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高中英语基础课件---简单句


简单句

一、句子成分
(一)句子成分的定义: 构成句子的各个部分叫做句子成分。 句子成分有主要成分和次要成分; 主要成分有主语和谓语; 次要成分有表语、宾语、定语、状语、 补足语、同位语和插入语。

1. 句子的成分

主语:(Subject) 表示句子说的是什么人或什么事. 是一个句子所叙述的主体,一般

位于句首。但在 there be结构、疑问句(当主语不疑问词时)和倒装句 中,主语位于谓语、助动词或情态动词后面。主语可由 名词、代词、数词、不定式、动名词、名词化的形容词 和主语从句等表示。例如:

1.During the 1990s, American country music has become more and more popular. (名词) 2.We often speak English in class. (代词) 3.Three in this class are girls。
(数词)

4.To swim in the river is a great pleasure.
(不定式)

5.Smoking does harm to the health. (动名词) 6.The rich should help the poor.(名词化的形容词)

7.When we are going to have an English test has not been decided. (主语从句) 8.It is necessary to master a foreign language.
(it作形式主语,真正的主语为后面的不定式)

谓语 (Predicate) 说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和状态。动 词在句中作谓语,一般放在主语之后。谓语的 构成如下:

1、简单谓语:由一个动词或动词短语构成。如: He practices running every morning.
The plane took off at ten o’clock.

2、复合谓语: (1)由情态动词加动词原形构成。如: You may keep the book for two weeks. (2)由助动词加动词原形,现在分词,过去分词构成。如: Do you speak English? They are working in a field. He has caught a bad cold. (3)由系动词加表语构成。如: We are students. 注意:谓语与主语在人称与数方面要保持一致。

表语(Predicative) ? 用以说明主语的性质、特征、状态与身份,它 一般位于系动词(如be, become, get, look, grow, turn, seem等)之后。 ? 表语一般由名词、代词、形容词、数词、 副 词、不定式、动名词、分词、介词短语及表语 从句表示。例如:

1.Our teacher of English is an American. (名词) 2.Is it yours? (代词) 3.The weather has turned cold. (形容词) 4.The speech is exciting. (分词) 5.Three times seven is twenty one? (数词)

6.His job is to teach English. (不定式) 7.His hobby is playing football. (动名词) 8.The meeting is of great importance. (介词短语) 9.Time is up. The class is over. (副词) 10.The truth is that he has never been abroad. (表语从句)

注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和 表语,说明主语的状态,性质特征和身份等。 1)状态系动词用来表示主语状态,只有be一词, 例如: He is a teacher. 2)持续系动词用来表示主语继续或保持一种状况 或态度,主要有keep, remain, stay, lie, stand, 例如: He always kept silent at meeting. 3)表像系动词用来表示“看起来像”这一概念, 主要有seem, appear, look, 例如: He seems (to be) very sad.

注意:系动词(Linking verb)用于连接主语和 表语,说明主语的状态,性质特征和身份等。 4)感官系动词主要有feel, smell, sound, taste, 例如: This kind of cloth feels very soft. 5)变化系动词表示主语变成什么样,主要有 become, grow, turn, fall, get, go, come, run.例如: The river was beginning to run dry. 6)终止系动词表示主语已终止动作,主要有 prove, turn out, 表达"结果是;证明是 ", 之意,例如: The rumor proved false. His plan turned out a success.

★系动词的用法:

(注意三点) adj. 作表语; +___________ 宾语 无 __________; 被动语态 无 __________; e.g. The dish tastes ________________. delicious (尝起来好吃) The storysounds _______________. interesting (听起来有趣).

