当前位置:首页 >> 其它课程 >> Chapter Five Meaning and Motivation

Chapter Five Meaning and Motivation


Meaning and Motivation

Motivation accounts for the connection between the linguistic symbol and its meaning.语言符号与意义之间的联系

As we know, the relationship between word form

and meaning is conventional and arbitrary, and most words can be said to be non-motivated. That is the connection between the sign and meaning does not have logical explanation. But English does have words whose meanings can be explained to a certain extent.

Onomatopoeic (phonetic) Motivation

Primary onomatopoeia

Primary onomatopoeia means the imitation of sounds by sounds.

Bow-wow, says the dog, Mew, mew, says the cat, Grunt, grunt, says the hog,

And squeak goes the bat,
Caw,caw, says the crow, Quack, quack,says the duck,

Apes gibber. Bears growl Bulls bellow

Cats mew ( purr)
Eagles scream.

Frogs croak.
Goats bleat.

Asses bray. Beetles drone. Camels grunt.

Ducks quack.
Flies buzz.

Geese cackle (gabble).
Horses neigh ( snort).

Hens cluck. Lions roar Mice squeak

Larks warble Magpies chatter. Owls hoot (screech)

pigeons coo.
Snakes hiss. Turkeys gobble.

Pigs squeal ( grunt).
Wolves howl.

模仿金属的声音: clash, clank, ting, tinkle, clang, jangle, ding-dong, tick-tack

模仿水等液体声: splash, bubble, splish-splosh, dripdrop

Secondary onomatopoeia It means that certain sounds and sound sequences are associated with certain senses in an expressive relationship

-are表示强烈的光或声

如:

Flare, glare, stare, blare

Sn-

1) breath-noise: sniff, snuff, snore,
snort

2)quick separation or movement: snip, snap, snatch
3)creeping: snake, snail, sneak, snoop

Sl-

1) slippery: slide, slip, slither, slush, sluice, sludge

2) pejorative sense: slattern, slut, slang, sly, sloppy, slovenly

Sk-: 与表面接触:

skate, skim, skin, skid, skimp

-ump: 表示圆形体:
plump, chump, rump, hump, stump, dump, mump

/h/表示猛烈使劲时的气喘声: heavy, haste, hurry, hit, heave, hoarse, hurl等

Wh-表示“剧烈”的拟声词:

wham, whang, whap, whop, wheeze, whicker, whinny, whomp, whoop

2. Grammatical motivation

Words which were formed by means of grammatical structure belong to the category of motivation by grammar. It is also called morphological motivation

E.g

teacher: a person who teaches
autobiography

contradict
Airmail? mail by air hopeless? without hope

Motivation by meaning (semantic Motivation) It refers to the mental associations suggested by the conceptual meaning of a word. It explains the connection between the literal sense and figurative sense of the word.

Metonymy:
1)use a person’s name to refer to the

things related;
He read Shakespeare.

2)use a container to refer to what is

inside;
The kettle is boiling He is addicted to the bottle.

Please drink a cup

3. use part of body organs to

refer to their functions:
an ear for music

Don’t let your heart rule your head.

4) use the place name to refer to the product produced there. I could do with a cup of canary.

Canary is a place where this kind of grape wine is produce.

5. Use prominent features to refer to

the person concerned

The blue eyes walked into the room.

Synecdoche (提喻) Use the part for the whole, or the whole for the part or the material for the thing; smiling year:

sail:
copper:

Motivation by analogy Words are created in imitation of other words: telethon, talkathon: from marathon

Colour Analogy

black list (黑名单)
white list

(白名单:指准予上演的短剧等名 单) gray list
( 灰名单)指非明文查禁但仍然属 于不合法的人或物。

blue-collar workers, white collar workers,

gray-collar workers
(服务性行业的人)

The Black Panther(黑豹党) the Gray Panther (灰豹党:指反对年龄歧视的老年退休 职工组织) the Green Panther

