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高考英语阅读理解长难句分析练习


高考英语阅读理解长难句分析练习

姓名 ___________________

一 I see the kindness every day when people hold doors for me, pour cream into my coffee, or help me to put on my coat. 按要求答题: 1 写出

when 引导的从句的谓语 ___________ ____________ _____________ 2 将上面这句话译成中文: ________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3 根据上面这句话选择答案: I have discovered that people will feel happy when ______. A. They offer their help C. They feel others’kindness B. They receive others’help D. They show their weakness

Key: 1 hold pour help 2 当人们每天为我开门,往我的咖啡里加奶油,帮我披上外衣时,我看到了他们的仁慈。 3 A

二 From my wheelchair experience, I see the best in people, but sometimes I feel sad because those who appear independent miss the kindness I see daily. 按要求答题: 1 2 用中文回答: Who miss the kindness I see daily ? __________________________________ 将 From my wheelchair experience, I see the best in people 译成中文: ___________________________________________________________________________ 3 根据上面这句话选择答案: The author feels sad sometimes because ______. A. he has a soft heart C. some people pretend to be kind B. he relies much on others D. some people fail to see the kindness in others

Key: 1 那些看上去独立的人 2 从我的轮椅生活中,我看到了人们的仁慈, 3 D

三 But only when we stop pretending we are brave or strong do we allow people to show the kindness that is in them. More often, it would be better if we don’t pretend we feel strong when we feel weak or pretend that we are brave when we are scared. 按要求答题: 1 将上面这句话译成中文: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 3 根据上面这句话选择答案: In this passage, the author advises us to ______. A. handle problems by ourselves C. admit our weakness B. accept help from others D. show our bravery

Key: 1 只有我们停止假装勇敢和逞强,才能给别人机会表现仁慈。通常,要是我们在无助时不 要逞强,惊慌时不要假装勇敢就好了。 2 C 四 But instead of getting impatient and angry, they waited, knowing the driver in front of them was in some way weak. 按要求答题: 1 将上面这句话译成中文: _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 2 根据上面这句话选择答案: What did the other drivers do when they saw the flashlights? A. They speeded up to pass. B. They waited with patience. C. They tried their best to help. D. They put on their flashlights too. Key: 1 但是他们没有生气也没有失去耐心,而只是等待,因为他们知道前面的司机在某个方面 处于弱势。 2 B 五 People who are thinking about adopting dogs or cats as friends for their pets are worried that they will fight. 按要求答题: 1 …that they will fight. 这里的 they 是指 ______________________ . 2 将该句话译成中文 ________________________________________________________

Key: 1 指 dogs or cats 2 那些想把狗猫作为宠物来养的人担心狗和猫在一起会打架。

六 Manfred Milinski from the Max-Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology in Germany and Bettina Rockenbach of the university of Berlin, the authors of a new study, found that people act better when they are being watched because they feel they will be rewarded for good behaviour 按要求答题: 1 这句话的主语是 ________________, 谓语是 ______________, 宾语是 ______________ 2 这句话的主要意思是(用中文写,不得超过 15 个字) :_____________________________ 3 用英语回答问题: What can we conclude from the new study ? ______________________________________________________________________________ Key: 1 Manfred Milinski, found, that people act better 2 Manfred Milinski 发现人们表现得更好。 3 people act better when they are being watched because they feel they will be rewarded for good behaviour

七 Carla Bruni, an Italian singer, former model and girlfriend of France’s President Nicolas Sarkozy, holds the hand of her son Aurelien while wearing a pink heart-shaped ring during a visit to the ancient Jordanian ruins ( 遗迹) of Petra Jan. 5, 2008. 按要求答题: 1 这句话的主语是 ________________, 谓语是 ______________, 宾语是 ______________ 2 选择答案: 1 __________ wore a pink heart-shaped ring. A Aurelien B Nicolas Sarkozy C Carla Bruni D Petra 11.With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence, according to Intermountain Therapy Animals(ITA) in salt Lake City.(NMET2003.B 篇) 据盐湖城的 ITA 的观点,闪烁的棕色眼睛,摇着尾巴,并有无条件的爱心,狗能成 为无判断力的(忠实的)听者,这是刚开始搞阅读的小孩所需要的。 简析:夹杂 with 构成的介词短语及过去分词短语。 12. The Salt Lake City public library is sold on the idea. (NMET2003.B 篇)

