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非谓语动词


非谓语动词

一、非谓语动词的意义
非谓语动词主要包括不定式、动名词和分词。为了区分这三种不同的非谓语动词的用法和含义,我们 将分别从三种非谓语动词在句子中做主语、宾语、宾语补足语、定语、状语、表语以及一些特殊结构句型 等角度来区分其用法和细微含义。 非谓语动词可以充当的句子成分(了解) 主语 不定式 动名词 分词 √ √ 宾语 √ √ √ 补语 √ 表语 √ √ √ 定语 √ √ √ √ 状语 √

非谓语动词的各种形式及意义(掌握) 与逻辑主语 非谓语动词 表示意义 被动 过去分词 完成 前已结束) doing(动作和谓语动词 同时发生) 现在分词 主动 进行 being done (动作和谓语动词同时 发生) to do(动作在谓语动词 之后发生) 不定式 目的 to be done(动作在谓语 将来 动词之后发生) (动作在谓语动词之前发生) to have been done 被动 to have done 主动 (动作在谓语动词之前发生) having done(动作在谓语动词 主动 之前发生) having been done(≈done) (动作在谓语动词之前发生) 被动 一般形式 done (动作在谓语动词之 被动 完成形式 间关系

二、常见非谓语动词的用法
上表中列出了各种非谓语动词。高考中常考的是下表中的七种非谓语动词。 根据非谓语动词与逻辑主语之间的关系,我们可以将高考中常考的七种非谓语动词分类如下: 非谓语动词与逻辑主语间的关系 非谓语动词的形式 Doing (动作和谓语动词同时发生,或者基本上同时发生) 主动 Having done (动作在谓语动词之前发生) To do(动作在谓语动词之后发生) Done(动作在谓语动词之前已结束,或者不强调动作发生的具体时间) Being done(动作和谓语动词同时发生) 被动 Having been done(动作在谓语动词之前发生) To be done(动作发生在非谓语动词之后) 现对这七种非谓语动词举例如下: The tower standing in the center of the square is the symbol of the city. (现在分词 standing 作定语, 表示主动。 ) Standing in the center of the square, the tower is the symbol of the city. (现在分词 standing 作状语, 表示主动。 ) The teacher killed in the earthquake is respected by the whole nation.(过去分词 killed 作定语,表示被动。) Killed in the earthquake, the teacher is respected by the whole nation.(过去分词 killed 作状语,表示被动。 ) The nation being threatened by nuclear radiation is calling for help. (being threatened 作定语, 表示被动+进行。 ) Being threatened by nuclear radiation, the nation is calling for help. (being threatened 作状语, 表示被动+进行。 ) He found a good house to live in. ( to live in 作定语,表示目的+将来。 ) He worked hard to earn enough money for a new house.(to earn 作状语,表示目的+将来) Having devoted their entire life to the nation, the scientists are honored by the president. (having devoted 作状语, 表示主动+完成。注意:having done 不作定语。 ) Having been completely destroyed by the storm, the bridge is out of use. (having been destroyed 作状语, 表示被 动+完成。注意:having been done 不作定语。 )

三、能够充当定语的非谓语动词
充当定语的非谓语动词 例句 The nundedicating her whole life to the poor has been doing rewarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The movingcastle has attracted many people’s attention. to do He is the right manto do the job. The materialused by the factory is from Thailand. The destroyedbridge needs repairing. The bridgebeing built by the workers will be finished before December. The questionto be discussed at tomorrow’s meeting is very important. 用法要点 动作由所修饰的名词 主动发出。 动作由所修饰的名词 the man 主动发出。 所修饰的名词“被使 用、被破坏”。 所修饰的名词“正在被 建造”。 问题“将要被讨论”。

done

being done

to be done

对上述五种能够充当定语的非谓语动词,根据动作与所修饰名词的主动、被动关系,可以作如下分类: 作定语,且表示主动 doing(主动+进行,或者不强调具体时间) to do (主动+将来) 作定语,且表示被动 done (被动+完成,或者不强调具体时间) being done (被动+进行) to be done (被动+将来)

