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高中英语必修五-unit 1 课文详解


必修五

Unit 1 课文详解

杨磊译注

1

必修五 Unit 1 I.Vocabulary
steam engine characteristic radium n.镭 put forward 提出 蒸汽机 n.特征;特性

Great Scientists 伟

大的科学家
control vt.& n.控制;支配 absorb severe vt.吸收;使专心 adj.严重的; 严厉的; 严格 apart from 除…之外;此外 creative adj.有创造力的;独创的 adj.合作的

co-operative positive

的;剧烈的 valuable adj.贵重的;有价值的

adj.积极的;肯定的

theory n。理论;学说 infect vt.传染;感染

be strict with 对…严格的 revolutionary adj.革命的 calculation n.计算;计算结果 lead to 通向;导致 movement n。移动;运动;动作 adv. & adj. 向 后 地 make sense 有意义 backward (的) 相反地 ; (的) 退步地 ; (的) loop n.圈;环 adj.完整的;完成的

clue n.线索;提示 pump n.泵;抽水机

infectious adj.传染的 cholera n.霍乱 scientific examine adj.科学的 vt.检查;诊察;考察

pub n.酒馆;酒吧 blame vt.责备;谴责;把…归咎于;
n.过失;责备

conclude vt. & vi.结束;结论;议定 conclusion n.结论;结束;议定 draw a conclusion 得出结论 analyse repeat defeat vt.分析 vi & vt.重复;重做 n.

immediately adv.立即;马上 handle n.柄;把手; vt.处理 germ n.微生物;细菌 addition n.加;增加;加法 in addition 也;另外 link vt.连接;联系 n.联系;环

complete

privately adv.私下地;秘密地 spin vi. & vt.(使)旋转;纺(线)

vt. N.打败;战胜;使受挫

attend vt.照顾;护理;出席;参加 expose vt.(与 to 连用)暴露;揭露;
使曝光

link…to…将…和…连接或联系起来 announce vt.宣布;通告 certainty n.确知;确信;确实 instruct virus vt.命令;指示;教导 n.病毒

brightness n.明亮;亮度;聪颖 enthusiastic adj.热情的;热心的 cautious adj.小心的;谨慎的 reject vt.拒绝;不接受;丢弃 point of view 态度;观点;看法 logical
adj.和逻辑的;合乎常理的

deadly adj.致命的 cure n. vt.治愈;痊愈;治疗

outbreak n.爆发;发作(疾病或战争) construction n.建设;结构;建筑物

II.Reading JOHN SNOW DEFEATS “KING CHOLERA” John Snow was a well-known doctor in London — so famous, indeed, that he attended Queen Victoria to ease the birth of her babies.约翰斯诺在伦敦
是一位著名的医生,的确,如此出名以致于由他护理维多利亚女王生孩子。 【注释: attend v.出席; 到场; 注意; 照看 attend to 处理; 注意倾听; 专心于; 照料; attend

school/ class/ church/ a wedding/ a meeting/ a lecture/ a movie; attend on/ upon sb.伺候某 人; 照顾某人;eg. 1) I’ll attend to the matter.我来处理此事。 2) He was very tired after (1) attend 是 (3) join in 通常指参加某种活动,尤 (4) take part in 指参加群众性活 the long run, and expected someboday to attend on him.长袍之后他感到非常疲劳, 很想有 个人来照顾自己一下。 ▲辨析: attend, join, join in, take part in 正式用语,一般指参加会议、典礼、婚礼、葬礼及去听课、听报告等; (2) join 指加入某党派、某组织、 某社会团体以及参军等,如:He joined the football club two years ago. 其指其他人一起参加某项活动,如: I hope you’ll all join in the discussion. 试题: —— Maybe his sister. C. joining in D. attending on 】

动、 会议、 劳动、 游行等, 往往参加者持有积极地态度, 并起到一定的作用, 有时可与 join in 互换, 如: Will you take part in the English evening? —— Who is ______ the patient? A. taking care

B. looking for

But he became inspired when he thought about helping ordinary people exposed to cholera.但当他
想到要帮助受霍乱侵扰的普通民众,他就感到受到激励(或感受到神灵的召唤) 【注释:① inspire 。 影响或触动: eg. The falling leaves inspired her with sadness.落叶触动了她的伤感. (2) 鼓励; 激励 inspire sb. with hope 激起某人的希望 (1) eg. 1)

2) I was inspired to work harder than ever before.我受激励比以往任何

必修五

Unit 1 课文详解

杨磊译注

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时候都更加努力地工作。

②expose to 使易受;使受

eg.

exposed themselves to disease 使他们受到疾病 考题:

的影响; exposed their children to classical music. 使他们的孩子们受到古典音乐的影响。 1.