这家盐湖城公共图书馆接受这个观点。 简析:关键词 sell on (to)使接受。 13. Discovered by the Portuguese admiral of the same name in 1506, and settled in 1810, the island belongs to Great Britain and has a population of a few hundred. (NMET2003. A 篇) 这个岛屿,于 1506 年被同名的葡萄牙上将发现,在 1810 年有人居住,现在属于英 国,人口数有几百人。 简析:有两个过去分词短语作状语。 14. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years, giving them plenty of time to build more than 1000 huge stone figures, called moat, for which the island is most famous.(NMET2003.A 篇) 他们已有一千多年与外界没有联系,这给他们充足的时间来修建 1000 多座巨大的石 像,被称为莫艾,因为有这个东西这个岛屿极其出名。 简析:夹杂有现在分词短语,过去分词短语及定语从句。 15. Our parties are aimed for children 2 to 10 and they’re very interactive and creative in that they build a sense of drama based on a subject. (NMET2002. E 篇) 我们的(生日)聚会针对两到十岁的小孩,它们互动感强,富有创新,因为它们能基于一 个主题构建一种戏剧的氛围。 简析:关键词 aim for 针对;in that 在于。 16. The most important idea behind the kind of party planning described here is that it brings parents and children closer together.(NMET2002. E 篇) 在这里叙述的这种筹备(生日)聚会的计划所带有的最重要的观点在于它能让父母 和孩子的关系更加密切。 简析:夹杂过去分词短语及表语从句。 17.He had realized that the words: “one of six to eight” under the first picture in the book connected the hare in some way to Katherine of Aragon, the first of Henry VIII’s six wives. (NMET2002. D 篇)

他曾认识到那本书里第一幅图画下面的那些词“一、六、八”在某些方面将这个野 兔和阿拉甘的凯撒英,即亨利八世的六个妻子当中的第一个妻子,联系起来。 简析:夹杂宾语从句及过去分词短语。 18.Until one day he came across two stone crosses in Ampthill park and learnt that they had been built in her honor in 1773. (NMET2002. D 篇) 直到有一天他在阿帕斯尔公园碰巧看见两个石制的十字架,他才懂得在 1773 年修建 这两个十字架是为了向她表示敬意。 简析:关键词 come across 碰巧遇见,in one’s honor 纪念某人。 19. It is Sue Townsend’s musical play, based on her best-selling book. (NMET2002. C 篇) 它是苏珊· 汤森德的音乐剧本,根据她畅销的小说改编的。 简析:关键词 best-selling 畅销的。 20. Gold is one of a growing number of shoppers buying into the organic trend, and supermarkets across Britain are counting on more like him as they grow their organic food business. (NMET2002. B 篇) 戈德是对有机食品感兴趣众多购买者当中的一位,遍及英国的超市依赖更多像他那 样的购买者,因为他们要增加有机食品生意。 简析:关键词 count on 依赖。 长难句练习: 1.Reading to dogs is an unusual way to help children improve their literacy skills(读写能力). With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence (自信心), according to Intermountain Therapy Animals (ITA) in Salt Lake City. 参考翻译: 利用对狗阅读来帮助儿童提高读写能力是一种独特的方法。盐湖城的 ITA 组织认为,由于 狗具有闪亮的棕色眼睛、摇摆的尾巴以及无条件的爱,它为儿童(初级阅读者)获取自信心提 供了“必要的(无偏见的)听众”。

2. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years, giving them plenty of time to build more than 1000 huge stone figures, called Moai, for which the island is

most famous. 参考翻译: 他们与外界隔绝了一千多年, 这给他们充足的时间来修 1000 多座被称为"摩埃"的巨型石像, 这个岛屿也因此而闻名。Moai:摩埃(位于智利复活节岛的巨型石像)

3. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime. That is, the growing demand for paper in recent years is largely due to the increased use of the Internet. 参考翻译: 很难计算出因为互联网的应用所使用纸张的数量,然而几乎任何在办公室工作的人能告诉 你,当有了电子邮件后,打印机就开始超时工作。也就是说近年来人们对于纸张的日益需求 主要是由于因特网越来越多的使用。

4. At the conference in San Francisco, Donald Louria, a professor at New Jersey Medical School in Newark said advances in using genes as well as nanotechnology(纳米技术) make it likely that humans will live in the future beyond what has been possible in the past. 参考翻译: 在旧金山的会议上, 位于纽瓦克的新泽西医学院的教授唐纳德罗利亚说, 基因利用以及纳米 技术的进步使人类未来的寿命有可能延长到从前不可能达到的地步。

5. The major market force rests in the growing population of white-collar employees, who can afford the new service, in other words, Shanghai's car rental industry is growing so fast mainly due to the increasing number of white-collar employees. 参考翻译: 主要的市场推动力依赖于不断增长的白领阶层的人数, 他们有钱支付这种新的服务, 换句话 说,上海的汽车租赁业增长如此之快关键在于白领阶层的不断壮大。

