers: “What is Interface doi ng for the environment?” We had not heard that question before, and had no good answers. For a “customer-intimate” company, this was untenable. Looking for an answer — and a determination to respond with credible, demonstrable, and measurable results and transparent accountability — set us on this course. Can taking a profitable business apart at the height of its success make business sense? The waste elimination initiative alone —and the avoided costs of $372 million over 13 years — have more than offset all the investments and expenses incurred in pursuit of our goal which we now call “Mission Zero”: zero environmental impacts by the year 2020. This has allowed the business case for sustainability to develop and become crystalclear. Costs are down, not up — dispelling a myth and exposing the false choice between the environment and the economy. Amazingly, this initiative has produced a better business model, a better way to bigger

and more legitimate profits. It out-competes

its competitors in

the rough and tumble of the marketplace, but not at the expense of the Earth or future generations. Instead it includes Earth and generations not yet born in win-win-win relationships. As validation of this, the Interface share price has moved from $2 to $20 in four years, as we have dug out of the deepest, longest recession in our industry’s history, a recession we might not have survived without the enormous boost of sustainability. But, what about the big picture? What does the Interface journey have to teach us? A sustainable society into the indefinite future depends totally and absolutely on a vast, ethically driven redesign of the industrial system, triggered by an equally vastmind-shift — one mind at a time, one organization at a time, one technology at a time, one building, one company, one university curriculum, one community, one region, one industry at a time — until the entire system has been transformed into a sustainable one existing ethically in balance with Earth’s natural systems, upon which every living thing, even civilization itself, utterly depends. One person, you, can make the difference in your organization. The key is: Do something, then do something else.

Notes 1. Amory Lovins: an American environmental scientist and writer, Chairman and Chief Scientist of the Rocky Mountain Institute. Having worked in the field of energy policy and related areas for four decades, he was named by Time magazine one of the World’s 100 most influential people in 2009. 2. The Rocky Mountain Institute (RMI): an organization in the United States dedicated to research, publication, consulting, and lecturing in the general field of sustainability, with a special focus on profitable innovations for energy and resource efficiency. For more information, please check: http: //www.rmi.org.
Think about it: 1. What is Mission Zero?

Answer: It is a goal set by Interface that the company will eliminate any negative impact Interface has on the environment by the year 2020. 2. What can we do to achieve sustainability?

Answer: We can start doing something first, then do something else. Only when everyone in our society is involved can we expect to transform our entire system into a sustainable one. 3. Do you know you can figure out the meaning of a new word just by the context?

Answer: Open.

Sentence Explanation
1. This translates ambitiously into doing everything right the first time, every time. This (definition) expresses our ambition to do everything right the first time, every time. 2. Costs are down, not up — dispelling a myth and exposing the false choice between the environment and the economy. Costs are coming down, not going up, and this has wiped out a wrong belief that we could only choose one of the two, either the environment or the economy. 3. Instead it includes Earth and generations not yet born in win-win-win relationships. Instead this initiative benefits not only Interface, but also Earth and generations not yet born. 4. But, what about the big picture? But, what about the situation as a whole? 归零使命