四、能够充当状语的非谓语动词
充当状语的非谓语动词 doing having done 例句 Walking around the park, the old lady suddenly saw a wallet. Having received all kinds of awards, the actress decided to retire. Having been put into prison for twenty years, the man is totally despaired. Being attacked by a serious disease, people in the village show their courage to the world. Given another hour, I can also work out this problem. He seldom bought expensive clothes to save money. to do To see the painting clearly, the old man had to put on his glasses. to be done To be finished on time, the work requires great efforts. 被动+将来 主动+目的 被动+完成 被动+进行 被动+完成 用法要点 主动+进行 主动+完成

having been done

being done done

对上述七种能够作状语的非谓语动词,根据动作与主语的主动、被动关系,可以作如下分类: 作状语,且表示主动 Doing:主动+进行,或者不强调具体时间 Having done: 主动+完成, 强调动作发生在谓语动词 之前。注意 having done 不能做定语修饰名词。 To do:主动+目的 作状语,且表示被动 Done:被动+完成,或者不强调具体时间。 Being done:被动+进行。 Having been done:被动+完成,强调动作发生在谓 语动词之前。注意 having been done 不能作定语修 饰名词。 To be done:被动+将来。

五、非谓语动词作补语
不定式、现在分词、过去分词都可以作宾语补足语。我们先分析不定式作补语的情形: Allow/advise/ask/beg/cause/encourage/expect/forbid/force/get/intend/invite/like/love/ 带 to 的不定式作补语 order/persuade/prefer/require/teach/tell/remind/want/warn/wish/wait for/call on/depend on sb. to do sth. 不带 to 的不定式作补语 ①感官动词:look at/see/watch/notice/observe/listen to/hear/feel sb. do sth. ②使役动词:let/make/have sb. do sth.

现在分词和过去分词可以放在感官动词和使役动词后面作宾语补足语。结合各种情形,我们现对常考的感 官动词和使役动词的用法总结如下: Let sb. do sth.让某人做某事 let the bullet fly let Let sb./sth. be done 让某人/某事被…… let the work be finished on time 注意:没有 let sb./sth. done 的结构 Make sb. do sth. 让某人做某事 You can’t make everyone feel satisfied. make Make sb./sth. done 让某人/某事被…… The teacher had to shout to make himself heard. 注意:没有 make sb. doing sth.的结构 Have sb. do sth. 让某人做某事 Have sb. doing sth. 让某人一直做某事 Have sb./sth. done 让某人/某事被…… have Mother had me go to the shop and buy some salt. It’s rude of your to have an old man waiting in the rain for two hours. I had my hair cut yesterday. 注意:have sb./sth. done 时,意味着动作不是由主语发出的,而是由别人完成。

Get sb. to do sth. 让某人去做某事 Get sb. doing sth. 让某人开始行动起来做某事 Get sb./sth. done 让某人/某事被…… You will never get him to understand. The captain got the soldiers moving towards the destination after a short rest. I want to get my clothes washed in the Laundromat. get 注意:get sb./sth.done 时,意味着动作不是由主语发出,而是由别人完成。 注意:上面三个举行 get 都作“使、 让”解。 当 get 作“得到”解时,有两个句型:getsth. to do & get sth. to be done。前者意为“有一些事情要做”,后者意为“有一些事情要让别人去做”。 I’ve got a new book to read.我有一本新书要读。 I’ve got a letter to be sent. 我有一封信要让人送出去。

Leave sb. doing sth. 让某人一直做某事 Leave sb. to do sth. 留下某人做某事 Leave sth. undone 留下某事未做 leave Leave sth. to be done 留下某事要做 It’s wrong of you to leave the machine running. He left me to do all the rest of the work. The guests left most of the dishes untouched, which made us really depressed. The boss suddenly went out, leaving many problems to be settled. 下面以 see 为例来分析: 感官动词 5 看:look at/see/watch/no tice/observe 2 听:listen to/hear 1 感觉:feel See sb.do sth 看见某人做了某事(主动,完成) See sb. doing sth. 看见某人正在做某事(主动,正在进行) See sb./sth. done 看见某人/某事被…… (被动,完成,或者不强调时间性) See sb./sth. being done 看见某人/某事正在被…… I saw the little baby grow into a sweet girl. I saw the girl painting when I opened the door. I saw the old man greeted by a group of young men. I saw the waiter being scolded by the boss when I passed by the restaurant.