6. It was then that I realized that I had not really come to help, but to learn about and experience another culture that helped improve my own understanding of life and the world. 参考翻译: 到那时候,我才意识到我并非真的来帮助他人,而是来了解和体验另一种文化,这种文化有 助于提高我对生活和世界的理解。

7. As a result, California's growth rate dropped during the 1970's, to 18.5 percent--little more than two thirds the 1960's growth figure and considerably below that of other Western states. 参考翻译: 结果,加利福尼亚的人口增长率在 20 世纪 70 年代时下降到了 18.5%一一稍高于 60 年代 增长率的三分之二,大大低于西部其他各州。

8. Whereas a woman's closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage,it wasn't unusual to hear a man say he didn't know his friend's marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa. 参考翻译: 一个女人最亲密的女性朋友最可能是第一个告诉她离开一次失败的婚姻的人; 而听见一个男 人说, 直到他的朋友一天晚上问他是否可以睡在他家的沙发上, 他才知道他朋友的婚姻已非 常糟糕,这是很平常的事。

9. This process is also found among scholars and authors: a statement of opinion by one writer may be restated by another, who may in turn be quoted by yet another, and this process may continue, unless it occurs to someone to question the facts on which the original writer based his opinion or to challenge the interpretation he placed upon those facts. 参考翻译: 在学者和作者中, 我们也常常会发现这个过程: 一个作者陈述的观点有可能会被另外一位作 者重述,然后他的重述或许又会被另一个作者引用。这个过程会继续下去,除非有人质疑原 作者的观点所根据的事实或者是对原作者对这些事实的解释提出异议。

10. While talking to you, your could-be employer is deciding whether your education, your experience, and other qualifications will pay him to employ you and your "wares" and abilities must be displayed in an orderly and reasonably connected manner. 参考翻译: 当与你谈话的时候,你潜在的雇主就在衡量你的学历、经验和其他条件是否值得他聘用你, 而你的"商品"和能力一定要顺其自然地展示出来。

一个英语句子之所以难以理解, 有许多原因, 其中一个主要原因是句子太长或者句子结构复 杂。 句子过长或者复杂无非是该句除了主干之外还包含了一些附加部分, 如插入语、 同位语、 分隔现象、 各种从句或较长的非谓语动词短语等等。 这些附属成分常有逗号或分隔符号与句 子隔开,且插在一个句子中间,使本来完整的句子被断开,因而增加句意理解的难度。分析

长难句的基本方法是:首先,判断该句是简单句、并列句还是复合句;然后,找出句子的核 心成分,分清主语和谓语,再分清句子附属成分。下面我们来谈谈几种长难句的处理技巧。 一、处理长难句的原则方法 如果待处理的长难句为一个复杂的单句,可这样处理:跳读修饰成分,迅速找出主谓结构。 这样一来,我们便可以将长句化为短句,将难句化为易句。具体步骤是:先跳读修饰成分或 附加成分,找出句子的主干并理解其意义;然后再分段理解修饰成分或附加成分。 如果待处理的长难句为一个复杂的并列句,可这样处理:先找出其中的并列连词,然后再根 据并列连词的意思理清句子前后是顺连关系还是反连关系, 是因果关系还是转折关系等, 最 后再根据不同的语境关系正确理解句意。 如果待处理的长难句为一个复杂的主从复合句,可这样处理:先分清主句与从句,然后弄清 从句的性质,即弄清它是什么从句。 如果待处理的长难句为一个复杂的主从复合句,可这样处理:先分清主句与从句,然后弄清 名词性从句,还是状语从句,或是定语从句。注意,弄清从句性质对于理解复合句的意思至 关重要。 另外,有一点要提醒同学们,在处理长难句时,如果既能正确理解句意,又能将其准确地译 成中文,那是最好了。但是,对于有些长难句,要在较短时间内(如在参加考试时)将其译 成中文比较困难,此时只要能正确理解其意思就行了,如果硬要勉为其难地译成中文,不仅 会浪费时间,而且在许多情况也没有必要。 二、经典高考真题实例分析 下面这篇文章共有 194 个单词,却只有 9 个句子,平均每个句子大约有 22 个单词,是近 几年高考英语阅读理解中一篇比较典型的集中含有长难句的文章。 A 38-square-mile island, is the farthest inhabited island in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records. It is 1,510 miles southwest of its nearest neighbor St. Helena, and 1,950 miles west of Africa. Discovered by the Portuguese admiral(葡萄牙海军上将) of the same name in 1506, and settled in 1810, the island belongs to Great Britain and has a population of a few hundred.Coming in a close second——and often wrongly mentioned as the most