As we all know,women do not________their faces in public in some Middle Eastern countries. A.cover B.keep C.expose D.protect

2.The more one is________the English?speaking environment,the better he or she will learn the language. A.exposed to B.filled in C.caught on D.kept up

3.The reason why people carry umbrellas in hot summer days is that ____ to strong sunlight may be harmful to the skin. A.contributing B.exposing C.contributed D.being exposed 】

This was the most deadly disease of its day. 这在当时是最为致命的疾病。 【注释: deadly adj. 致命的;
死一般的;绝对的;完全的 如:deadly weapons 致命武器;a deadly pallor.死人般的苍白;deadly enemies. 不共戴天的仇敌; :deadly concentration.绝对专心】Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood.其原 因及治疗方法都不为人知道。 【注释:neither 和相关连词 nor 连用,连接并列主语(1) 、并列谓语(2) 、并 列宾语(3) eg. (1)Neither we nor they want it. 我们和他们都不要它。 (2) She neither called nor wrote. 她既没打电话也没写信来。 (3) I got neither the gift nor the card.我既没得到礼物,也没得到贺卡。考题: (2008 辽) 1. Bill wasn’t happy about the delay of the report by Jason,and _____. B.neither was I B.neither will he C.I was either D.either was I 】

A.I was neither 2.

If Joe’s wife won’t go to the party,________. A.he will either C.he neither will D.either he will

So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.所以每当这种疾病爆发
的时候,就有数以千计的感到恐惧的人死掉。 【注释:every time 这是由名词词组充当连词,引导时间状语 从句,类似这种用法的名词短语有: 不定代词+time,如:any time; each time; 介词+time 如:by the time…; 序数词+time,如: the first/last time…; the +瞬间名词, the minute, the moment, the instant “一…就…” the 如: ; +时间名词,如: the day, the night, the month, the time… time/each time she sees me. eg. 1) She demands sweets from me every

2) The truck will have arrived by the time you have all the things packed up. 3) 4) I’ll give him your message the minute/ the moment/ the 考题:

The first time he did the experiment, he succeeded.

instant he arrives. 5) He bought a computer the day/ the time he got his salary. 1. Don’t stop________you meet with a word you don’t understand. A.at the time B.each time C.by the time C.Every time D.Sometimes

2. ________you talk with someone or write a message,you show your skills to others. A.At times B.Some time D.The time】

John Snow wanted to use his knowledge to help solve this problem.约翰斯诺想用他的知识来帮助解 决这个问题。 He knew it would never be controlled until its cause was found.他知道直到找到原因才
能控制该疾病。

He got interested in two theories explaining how cholera killed people.他对霍乱如何让人丧生
的两种理论感兴趣。 【注释:explaining how cholera killed people 是现在分词作定语,其逻辑主语是 two theories.】 The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air without reason. 第一种认为霍乱在空 气中不合理地进行繁殖. 【注释: without reason 没道理; 不合理 eg. Tom is a very clever boy, but he said that without reason.】A cloud of dangerous gas would float around until it found its victims.一层危险的气 体到处漂浮,直到它找到载体(入侵对象) The second suggested that people absorbed this disease 。

into their bodies with their meals, from the stomach the disease attached the body quickly and soon the affected person was dead.第二种认为人们在吃饭的时候将这种疾病吸收到体内,然后,从胃里
该疾病很快就攻击身体,很快被感染的人就会死掉。 【注释:absorb vt.(1) To take in; assimilate:吸入;同 化:They are immigrants who were absorbed into the social mainstream.他们是被社会的主流同化了的移民。

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Unit 1 课文详解

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(2) To endure; accommodate:忍耐;忍受 的困苦.

eg.