六、动名词与不定式语义不同的有 10 组 1 forget doing/to do 2 stop doing/to do 3 remember doing/to do 4 regret doing/to do regret to do 对要做的事遗憾。 (未做) regret doing 对做过的事遗憾、后悔。 (已做) 5 try doing/to do try to do 努力,企图做某事。You must try to be more careful. try doing 试验,试着做某事。I tried gardening but didn't succeed. 6 go on doing/to do go on to do 做了一件事后,接着做另一件事。 go on doing 继续做原来做的事。 7 be afraid doing/to do be afraid to do 不敢,胆怯去做某事,是主观上的原因不去做,意为"怕"; be afraid of doing 担心出现 doing 的状况、结果。 doing 是客观上造成的,意为"生怕,恐怕"。 She was afraid to step further in grass because she was afraid of being bitten by a snake. 她 生怕被蛇咬着,而不敢在草丛中再走一步。 She was afraid to wake her husband. 她不敢去叫醒她丈夫。 She was afraid of waking her husband. 她生怕吵醒她丈夫。 8 mean to doing/to do mean to do 打算、想 mean doing 意味着 I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to. 我想去,但是我父亲不肯让我去。 To raise wage means increasing purchasing power. 赠加工资意味着增加购买力。 9consider doing/sb to do/be 1) consider doing 考虑 2)consider sb. to do 认为 注意:consider 后不加不定式 10. can’t help doing/to do can’t help doing 情不自禁地做某事 can’t help to do 不能帮助做某事

七、主动表被动: 感官动词:sound/taste/look/smell/feel 不定式修饰的词和不定式逻辑上有动宾关系,但是不定式和句中另一词有主谓关系。 I have a lot of work to do, so I couldn’t go shopping with you this afternoon. There are lots of work to be done. 不定式作表与形容词的状语,和句中表语构成逻辑上的动宾关系。 This question is easy to solve. “形容词+不定式”作表语、 宾语和定语时 (形容词多为表性质的词,easy, hard, good, difficult, interesting) I found the article difficult to understand. These apples are good to eat.

八、被动表主动: be faced with be based on be located in/at be devoted to doing be seated 九、其他需要特别注意的词汇和句型: 1. need/require/want to be done=need/require/want doing 2. be worth doing/名词(钱数或表价格的名词) The SummerPalace is worth visiting. The computer is worth 500 yuan. 3. be worthy to be done The SummerPalace is worthy to be visited. The SummerPalace is worthy of a visit. The SummerPalace is worthy of being visited. 4. 介词 but,other than 后跟不定式时,如果介词前有实义动词 do 的某种形式,不定式应该省略 to. We could do nothing but/other than wait. We had no choice but to wait. 5. can’t but; can’t choose but; can’t help but 后面的不定式也要省略 to. 6. 下列句型中常用动名词作主语: It is no use/good doing something. It is not any use/good doing something. It is of little use/good doing something. It is useless doing something. It is no point doing something. Luis was said to have broken the world record. Luis was said to break the world record 7. 未能实现的愿望: 表示愿望、打算一类的词(hope, expect, mean, intend, want, think)的过去完成时后跟不定式 I had hoped to finish the work ahead of the schedule. =I hoped to have finished the work ahead of the schedule..

十.练习 1. Someseeminglyharmlessblogsmightbecomeharmfulwhen_____ontheInternetbymillionsofpeople. A. toread A. publishing A. toexpect A. beingconsidered C. considering A. waiting A. Save A. challenged A. Read A. todiscuss A. Given 11. Manyofthestudentswhohopetoentertheuniversitywillbedisappointedbecauseonlyonethird______foradmissionw illbeaccepted. A. apply A. hoping A. running A. causing A. Togain A. reserved A. broadcasting A. held B. toapply B. hope B. run B. caused B. Gaining B. reserving B. havingbroadcast B. hold C. applied C. tohope C. torun C. havingcaused C. Gained C. toreserve C. broadcast C. holding D. applying D. hoped D. ran D. beingcaused D. Beinggained D. havingreserved province. D. tobebroadcast D. beingheld 12. Afteralongabsence,Iwentbacktocollege,______topickupwhereI’dleftoff. 13. Don’thavethewater_____whileyoubrushyourteeth. 14. Theheavysnowlastedforaweek,_____aserioustrafficconfusioninthewholearea. 15. ______valuableexperience,heaskedtobesenttoremoteareas. 16. Theseats______forchildrenandseniorsarerightatthefrontofthebuses. 17. Thewarningofthestorm,______overtheradioandonTV,spreadquicklythroughthe 18. Wasit______theinternationalconferencethatmadethecitythefocusofthisarea? B. reading B. published B. expecting B. tobeconsidered D. considered B. wait B. Saving B. challenges B. Reading B. tobediscussed B. Giving C. towait C. Saved C. challenging C. Toread C. discussing C. Togive D. waited D. Tosave D. tochallenge D.Havingread D. beingdiscussed D.Tobegiven C. read C. publish C. expected D. beingread D. topublish D. expect 2. TheaverageFacebookuserintheUnitedStateshas245friends,accordingtoastudy______inFebruary. 3. ShecametoBeijingonApril28,_____Mayday'sconcertintheBird’sNest. 4. Manythingssuchasgoingabroadandowningacar,____impossibleinthepast,arenowvery common.