雷· C· 安德森(1934 年 7 月 28 日—2011 年 8 月 8 日)——是全球最大的商业和住宅用拼块式地毯制 造商之一——英特飞有限公司的创始人和董事长。 他因在“工业生态和可持续发展方面表现出的先进和发展 的立场而闻名于环保界”。
“如果有其存在,就必然有其可能,”落基山研究所智囊团的联合创始人和首席科学家艾默里· 洛文斯如 此断言道。他说的正是我的公司。我敢说,当十四年前我描述我的志向,要把英特飞公司变成它今天正在 呈现的模样时,各位实业家同人都认为我的雄心壮志根本不可能实现。事实上,一个主要竞争对手的总裁 当时就瞪着我说:“雷,你是一个梦想家。”然而,正如艾默里所说,“如果有其存在......” 今天存在的这个“不可能”是一家(在能源和原材料方面)高度依赖石油的地毯制造商,从 1996 年至 今将温室气体净排放量减少了 88%(以实打实的吨数计),用水量减少了 79%,而销售额却反而增加了 三分之二,收益翻了一番。英特飞于 1994 年开始完成一项使命,力争“成为首家生态实业公司,通过自己 的所作所为向整个实业界全方位地展现可持续性发展的理念:涵盖人员、生产过程、产品、利润、地点等 各个方面。”我们对持续性发展的定义是:我们这家高度依赖石油的公司,坚持其运营只从地球获取可以自 然而快速再生的资源,并且不对生态造成危害。 通过消除浪费,我们已经累计降低了 3 亿 7 千 2 百万美元的成本,正在向 2020 年力争达到零浪费的 完美目标迈进。我们对浪费的定义是:凡是不能给客户带来价值的花费都是浪费。这一定义雄心勃勃地转 化为行动理念:做任何事情都要一开始就做对,而且每次如此。我们甚至把依然取自化石燃料的能源也定 义为浪费,并作为要消除的对象。通过减少浪费而获得的补偿确实起了关键性作用,有助于英特飞(其实 也包括所有公司)达到可持续发展目标;如果我们不这样重新定义化石燃料能源,我们就不可能最终实现 可持续发展的目标。听上去有些不可思议?请记住,“如果有其存在......” 的确,我们的烟囱烟雾腾腾,我们的管道污水喷涌,我们的废料堆积如山——所有这一切都完全合法 ——这是我们生意兴隆的确凿证据。这就说明有业可就,订单滚滚而来,产品源源出厂,以及利润存入银 行。 所有这一切都因消费者提的一个问题而改变: “英特飞对环境有何贡献?”这个问题我们以前闻所未闻, 更无法交出满意的答案。对于一个善待消费者的公司而言,这是难以交代的。为寻求答案,还有决意给消 费者提供一个可信、可见和可考量的结果并承担明晰的责任,我们踏上了征途。 将一个处于鼎盛时期的赢利企业拆卸分解,从商业的角度看合理吗?仅消除浪费这一项行动,以及 13 年来因此而节约下来的 3 亿 7 千 2 百万美元的成本, 不仅抵消而且超出了我们在追求持续发展目标方面的 投资和花费总额。我们现在将此目标命名为“归零使命”:到 2020 年实现对环境的零影响。“归零使命”使 这个可持续性发展的实业案例得以发展,并变得清澈透明。成本下降了,并非上升了,一个虚构的理念就 此打破,让我们看到在环境和经济之间并非必然就是择此伤彼的虚假选择。 令人惊讶的是,这一创举产生了一个更好的商业模式,找到了一个可获取更大利润,并且收入更加合 法的更好的途径。这种模式在激烈残酷的市场竞争中击败了它的所有对手,却并不以伤害地球或后代的利 益为代价。相反,这种模式将地球和尚未出生的后代纳入一种三赢的关系。作为证明,英特飞的股价四年 内从 2 美元攀升至 20 美元,公司也从产业史上影响最深、持续最久的经济衰退中脱险而出。如果没有可 持续性发展的极大推动,我们也许无法在这场经济衰退中存活下来。 但是,怎样从全局来看呢?英特飞的历程能给我们带来什么启迪?一个可持续发展的社会要想久远维

系,就需要全方位地、彻头彻尾地对工业体系进行庞大的、由道德驱动的重新设计,这要由同样庞大的思 想认识转变来启动,即一次改变一个想法、一个机构、一项技术、一座建筑、一家公司、一所大学的课程、 一个社区、一个地区、一个行业,直到整个体系转变成为一个可持续发展的,在道德准则上能与地球生态 系统和谐相处的体系,这才是所有的生物,乃至文明本身完全赖以生存的基础。 即使一个人,你本人,也能在你的机构中发挥作用。关键是:行动起来先做一件事,接着再做另一件。

Read and complete
第一题没有 2. Decide on the meaning of the suffix or prefix (in italics) of each compound word, and make a sentence with each of the given compound words.
WORD 1. petroleum-intensive MEANING IN THE CONTEXT giving extreme and constant care or attention involving a lot of effort, energy, or attention indicating the use of a lot of a particular thing labor-intensive knowledge-intensive 2. waste-free without a particularthing without cost or payment not limited or controlled alcohol duty 3. customer-intimate having thorough knowledge of something relating to very private or personal matters having a very close and friendly relationship client user 4. co-founder partner or associate in an activity or job to the same extent or degree in a less important or assistant position co-sponsor co-author 5. out-compete away from the central part or area in a better, faster or further way showing the result of an action out-sell out-rank