We couldn't absorb the additional hardships.我们不能忍受额外 be absorbed into 被…吞并;兼并

(3) 吸引;使专心;使全神贯注 eg. The writer was absorbed in his writing that he forgot to flick the 试题: 1) She was so ____ in her job that she didn’t hear anybody B. absorbed C. drawn D. focused

ashes from his cigar.作家全神贯注地进行写作,忘了弹去雪茄烟的烟灰。 be absorbed in 专心于;全神贯注于 knocking at the door. 2. A. attracted

_______ in her new novel,the young writer kept thinking and writing for a dozen hours in her study. B. Deeply absorbing C. Deeply having been absorbed D. Deeply absorbed】

A. Having deeply absorbed

He believed in the second theory but needed to prove he was correct.他相信第二种理论, 可是需 要证明是对的。 So when another outbreak hit London in 1854, John Snow was ready to test these two theories.所以在 1854 年,当另一场霍乱爆发袭击伦敦的时候,约翰斯诺准备测试这两个理论。 【注释:
hit (1)打,击 eg. 1) The boy hit the other boy and was naturally punished by the headmaster."这男孩打了另一 (2) 受影响 eg. 1) Price increases hit everyone's pocket.物价上涨冲 个男孩,理所当然地受到校长的处罚。 击了每个人的钱袋。

2) Strike waves hit several Western European countries.罢工的浪潮袭击了好几个西欧

国家。 As the disease spread quickly through the poor neighbourhoods, John Snow began to 】

gather the information.当疾病迅速在贫穷的邻里间传播的时候,约翰斯诺开始收集相关信息。 【注释:
spread 传开,传播:事件范围扩大,在更大的领域被人知晓或蔓延 eg. 1) The word spread fast.消息散布得 很快. 2) The fire spread from the factory to the houses near by.火从工厂蔓延到附近的房舍。 He found that 】

in two particular streets, the cholera outbreak was so severe that more than 500 people had died in 10 days.他发现在两个特别的街道,霍乱爆发的是如此严重,以致于在 10 天之内有 500 多人死亡。 He determined to find out why.他决定搞清楚为什么。 He marked on a map where all the dead people had lived. 在一张地图上他标出了所有死亡人的居住地。 【注释:where all the dead people had lived 是定语 从句,由关系副词 where 引导。 Here it is:这就是: 】 The map gave a valuable clue about the cause of the disease.这份地
图提供了有关该疾病原因有价值的线索。

Many of the deaths were near the water pump in Broad Street (especially numbers 16,37,38and 40 Broad Street).许多死亡靠近宽街的水泵
(尤其是宽街第 17、 38 和 40 号房子) 37、

John Snow also saw that some houses (such as 20 and 21 Broad Street and 8 and 9 Cambridge Street) had had no deaths. 约翰斯诺也注意到一些房子(如 宽街第 20、 号和剑桥大街第 8、 号房子) He discovered that these families worked in the pub at 7 21 9 , Cambridge Street.他发现这些人家在剑桥大街 7 号酒店工作, They were given free beer and so had not drunk the water from the Broad Street pump.给他们提供的是免费的啤酒,所以他们不喝来自宽街 水泵的水。 It seemed the water was to blame.似乎水就是罪魁祸首。 【注释:blame (1) 起因是:是…
起因或某事的根源的 eg. 1) A freak storm was to blame for the power outage.停电的起因是一场特大暴风雪. eg. 1) The children were not to blame.孩子们不应受到谴责。 2) The driver was (2) be to blame 应受谴责

not to blame for the traffic accident.那次交通事故不应该责怪司机。 sth. on sb. 将某事归咎于某人 因某事而指责某人 eg. ▲ 辨析: blame, fault, guilt eg.

3) I am to blame.是我不好。 (3)blame (4)blame sb. for sth.

Don't blame it on him, but on me.别怪他,该怪我。

They blamed the secretary for the delay of the plan.他们怪罪秘书造成计划延误。 (1) blame 强调对某种可以解释的失误或不良行为的谴责或惩罚: eg.