? 宾语(Object)表示动作的对象或承爱者,一 般位于及物动词和介词后面。例如: 1.He is doing his homework.
(名词)

2.The heavy rain prevented me from coming to school on time. (代词、动名词) 3.How many dictionaries do you have? I have five. (名词、数词)

4.They helped the old with their housework yesterday. (名词化形容词,名词) 5.He pretended not to see me.
(不定式短语)

6.I enjoy listening to popular music.
(动名词短语)

7.I think(that)he is fit for his office.
(宾语从句)

宾语种类:
(1)双宾语(间接宾语+直接宾语),例如: Lend me your dictionary, please. to: write, tell, pass, give, send, promise, show, hand, read, tell, bring, throw等,例如: He sent the novel to William yesterday. for: leave, buy, build, choose, cook, draw, find, get, order, post, save等,例如: She bought a gift for her mother. (2)复合宾语(宾语+宾补),例如: They elected him their monitor.

下列动词只能接不定式做宾语 ask, agree, care, choose, demand, dare, decide, expect, fail, help, hope, learn, manage, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, wish, desire 等,如: He refused to lend me his bike.

下列动词只能接动名词做宾语 admit, avoid, advise, consider, enjoy, excuse, escape, finish, imagine, mind, practise, suggest等,如: John has admitted breaking the window .

下列动词既可接不定式,也可接动名词做宾 语,但意义不同, 如mean, try, remember, forget, regret等。 forget to do表示“未发生的动作”, forget doing表示“已完成的动作”。如: Don't forget to come here earlier tomorrow.(还没来) I forgot returning the book to him. (书已还给他了)

宾语补足语(Object Complement) 用于补充说明宾语的动作,一般位于宾 语之后,宾语与宾语补足语一起构成复 合宾语。需接复合宾语的动词有:tell, let,help,teach, ask,see,have, order,make 等。“宾补”一般可由名 词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介 词短语和从句充当。例如:

1.His father named him Xiaoming. (名词) 2.They painted their boat white. (形容词) 3.Let the fresh air in. (副词) 4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.
(不定式短语)

5.We saw her entering the room. (现在分词) 6.We found everything in the lab in good order.
(介词短语)

7.We will soon make our city what your city is now.
(从句)

以上的成分称为基本句子成分。完整 的句子一般至少包含2--4个基本成分。

定语:修饰名词或代词的词、短语或从句称为定语 定语可由以下等成分表示: Guilin is a beautiful city. (形容词) China is a developing country; America is a developed country. (分词) There are thirty women teachers is our school. (名词) His rapid progress in English made us surprised. (代词) Our monitor is always the first to enter the classroom. (不定式) The teaching plan for next term has been worked out. (动名词) He is reading an article about how to learn English. (介词短语) Tom is a boy who likes music very much. (从句)

状语:修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,
说明动作或状态特征的句子成分,叫做状语。

通常有副词,介词短语和从句充当.

状语种类如下:
How about meeting again at six?(时间状语) Last night she didn’t go to the dance party because of the rain.(原因状语) I shall go there if it doesn’t rain.(条件状语) Mr Smith lives on the third floor.(地点状语)

She put the eggs into the basket with great care.方式状语 She came in with a dictionary in her hand.伴随状语 In order to catch up with the others, I must work harder. 目的状语 He was so tired that he fell asleep immediately. 结果状语 She works very hard though she is old. 让步状语 I am taller than he is. 比较状语

同位语: 对其前面的名词代词做进一步解释. That is Mr. Chen, our English teacher. 插入语: 对一句话作一些附加的解释. To be honest, I don’t quite agree with you.

定语,状语,同位语及插入语可以称为 附属句子成分。

分析句子成分

Last week I went to the supermarket. Last week I went to the supermarket.
状 主 谓 状

The play was very interesting. The play was very interesting.
主 系 状 表

I can’t hear a word. I can’t hear a word.
主 谓 宾

They were talking loudly. They were talking loudly.
主 谓 状

It was Sunday. It was Sunday.
主 系 表

I never get up early on Sundays. I never get up early on Sundays.
主 状 谓 状 状

I looked at the young man and the young woman angrily. I looked at the young man and the
主 谓 宾

young woman angrily.
宾 状

I read a few lines,but I didn’t understand a word. I read a few lines,but I didn’t
主 谓 定 宾 连 主 谓

understand a word.
谓 宾

My holidays passed quickly,but I didn’t send cards to my friends. My holidays passed quickly,but I
主 谓 状 连 主

didn’t send cards to my friends.
谓 宾 状

I got up early and bought thirty cards. I got up early and bought thirty cards.
主 谓 状 连 谓 定