(绿豹党:指要求保护环境的激进分 子)

Number Analogy

first lady

第一夫人
First family

(指国家元首一家)

First Mother (指国家元首的母亲)

The three p’s (peace,petroleum,Palestine)指有中东局势所 引起的三大问题 The three I’s (inflation, interest rate, impeachment 弹劾) The three R’s ( reading, writing, arithmetic)读写算三种基 本技能

First Strike Capability:

先发制人的第一次核打击能力
Second Strike Capability: 第二次打击能力,指受敌人先发制 人的第一次核打击后的核还击能力 the Fourth world 指西方资产阶级所谓的最贫国集团

Place and space analogy

landscape: moonscape
(月球表面;月面景色); marscape (火星的表面) surnrise: earthrise (月平线上看到 的地球的升起) earthquake: starquake (星球地震)

Antonymous analogy

moonlight( 白天工作,晚上兼职)
?daylight (主要工作在晚上,白 天兼职) with-it入时的?without-it过时,守 旧的

High-rise(高层建筑)? low-rise( 低层建筑) Hot-line(热线) ? cold line(冷线 ) Phase out (分阶段撤出或减少)? phase in (逐步采用)

Flash-back(倒叙)?flash-forward (提前叙述未来事件)

Overproduce ? underproduce

Synonymous Analogy

Missile gap 产生于美国1960大选期间,指美国与苏联 在导弹发展上的差异 production gap development gap 经济发展方面的差距

Environmental pollution visual/eye pollution cultural pollution graffiti pollution 指公共场合乱涂乱画的涂写污染


更多相关文档:

Chapter 5 Word meaning and semantic feature

What do we mean by phonetic motivation(拟声理据) 1 Phonetic/Onomatopoeic ...需在书上查证 give three or five words which have connotation varying from ...

Chapter Five

Chapter Five Word Meaning and Semantic Features Main Contents ?Word meaning ?Conventionality and Motivation ?Main types of word meaning Word meaning ?What...

Chapter 5 Word Meaning

Chapter 5 Word Meaning 1.The meaning of "meaning" . 1.1 Reference ...2.4 Morphological motivation Morphological motivation tries to establish the ...

Chapter 5 Word Meaning and__ Componential Analysis

Chapter 5 Word Meaning and Componential Analysis 5.1 Word Meaning A word ...5.2.3 Semantic Motivation It is the mental associations based on the ...

Chapter 5 Meaning

(7) Thematic meaning: what is communicated by the way in which the message is organized in terms of order and emphasis. Chapter 11 1.Focus on form ...

Chapter Five Semantics

Chapter Five Semantics_文学_高等教育_教育专区。英语语言学笔记整理 ...Conventionality and Motivation 3.Word Meaning Sense and Reference 1)Sense: ...

现代英语词汇学概论最强版复习资料chapter5

Chapter 5Word meaning and Semantic Features 词义与语义特征 ? ? ? 5.1 Conventionality and Motivation 约定俗成与有理据词 5.2 Main Types of Word ...

Chapter 6 Word Meaning

5 Meaning and Context 6.1 Word meaning 意义(概念) Meaning (Concept) 词 Word Chapter 6 Word Meaning Chapter 6 Word Meaning Form 形式 6.2 Motivation ...

word meaning and motivation

word meaning and motivation_英语学习_外语学习_教育专区。语言学论文... word meaning and semat... 15页 免费 Chapter Five Meaning ... 暂无评价...

Chapter 4 Word Meaning

Chapter 4 Word Meaning_调查/报告_表格/模板_实用文档。词语意思 ...Onomatopoeic motivation 5. Lexical meaning and _____ meaning make up the ...
更多相关标签:
work and motivation | meaning and context | chapter and verse | five children and it | five and dime | five and ten | six and five | what is five and six |
网站地图

文档资料共享网 nexoncn.com copyright ©right 2010-2020。
文档资料共享网内容来自网络,如有侵犯请联系客服。email:zhit325@126.com