必修五

Unit 1 课文详解

杨磊译注

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The police laid the blame for the accident squarely on the driver's shoulders. 警方公正地把事故的责任归于司 机。 (2) fault 是指引起或没能阻止某有害事件发生而应承担的责任: eg. 节严重、故意的不良行为并强调道德上的过失:eg. The student failed the examination, (3) guilt 适用于情 but not through any fault of his teacher. 这个学生考试不及格,但不是由于老师的过失。

The case was dismissed because the prosecution did not

have sufficient evidence of the defendant's guilt.案子被撤消了,因为指控对被告罪行没有足够的证据. 考题: 1. They blamed the failure on George.Actually,he________. A.is not to blame B.is to blame C.is not to be blamed D.should not blame 】

Next ,John Snow looked into the source of the water for these two streets.接下来,约翰斯诺调 查这两条大街的水源。 He found that it came from the river, which had been polluted by the dirty water from London.他发现水是来自已经北伦敦污染的河流。 【注释: which had been … London.是由 which
引导的非限制性定语从句,which 指代前面主句中具体的名词 the river,另外,which 也可以指代抽象概念, 如:He left early, which was wise.他早早地离开,那是很明智的。 考题:

1. (09 全 II-17) My friend showed me around the town, ____ was very kind of him. A. which B. that C. where D. it 2. (09 鲁-24) Whenever I met her, _____ was fairly often, she greeted me with a sweet smile. A. who B. which C. when D. that 3. (09 辽-23) They’ve won their last three matches, _____ I find a bit surprising actually. A. that B. when C. what D. which 4. (08 浙-8) Yesterday she sold her car, _____ she bought a month ago. A. when B. where C. that D. which ABDD】

Immediately John Snow told the astonished people in Broad Street to remove the handle from the water pump so it could not be used.立刻,约翰斯诺要感到吃惊的宽街人移除水泵的把手,以使它不能再 用。 Soon the disease began to slow down.很快,疾病传播开始缓慢下来。 John Snow had shown that cholera was spread by germs and not in a cloud of gas.约翰斯诺早 已表明霍乱是由细菌传播, 而不是由云气传播。 In addition, he found two other deaths in another part of London that were linked to the Broad Street outbreak.另外, 他发现在伦敦的另外一个地方的另外两
例死亡与宽街霍乱爆发有关。 【注释:in addition 副词短语,单独作状语,用于句首或句中,在句末相当于 as well; in addition to 介词短语, 用在句首或句中, 后须加宾语。 如: 1) When Diane fell, she hurt her arm and , in addition, broke her glasses. 2) In addition to a good diet, she keeps on taking exercise to keep fit.】 A

woman, who had moved away from Broad Street, liked the water so much that she had had it delivered from the pump to her house every day.一位妇女, 她已经离开宽街, 她如此喜欢那里的水, 但,
以致于她每天让人从那个水泵里把水运到家。 【注释:have sth. done. 让人做某事。Have sth. to be done.(指 未来)让某人做某事。 have sb. do sth.让某人做某事; have sb. doing sth.让某人持续不停地做某事。Have sth. To do(指自己)有事要做。 Both she and her daughter, who often visited her, died of cholera after 】

drinking the water.她和她的女儿,她女儿常去看她,俩人在饮用了那里的水之后都死于霍乱。 With this extra evidence, John Snow was able to announce with certainty that polluted water carried the disease.有了这个额外的证据,约翰斯诺就能够确切地宣布:被污染的河水含有这种疾病。 To prevent this from happening again, John Snow suggested that the source of all water supplies (should) be examined and new methods of dealing with polluted water be found.为了避免 这种疾病再次发生, 约翰斯诺建议所有的水供应源都应该进行检查, 也应该寻找新的处理污水的方法。 The water companies were also instructed not to expose people to pulluted water anymore.指示自来水 公司不要让人再接触到受污染的水。 Finally “King Cholera” was defeated.最终, “霍乱王”被击败了。 ▲辨析:win,beat,defeat (1) win 的意思是“赢”、“获胜”、“得到成功”,作及物动词时,它的宾