He is working for a big firm and he has already visited a great number of different places in Australia. He is working for a big firm and he has
主 谓 状 连 主 谓

already visited a great number of different
状 谓 定 定

places in Australia.
宾 定

2. 简单句基本句型
英语五种基本句型列式如下: 基本句型一: 主+谓 基本句型二: 主+系+表 基本句型三: 主+谓+宾 基本句型四: 主+谓+间宾+直宾 基本句型五: 主+谓+宾+宾补

基本句型
主语


谓语

主语+谓语
1. Time 2. The sun 3. The man 4. Everybody flies. rises. left. laughed.

此句型中动词是不及物动词,能表达完整意思。
主语可有修饰语---定语,谓语可有修饰语---状语, 如,The red sun rises in the east.

主语 + 谓语
Our chalk has run out. On hearing the news, he cheered. ★高考经常考查的不及物动词: “发生”happen, occur, take place, come about, break out, run out ★不及物动词的用法: 无 __________, 无_________ 被动语态 宾语

e.g. <1>.“过去的几年里我们学校发生了
很大的变化”

Our school has ( taken place great ×) changes in the last few years.
____________________________ Great changes have taken place in our school in the last few years. ____________________________.

<2>. Do you know what was happened yesterday? (改错) \

基本句型 二

主+系+表
主语 系动词 表语

1. He is 2. The dinner smells 3. The weather became

tall and strong. good. warmer.

此句型中谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加上 一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达 完整的意思。

基本句型 三
S +V +O(主+谓+宾)
主语 1. Who 2. She 3. I 4. I 5. I 谓语动词 knows laugh at want don’t know enjoy 宾语 the answer? her. to have a cup of tea. what to do. living here.

此句型中的谓语动词是及物动词,必须跟一个宾语, 才能使意思完整,而宾语成分的多样化使这一结构异 常复杂。

基本句型 四
S +V +IO +O(主+谓+间宾+直宾)
主语
谓语动词

间接宾语

直接宾语

1. I showed 2. He bought

him me

my pictures. a beautiful skirt.

此句型中的谓语动词必须有两个宾语才能表达完整 的意思。这两个宾语一个是动作的直接承受者(多 指物),另一个是动作的间接宾语(多指人)。 若要先说出直接宾语,后说间接宾语,则要借助与 介词to 或for。 He bought me a beautiful skirt. He bought a beautiful skirt for me.

用to侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着,对着某人。

用for 侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人,替某人。
常跟双宾语的动词有: (需借助 to的)bring, give, lend, hand, offer, pass, pay, promise, return, send, show, teach, tell, write, ask等 (需借助for的)buy, call, cook, choose, draw, find, get, make, order, sing等。

基本句型 五
S +V +O +C(主+谓+宾+宾补)
主语 谓语动词 宾语 宾补

1. We 2. They 3. We 4. I

keep call asked saw

the table supper him them

clean. dinner. to come back soon. getting on the bus.

此句型中谓语动词除了跟一个宾语外,还需跟一 个补充成分来不足宾语,才能使意思完整。

注意:用 it 做形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到 宾语补足语的后面,是英语常用句型。
即 主语 + 谓语 + it + 宾补 + 真正宾语。如, I found it very pleasant to be with your family. 常用于此句型的动词有:think, believe, consider, suppose, find, feel, make

使用it当形式宾语翻译下面的句子 1.他感到很难跟你交谈。 2.我认为有可能用另一种方法解题。 3.学校定了一条规则,开始上课时学生要起立。 4. 我认为与那个人谈话是无益的。 1.He felt it very difficult to talk with you. 2.I consider it possible to work out the problem in another way. 3.The school made it a rule that the students should stand up when class begins. 4.I thought it no use talking with that man

Exercises :

判断下列句子属于何种句式.