5. Theteahousesituatednearplatform6isnowofferingfreecupsofteatothose____fortheXi'antrain. 6. _____power,turnoffthehotwaterafteryouaredoneshowering. 7. A. person,when______,canoftendowhatisnormallybeyondhisability. 8. _____thisadvertisementseveraltimes,Idecidedtoapplyforthemarketingmanagerposition. 9. Thequestion______atthenextmeetingwillbeahardone. 10. ______equalopportunities,bothFrankandBillymayaccomplishthetask.

19. Duringjobinterviews,manygraduatesusethereputationoftheirschoolstothefull_____themselvestotheemployers. A. presented A. hit A. equaled A. designed A. Tobemaking B. beingpresented B. tohit B. equaling B. tobedesigned B. Make C. topresent C. tohavehit C. tohaveequaled C. designing C. Tomake D. havingpresented D. hitting D. havingequaled D. havingdesigned D. Making 20. Pricesclimbedhighin2011,withthemonthlyCPIfigure____an11-year-highof6.9percent inNovember. 21. WiththevictoryattheFrenchOpen,LiNahasreachedNO.4intheworld,______thepreviousAsianrecord. 22. Programmes,______tobringtheoldandtheyoungtogether,aregrowinginpopularityallovertheworld. 23. I’msorryIwaslate.________upforit,letmetreatyoutoameal. 24. ________foryears,lifeonotherplanetsisstillamysteryforhumanbeings. A. Havingbeenlookedfor C.Havinglookedfor 25. Thepartywillbeheldinthegarden,weather____. A. permitting B. topermit C. permitted C. compareto C. hoped C. watched C. havingasked C. tooffer C. tocorrect C.Havingasked C. made C. Stood C. meet C. leaving D. permit D. comparedto D. havinghoped D. tohavewatched D. tobeasked D. tobeoffered D. correcting D.Tobeasked company. D. havingbeenmade D. Stand D. tomeet D. havingleft 26. Filmhasamuchshorterhistory,especiallywhen___suchartformsasmusicandpainting. A. havingcomparedto B. comparingto A. hoping A. towatch A. asking A. offered A. corrects A. Havingbeenasked A. tobemade A. Standing A. meets A. left B. tohope B. watching B. asked B. offering B. correct B. Toask B. beingmade B. Tostand B. meeting B. toleave 27. Tonylentmethemoney,___thatI’ddoasmuchforhim. 28. Theoldmansatinfrontofthetelevisioneveryevening,happy___anythingthathappenedtobeon. 29. When___forhisviewsabouthisteachingjob,Philipsaidhefounditveryinterestingandrewarding. 30. Johnhasreallygotthejobbecauseheshowedmetheofficialletter___himit. 31. Onelearnsalanguagebymakingmistakesand___them. 32. ___toworkovertimethatevening,Imissedawonderfulfilm. 33. Wearehavingameetinginhalfanhour.Thedecision___atthemeetingwillinfluencethefutureofour 34. ___inalongqueue,wewaitedforthestoretoopentobuyaNew-iPad. 35. Ifhetakesonthiswork,hewillhavenochoicebut___anevengreaterchallenge. 36. Hegotuplateandhurriedtohisoffice,___thebreakfastuntouched. B. Havingbeenlookingfor D. Lookedfor