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Unit 1 课文详解

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语往往是奖品、 奖学金、 名誉、 财产、 战争或运动等。 后不能接人(对手), win 如不说 win sb.。 win the race/the battle/the war/a prize/the game/a medal/success/friendship/reward 赢得了赛跑/战斗/战争/奖品/比赛/奖牌/成功/ 友谊/奖赏 Our team won the game 8 to 7.我们队以 8 比 7 赢了那场比赛。 (2) beat 也有“赢”、“取胜”、“战胜”之意,但跟 win 的用法不同,这个动词后面跟的是比赛、竞争中的对手 或战争中的敌人。且 beat 还有连续敲打,(心脏)跳动之意。过去式为 beat,过去分词为 beaten。 You beat me in the race,but I’ll beat you at tennis.赛跑你赢了我,但打网球我会赢你。 He was so nervous that he could feel his heart beating faster.他如此紧张,以至于能感到自己的心跳加快了。 Listen!The rain is beating against the window.听!雨点在敲打着窗户。 (3) defeat 本来用于描述战争中打败敌人,现在可与 beat 换用,以表示击败对手。 He was badly defeated/beaten in the election.他在选举中惨败。 考题: Zhang Yining________Wang Nan and won the gold medal in the 29th Olympic Games. A.won B.defeat C.beat D.hit

重点句型: 1.Neither its cause nor its cure was understood.
【精提取】 【巧应用】 neither...nor...既不??,也不??,连接句中两个相同成分。 我既不想知道,也不关心。

Neither do I want to know it,____ ____ _____ ____ ____ _____. 答案:nor do I care about it 2.So many thousands of terrified people died every time there was an outbreak.
【精提取】 【巧应用】 every(each,any,next,first,last)time 作连词使用,引导时间状语从句。 杰克每次来城里都会来看望我。

Jack ___ ___ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ he comes to town. 答案:will drop in on me every time 3.The first suggested that cholera multiplied in the air.
【精提取】 suggest vt.暗示,表明了 【巧应用】 他脸上的表情说明他非常高兴。

The look on his face ____ ____ ____ _____ _____. 答案:suggested that he was happy 4.Only if you put the sun there did the movements of the other planets in the sky make sense.
【精提取】 【巧应用】 only+介词短语/状语从句/副词放在句首时后面(主)句用倒装语序。 我只有找到工作才能有足够的钱继续大学的学业。

___ ___ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ _____to continue my studies at college. 答案:Only if I get a job can I have enough money 常备动词短语: 1. put forward 提出,建议;推荐;将??提前;put aside 节省,储蓄,储存;

put out 熄灭,扑灭

put away 放好,积蓄; put off 延期,推迟; put up 举起,张贴,公布,挂起,建造

试题: —Why is he feeling down today? —Because the suggestion he________has been turned down. A.put away B.put up C.put down D.put forward 2. look into 注视?的内部,注视;调查; look after 照看,照管; look down upon 看不起 look forward to 盼望; look out 注意; look up to 尊重 试题: (2009 赣)It is reported that the police will soon ____ the case of the two missing children. A.look upon B.look after C.look into D.look out The building around the corner caught fire last night.The police are now ______ the matter.

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A.seeing through

B.working out

C.looking into
make sense of 理解,明白;

D.watching over
make no sense 没道理,没意义;

3. make sense 有意义;有道理;讲得通;
there is no sense in doing sth.做??没道理;

in a sense 在某一方面;就某种意义来说; in no sense 决不

试题: There are so many new words in the passage that I could hardly make any _____ of them at all. A.meaning B.use C.idea D.sense No matter how hard I tried to read it,the sentence didn’t________to me. A.make out B.understand C.make sense D.work out It doesn’t make ____ to buy that expensive coat when these cheaper ones are just as good. A.sense B.opinion C.use D.Difference 每日一背范文: (2009 年高考全国卷Ⅰ)假定你是李华,正在英国接受英语培训,住在一户英国人家里。今天 你的房东 Mrs.Wilson 不在家,你准备外出,请给 Mrs.Wilson 写一留言条,内容包括: 1.外出购物; 2.替房东还书; 3.Tracy 来电话留言: 1)咖啡屋(Bolton Coffee)见面取消 2)此事已告知 Susan 3)尽快回电 注意:1.词数 100 左右; 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯。 Mrs.Wilson , _______________________________________________________________________________ _ Li Hua 范文: Mrs.Wilson, I’ going out shopping, won’ be back until about 5∶00 p. have taken with me the two m and t m..I books you asked me to return to the City Library.At about 1 o’ clock this afternoon, Tracy called, saying that she couldn’t meet you at Bolton Coffee tomorrow morning as she has something important to attend to.She felt very sorry about that,but said that you could set some other time for the meeting.She wanted you to call her back as soon as you are home.She has already told Susan about this change. Li Hua


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