distant island——is Easter Island, which lies 1,260 miles east of its nearest neighbour, Pitcairn Island, and 2,300 miles west of South America.The mountainous 64-square-mile island was settled around the 5th century, supposedly by people who were lost at sea. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years, giving them plenty of time to build more than 1,000 huge stone figures, called moai, for which the island is most famous.On Easter Sunday, 1722, however, settlers from Holland moved in and gave the island its name. Today, 2,000 people live on the Chilean territory(智利领土). They share one street, a small airport and a few hours of television per day. 【解题分析】 1. 跳读插入语:请看文章第一段的第一句。第一步跳过插入语找出句子主干:Tristan da Cunha is the farthest inhabited island in the world (Tristan da Cunha 是世界上 无人居住的最偏僻的岛屿);第二步理解附加的插入语部分:a 38-square-mile island (该岛面积为 38 平方英里,而且这是吉尼斯记录之一),这样该句话的意思就弄明白了。 2. 跳读非谓语动词短语:我们来看第一段第三句。首先跳过前面的非谓语动词短语,找出 主干:the island belongs to Great Britain and has a population of a few hundred (该岛是英国领土,人口大约几千)。然后再来理解前面的非谓语动词短语:Discovered by the Portuguese admiral of the same name in 1506, and settled in 1810(这个岛 屿是在 1506 年被一个名叫 Tristan da Cunha 的葡萄牙海军上将发现的,Tristan da Cunha1810 年开始有人居住)。通过这样分解难度,我们读得轻松,理解得准确。 3. 跳读分隔现象:请看文章第二段,这一段有 35 个单词,却只有一句话。因为该段既包 括了分隔现象,又包含了定语从句,又有一个同位语,而且该句还是一个倒装句。如果从前 到后按照顺序来理解,未免有点繁杂,抓不住重点。所以首先要跳过两个分隔符号之间的内 容, 同时也要暂时搁置后面的非限制性定语从句, 找出主干并把主干重新倒置过来变成正常 语序: Easter Island is coming in a close second (Easter Island is coming in a close secondEaster Island 是紧跟第二的最偏僻的岛屿);然后再理解分隔符号之间的内容和 后面的定语从句等附加成分:Easter Island 常常被误认为是最偏僻的岛屿,它在最临近 的岛屿(Pitcairn Island)东面 1,260 英里,在南美西面 2,300 英里。

4. 跳读定语从句:定语从句在阅读理解中是很常见的,有限制性和非限制性两种。限制性 定语从句用来限定所修饰的词,与之关系非常密切,阅读时要特别注意两者的密切联系,跳 过限制性定语从句找到主句后要马上回头理解它的含义, 确定它与先行词的修饰关系。 如文 章第三段的第一个句子里就有一个限制性定语从句:who were lost at sea. 阅读时一定 要注意它与 people 的密切联系:不是别人而是在大海里迷路的人五世纪左右在那里定居。 而非限制性定语从句与所修饰的词关系不是很密切, 主要起补充说明作用, 它可能出现在主 句中间,也可能出现在句尾。如果它出现在句中,阅读时可以跳过去然后再来理解,也可以 一起顺便读过去。如果非限制性定语从句出现在句尾,那阅读时很方便,看完主句后附带着 看一下就可以了,因为它只是对先行词的补充说明。如这一段的最后一句:for which the island is most famous. 看完主句我们得知该岛与外界隔绝了一千多年,使得岛上的人们 有充足的时间来修建一千多具巨大的石雕。然后再附带得知该岛以这些石雕而闻名。 三、针对性训练题 以下段落均选自近几年的高考英语阅读理解文章,均有一定难度,请你用以上方法试一试: 1. Decision thinking is not unlike poker — it often matters not only what you think, but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think. (NMET2000. C 篇) 2. Dad, in a hurry to get home before dark so he could go for a run, had forgotten to wear his safety belt—a mistake 75% of the US population make every day.(NMET1999. D 篇) 3. First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Format in the seventeenth century, the theorem had baffled and beaten the finest mathematical minds, including a French woman scientist who made a major advance in working out the problem, and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecolab poly technique.(NMET2003.C 篇) 4. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working

overtime. That is, the growing demand for paper in recent years is largely due to the increased use of the Internet.(NMET2003.E 篇) 5. Whereas a woman’s closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing marriage, it wasn’t unusual to hear a man say he didn’t know his friend’s marriage was in serious trouble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa.(NMET2001. E 篇)


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