Answer:

1. indicating the use of a lot of a particular thing e.g. The labor-intensive products such as shoes, clothes, toys, hardware and so on, come primarily from small enterprises. As agriculture has become more knowledge-intensive, farmers have greatly improved output with less land and labor. 2. without a particular thing e.g. As the punishment for drunk driving is getting more severe, the sale of alcohol-free beer is on the rise. Part of the attraction to the island is that tourists can buy imported goods there at duty-free prices. 3. having a very close and friendly relationship e.g. Our client-intimate service contributes much to the growth of the company. The GPS is designed in a user-intimate approach, and you can easily find your way just by a few touches on its screen. 4. partner or associate in an activity or job e.g. As the proud co-sponsor of the conference, we come not only to offer our support, but also share our experience. Penn, co-author of National Food And Agriculture Policy, has served for three years as a senior economist at the United States Department of Agriculture. 5. in a better, faster or further way e.g. For the first time, smartphones have out-sold PCs in terms of number of units in the first quarter of this year. Using keywords in the title of your blog posts helps out-rank others in search engines. 第三题没有

4. Translate the following sentences into English.

1. 十年前,当公司还处在生产的鼎盛时期时,我们就决定投资新技术,将公司转型为技术密集型 企业。 由于拥有先进技术,我们在激烈动荡的市场竞争中脱颖而出。现在我们的成本下降了百分之三十,销售业 绩却上涨了三分之二,利润翻了一番。 Answer: Ten years ago, when our company was at the height of its production, we decided to invest in new technologies, so as to turn our company into a technology-intensive one. With our advanced technologies, we out-competed all our competitors in the rough and tumble of the marketplace. Now we have reduced the cost by 30 percent, even as / while our sales have grown by two-thirds and the earnings have doubled. 2. 我们将可持续性定义为保持企业盈利,但不以环境为代价。从商业的角度看,这合理吗?事实上,在追 求可持续发展目标的过程中,我们的收益已经超过了所有的投资和开支。可持续发展的推进起到了如此重 要的作用,帮助我们撑过了史上最深重的经济衰退。 Answer: We define sustainability as keeping a business profitable, but not at the expense of

the environment. Does this make good business sense? Actually, what we get has more than offset all the investments and expenses incurred in pursuit of the goal of sustainable development. The boost of sustainability made such a difference that it helped us survive the deepest recession in the history. Word Attack Strategies When you come across a new word or expression while reading, you can often figure out its meaning from the context — the other words in the sentence and the other sentences in the paragraph, or your own knowledge. There are, at least, five major types of context clues: 1. Definition and restatement Example Modern medicine and new methods of food production allow adults to live longer and babies tosurvive, not die soon after birth. (Here “not die” helps us to know what survive means.) The definition or restatement of a new word may be in parentheses ( ), after a dash ( —), after a comma (,), or after a phrase like that is or i.e. 2. Words with opposite meaning Example The waste elimination won’t get you into scrapes. On the contrary, the avoided costs may more than offset all the investments and expenses. (The words after “on the contrary” make it clear: get you into scrapes must have something to do with financial problems.) 3. Examples Example The simplest way to help the environment is not to impact on it. Tread as lightly as you can, take as little as possible,and put back as much as you can. (Impact can be understood through the examples of “tread lightly”,“take little” and “put back much”.) 4. Words with same or similar meanings Example Fellow industrialists, I dare say, thought my ambition impossible to realize when fourteen years ago I described my aspirations for Interface Inc. to turn into what it actually is becoming today. (It is evident that the meaning of aspirations is similar to that of ambition mentioned in front.) 5. General knowledge Example Trees bring water up from the ground,allowing water to evaporate into the atmosphere. (From common sense we can get the meaning of evaporate. It must mean “to change from a liquid state to a gas.”)
5. Read the following sentences carefully and try to make out the meaning of the italicized words.

1. These problems are worsening, not getting better. Answer: from bad to worse 2. It was the spring of hope; and it was the winter of despair.

