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模块7 Unit 1 语法:及物动词和不及物动词


Grammar and usage --------Transitive verbs and intransitive verbs

Revision Judge whether the following sentences are right or wrong
1. He is listening the teacher carefully. listen to 2. They always want a cup of tea after lunch. 3. He is sending now. send sth 4. If you work hard, you will succeed in passing the exam. 5. Our children are taught to serve for the people wholeheartedly. serve the people 6. The pen is written well.

writes

Definition
英语中按动词后可否直接跟宾语可把动词分成及物 动词(transitive verbs/vt.)和不及物动词 (intransitive verbs/vi.)

(1)及物动词后必须跟宾语意义才能完整。 He is sending now. 不及物动词后不能直接跟宾语,若要跟宾语, 必须在其后添加某个介词然后再跟宾语。 He is listening the teacher carefully. (2) 大多数及物动词可用于被动语态, 不及物动词不能用于被动语态。

及物动词(transitive verbs) 及物动词指后面必须跟宾语意义才能完整的实义 动词。

(1)主语+谓语+宾语(n, pron, to do, doing, object clause)

她前天到达巴黎。 2011年底,中国发射了第一颗民用测绘卫星。 司机没能及时发现另一辆车。
She reached Paris the day before yesterday. China launched its first civillian surveying and mapping satellite at the end of 2011. The driver failed to see the car from the other side.

(2) 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语

有些及物动词可以接两个宾语,即指人的间接宾语和 指物的直接宾语。这两个宾语称之为双宾语。常见的 可以接双宾语的及物动词有:
give, pay, tell, show, send, bring, wish, teach, write, make, buy, pass, lend, return, hand,etc.

如果间接宾语位于直接宾语之后,则由介词to, for等引出,成为介词间接宾语。

give; show; pass; lend; tell… …
buy; make; cook; get; sing;……

(3) 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语(n; adj; adv; prep; to do; doing; ppv.)

They asked us to go fishing with them. The concert made her a popular singer overnight. Satellites make TV accessible to people who live far away from cities. He found himself lying in bed when he came to life. Don’t always keep the children indoors.

Even the best writers sometimes found themselves _____ for words. A. lose B. lost C. to lose D. having lost

及物动词的语态
大多数及物动词都可以用于被动语态,但某些及物动词 和动词短语不行。

(1)表示“拥有” “容纳” “缺少”等概念的动词
One of the most serious problems many people talk about centers on _________ adequate housing space .(lack) lacking

The newly-constructed reservior holds a lot of water.

(2) 当句子的谓语动词是表示“适合”的及物动词, 如suit,fit等时, 没有相应的被动语态。 The blue skirts suits Mary very well. We should fit our deeds to our words.

(3) 当句子的谓语动词是表示”相互作用“的及物动 词,如 “equal, mean, resemble”等时,没有相应的 被动语态。 No one equals him in intelligence. 她的智力是无与伦比的。

这两个男孩长得很像。 The two boys resemble each other in appearance.

不及物动词(intransitive verbs)
不及物动词指本身意义完整后不须跟宾语的实义 动词,若要跟宾语,必须在其后添加某个介词然后 再跟宾语。 (1) 主语+谓语(vi)
(1) My watch stoppped. (2) She spoke at the meeting yesterday. (3) More challenges lie ahead of me. (4) The water rose higher and higher ,as a result, more than 1,000 people fad to leave their home.

(2) 主语+谓语(vi)+介词+宾语
I listened, but could hear nothing. Everybody listened to the lecture with great interest.

不及物动词没有被动语态
The palace caught fire three times in the last century, and little of the original building_____now. A. remains B. is remained C. is remaining D. has been remained

兼作及物动词和不及物动词
Shall I begin at once? She began working as a librarian after she left school. When did they leave Beijing? They left last week. She’s studying medicine. She studies hard. She’s typing a letter. She’s typing.

意 义 相 同

Don’t move my things. The train is moving now.

She couldn’t stand the cold. Don’t stand in the rain. Wash your hands before meals. Does this cloth wash well.

意 义 不 同

Practise

Students’ book Page 9 Part A & Part B

His idea issounds reasonable. sounded Who will answer to this question? He arrived Shanghai yesterday. at He hopes to serve for his nation. Nothing can escape from his parents’ eyes. When did Susan marry with Paul? He charged with me five dollars for a cup of tea. with They could probably deal all kinds of situation. We shouldn’t always depend our parents. on

Homework
Finish C1 and C2 on page 100.


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