37. Georgereturnedafterthewar,only___thathiswifehadlefthim. A. tobetold B. telling C. beingtold D. told

38. Aftercompletingandsigningit,pleasereturntheformtousintheenvelope__. A. providing A. tofollow A. operating B. provided B. following B. tobeoperating C. havingprovided C. followed C. operated D. provide D. follows D. tooperate 39. Theoldcoupleoftentakeawalkaftersupperintheparkwiththeirpetdog___them. 40. Thismachineisveryeasy___.Anybodycanlearntouseitinafewminutes. 41. ChinarecentlytighteneditswaterscontrolsneartheHuangyanIslandtopreventChinesefishingboatsfrom ___intheSouthChinaSea. A. attacking A. realizing A. finding B. havingattacked B. realized B. tofind C. beingattacked C. torealize C. beingfound D. havingbeenattacked D. beingrealized D. tohavefound 42. Pressedfromhisparents,and___thathehaswastedtoomuchtime,theboyisdeterminedtostopplayingvideo games. 43. Tomtookataxitotheairport,only___hisplanehighupinthesky.

44. Beforedrivingintothecity,youarerequiredtogetyourcar___. A. washed A. beingdone A. touse A. starting A. remain A. tobereserved A. Based B. wash C. washing B. do B. used B. beingstarted B. beremaining B. havingreserved B. Basing D. towash C. tobedone C. using C. tostart C. havingremained C. reserving C. Base D. todo D. use D. tobestarted D. toremain D. reserved D. Tobases

45. We’vehadagoodstart,butnext,moreworkneeds___toachievethefinalsuccess. 46. Time,___correctly,ismoneyinthebank. 47. Thelecture,___at7:00pmlastnight,wasfollowedbyanobservationofthemoonwithtelescopes. 48. Nomatterhowbrightatalkeryouare,therearetimeswhenitisbetter___silent. 49. “It’ssuchaniceplace,”Mothersaidasshesatatthetable___forcustomers. 50. ____animportantdecisionmoreonemotionthanonreason,youwillregretitsoonerorlater.

(一)08 北京高考阅读中的非谓语动词 1. She kept_______________(thank) me for my kindness. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 2. Sometimes she’d ask me to slow down in front of a particular building and would sit staring into the darkness, _______________(say) nothing. 在本句中,是___________作___________。 3. Each new generation of houses would show more of these_______________(choose) characteristics. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 4. The Shetland horse is one of the smallest breeds—typically_______________(reach) only one meter tall. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 5. That encouraged populations___________(live)in different areas to interact with one another. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 6. We have so easily been attracted by the promise and potential of diet products that we have stopped____________(think) about what diet products are doing to us. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 (二)09 北京高考阅读中的非谓语动词 1. And there's a____________(grow) need for new writers trained to create the $3 billion worth of children's books bought each year... plus stories and articles needed by over 650 publishers of magazines for children and teenagers. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 2. We offer a free aptitude test and will send you a copy of our brochure____________(describe) our recognized home-study courses on the basis of one-on-one training. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 3. There's nothing sadder than a dream____________(delay) until it fades forever. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 4. They are discovering how to design spaces that promote creativity, keep people____________(focus) and lead to relaxation. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 5. How do you take answers to very specific questions and make broad, ____________(generalize) use of them? 在本句中,是___________作____________。 6. But with ____________(increase) numbers of people wanting to escape into the wilderness, it is becoming more and more important to camp unobtrusively(不引人注目地)and leave no mark. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 7. Finding the right spot to camp is the first step to____________(guarantee) a good night’s sleep. 在本句中,是___________作____________。 8. Avoid ____________(damage) plants. 在本句中,是___________作____________。

(一)2010 年北京高考阅读中的非谓语动词 1.People find all sorts of excuses for__________________(abandon) an animal. 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 2.There was nothing I could do__________________(make)her happy, it seemed. 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 3.Betty often felt__________________(interrupt) by Sara. 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 4.But Betty herself became an interrupter and found herself__________________(do) most of the talking when she met a visitor from Finland. And Sara had a hard time cutting in on some speakers from Latin America or Israel. 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 5. __________________(guarantee) salaries, Smith argued, were the enemy of hard work. 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 6.And their teachers have to keep them__________________(satisfy). 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 7.If that means__________________(take) teaching seriously, and__________________(give) less time to their own research interests, that is surely something__________________(celebrate). 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 8.Anyone__________________(promise) to create jobs should receive a gift of capital from the government to invest. 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 (二)2011 年北京高考阅读中的非谓语动词 1.As a young girl__________________(grow) up in the 1930s, I always wanted to fly a plane, but back then it was almost unheard of for a woman to do that. 本句中,是__________________作__________________。 2. __________________(inspire)by this,I decided to realize my dream. 本句中,是__________________作__________________。


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