Answer: loss of hope 3. Global warming results from the burning of fossil fuels, such as petroleum products, resulting in the release of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere. Answer: fuels like petroleum and coal. 4. The evaporated water then returns as rain, which is vital to areas that are naturally arid. Answer: very dry 5. Millions of people are moving away from rural areas in other countries. In other words, in much of the world there is an exodus from the countryside to the cities. Answer: a movement away from a place 词义的引申 (Extension of Meaning) 英译汉时,常常会遇到某些词在英汉辞典上找不到适当的词义,这时就应根据上下文和逻辑关系,从该词 的基本词义出发,进一步加以引申,选择比较恰当的词语表达,以避免生硬晦涩的翻译造成误解。在翻译 过程中词义的引申主要有以下两种方法: 1. 将词义作抽象化的引申 (Abstract the meaning of a word that usually contains an image) Example Do you think this dictionary of English is the supreme court in all matters concerning English words? 你认为这本英语辞典是英语词汇的权威辞典吗? 这里把 supreme court——最高法院——这个具体形象引申为它所代表的属性:权威。 2. 将词义作具体化的引申 (Concretize the meaning of a word that implies an abstract concept) Example The car in front of me stalled and I missed the green. 我前头的那辆车停住了,我错过了绿灯。
6. Translate the following sentences into Chinese, paying special attention to the italicized parts.

1. This initiative out-competes its competitors in the rough and tumble of the marketplace. Answer: 这一举措在竞争艰难而残酷的市场上胜过了所有对手。 2. The generation gap shows clearly on spending: young people would spend on all kinds of stuff, while elders tend to economize. Answer: 代沟明显表现在消费上:年轻人什么都会去买,而老年人则喜欢节俭。 3. The invention of machinery had brought into the world a new era — the Industrial Age. Money had become king.

Answer: 机器的发明使世界进入了一个新纪元——工业时代,金钱主宰了一切。 4. Every life has its roses and thorns . Answer: 每个人的生活都有酸甜苦辣。 5. Dr. McKinley broke his neck to make the public aware of the grave environmental problems. Answer: 麦肯立博士竭尽全力唤起公众对严峻的环保问题的关注。 6. I was extremely terrified by that news. Answer: 那条消息让我毛骨悚然。 7. She used so many technical terms in her speech that the audience could make neither head nor tail of it . Answer: 她在演讲中用了许多术语,听众听得莫名其妙。 8. These problems are too complicated to be explained clearly in a few words. Answer: 这些问题盘根错节,三言两语说不清楚。

General Writing
Sentence Functions in Paragraph Development
To write a good paragraph in communication, the writer first needs to decide upon his purpose or idea and to try to make it clear to his reader in a topic sentence. Then, almost immediately, he should develop his idea by presenting relevant supporting details. After that, he needs to give a logical conclusion to the idea just discussed to satisfy the reader psychologically. With all this, and with various other means of paragraph development, he organizes the paragraph and gives it an overall structure of unity. Examine the sample below to see how the topic sentence (TS) establishes the focus, how the developing sentences (DS) present the supporting details, and how the concluding sentence (CS) summarizes the main idea.

Sample

Recent awareness of the energy shortage in America has brought the bicycle into renewed popularity. (TS) Citizens who own bikes find themselves pedaling to work and school rather than getting the car out of the garage. Owners of bicycle sales-and-repair shops find their business

booming. Many cities have set aside “bikeways” for the convenience and safety of cyclists. Police reports show bicycle theft growing, and sellers of padlocks and chains for bike protection are making new profits. (DS) More and more Americans are discovering that pedal-pumping is cheaper than gas-pumping and that bicycles don’t make smog. (CS)

Write and apply
1. Identify the functions of the following sentences and rearrange them in logical order to form a continuous whole. The last sentence has been done for you. (Note: This paragraph, developed from the same topic sentence as in the sample above, has a new focus — the awareness of the energy shortage instead of the bicycle’s new popularity.)

People of all ages,in fact, are learning how to walk again. Small cars, rather than huge gas-gulpers, are winning sales. More and more Americans are beginning to treasure the limited energy supply in their daily life. More and more people are riding buses and forming car pools to help reduce consumption of fuel, with some of the larger cities putting new push behind efforts to develop rapid-transit systems. Recent awareness of the energy shortage in America has brought the bicycle into renewed popularity.

Answer: 4.DS People of all ages, in fact, are learning how to walk again. 3.DS Small cars, rather than huge gas-gulpers, are winning sales. 5.CS More and more Americans are beginning to treasure the limited energy supply in their daily life. 2.DS More and more people are riding buses and forming car pools to help reduce consumption of fuel, with some of the larger cities putting new push behind efforts to develop rapid-transit systems. 1.TS Recent awareness of the energy shortage in America has brought the bicycle into renewed popularity.

2. Supply relevant supporting details to each of the following topic sentences and work out a reasonable conclusion for each of them. 1.Global warming is one of the most pressing environmental issues today. 2.Plastic wastes are becoming a serious environmental problem.

Practical Writing

Letter of Invitation A formal letter of invitation to a symposium (研讨会), forum or conference is different from a personal letter. It is more like the announcement of an event, informing the recipient of the aim, topics and sponsor(s) of the event, and the place and time it is to be held. Usually a registration form and a list of topics are attached to it. Dates for papers, social events, and an introduction of local sightseeing tours, etc., are also stated. Sample Dear Colleague, We invite you to attend an international symposium, to be held in Stockholm, Sweden, in September 1998, on standards for the protection of public health and the environment relative to radioactive (放射性的) waste disposal. The organizers, the Stockholm Environment Institute, the Swedish Radiation Protection Institute and the United States Environmental Protection Agency, are pleased to be co-sponsors of this symposium. The disposal and storage of radioactive waste is an issue of major concern. Thus, there is an increasing need to discuss, develop and finally work out the fundamental standards for protection of public health and the environment. We are convinced that these standards will gain even more attention in the future. The aim of this symposium is to contribute significantly to the development and understanding of such standards. We hope that you will find topics of your interest and we are looking forward to seeing you in Stockholm. Sincerely yours,
Nicholas Sonntag Executive Director Stockholm Environment Institute Lars-Erik Holm Director General The Swedish Radiation Protection Institute Lawrence W. Weinstock Acting Director US Environmental Protection Agency

Simulate and create
1. Write a letter of invitation to an international symposium on city garbage disposal, simulating the framework and structure of the sample letter as much as possible. Dear Colleague / Sir / Madam, We invite you to attend an international symposium on city garbage disposal to be held in Chengdu, China, in May 2012. The Environment Institute of China and the Chengdu Municipal Government are pleased to be co-sponsors of this symposium. The disposal of city garbage is an issue of major concern for every city in the world. Thus, there is an increasing need to discuss, exchange and develop effective ways for garbage disposal without doing any harm to the environment. The aim of this symposium is to contribute significantly to the development of healthy environment in cities. We hope that you will find the topics of your interest and we are looking

forward to seeing you in Chengdu. Faithfully yours, Qian Shenli Director Environment Institute of China Zhang Xilai Mayor Chengdu Municipal Government

Culture Salon
Humans and Endangered Species

Our Earth supports lots of different plant and animal species. With more and more humans changing the environment, other species become extinct faster than they did in the past. In fact, plant and animal species are disappearing at least 1 000 times faster than at any other time in the last 65 million years. As humans take up more and more space on the planet, we destroy the habitats of other animals and plants. This is the biggest reason why animals are becoming extinct today. The report on the giant panda’s condition is a case in point. TOURISM LEADS TO PANDA DECLINE The giant panda population at one of China’s most prestigious nature parks — the Wolong Nature Reserve in Sichuan Province—has declined dramatically over the quarter-century of the reserve’s existence. The number of wild pandas there dropped by half — from 145 to 72—during the park’s first 11 years.The population now is probably even smaller. Experts found that an important cause of the decline in numbers at Wolong was the destruction of the densely-forested land and bamboo cover that make up high-quality panda habitats. Far more striking, researchers also found that these prime habitats within the reserve are disappearing as fast as,or faster than, in unprotected areas outside the park. Among the reasons for this apparent contradiction is tourism. A researcher says:“Tourists come,they take their summer vacations there and stimulate the local economy, which in turn uses more local natural resources.” Related Information: How many giant pandas are left in the world? The short answer to the question is, “about a thousand.” But you may hear a variety of figures.The more truthful answer is,“we don’t really know.” The Giant Panda’s Decline The three maps show how the area of distribution of giant pandas has shrunk over time.

Don’t you think we need to do something immediately to save the rare endangered pandas?


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