1. You are sitting on the train home. 主+谓 2. There comes the bus ! 主+谓 3. The ego’s potential for expansion is limitless.
主 +系 +表

4. Breckenridge hosts the international Snow Sculpture Championships. 主+动 +宾 5. Our neighbors gave us a baby bird yesterday. 主+动 +间宾 +直宾 6. We think it our duty to study well.
主 +动 +宾 +补

Exercises :

更正下列句子的错误
1. He came into the room. 2. The music sounds wonderful.

1. He came the room.

2. The music sounds.
3. I have seen. 4. He gave a pen me. 5. The boss made the boy to work hard. 6. My father bought a book to me.

3. I have seen the film.
4. He gave a pen to me.

5. The boss made the boy work hard.
6. My father bought a book for me .

Exercises : 翻译下列句子并分析句子结构:
1.我经常在早晨读英语。 2.玛丽是个聪明的学生。 3.我的老师交给我一封信。4.我母亲经常叫我努力学习。

5.我们叫我们的老师王先生 6.他正在房里做家庭作业。
1. I often read English in the morning. 2. Mary is a clever student. 3. My teacher gave me a letter.

主+谓+宾 主+系+表 主 + 谓 + 双宾 主+ 谓 + 宾 + 宾补

4. My mother often asks me to study hard. 主+ 谓 + 宾 +宾补
5. We call our teacher Mr. Wang.

6. He is doing his homework in the room.

主+ 谓+ 宾

英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本 句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。

掌握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句 子结构的基础。

3.句子的分类
分类 简 单 句 并 列 句 复 合 句 说明 例句 由一个主语或并列主语和 1. Tom and I found her there. 一个谓语或并列谓语构成 2. We all breathe, eat and 的句子。即一套主谓关系。 work. 由并列连词(and,so,but, or等)把两个或两个以上 的简单句连在一起而构成 的句子。 由一个主句和一个或 一个以上的从句构成 的句子 1. He likes eggs, but he doesn’t like chickens. 2. Work hard or you will fall behind. 1. I believe you are right. 2. If you study harder, you will pass the exam.

翻译下列句子:

1)她喜欢集邮. She is fond of collecting stamps.
2)食物很精美,但他却没什么胃口.

The food was good, but he had little appetite.
3)我们到达电影院的时候,电影已经开演了. The film had begun when we got to the cinema.

判断下列句子是简单句、并列句还是复合句: 1. We often study Chinese history on Friday afternoon. 简单句 复合句 2. The boy who offered me his seat is called Tom. 3. There is a chair in this room. 简单句 4. My brother and I go to school at half past seven in the morning and come back home at seven in the evening. 简单句

并列句 5. He is in Class One and I am in Class Two. 6. He was fond of drawing when he was yet a child. 复合句 7. Neither has he changed his mind, nor will he do so. 并列句 复合句 8. What he said at the meeting is very important. 9. The farmer is showing the boy how to plant a tree. 简单句 10. Both Tom and Jack enjoy country music. 简单句

选择填空:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ( )1. ____ will leave for Beijing. A. Now there the man B. The man here now C. The man who is here now D. The man is here now ( ) 2. The weather ____. A. wet and cold B. is wet and cold C. not wet and cold D. were wet and cold ( ) 3. The apple tasted ____. A. sweets B. sweetly C. nicely D. sweet

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

( ) 4. He got up ____ yesterday morning. A. lately B. late C. latest D. latter ( )5. The actor ______at the age of 70. A. dead B. died C. dyed D. dying ( )6. ____ were all very tired, but none of ____ would stop to take a rest. ? A. We, us B. Us, we ? C. We, our D. We, we

? ( )7. He found the street much ______. ? A. crowd B. crowding ? C. crowded D. crowdedly
? ( ) 8.I think _____necessary to learn English well. ? A. its B. it ? C. that D. that is

? ( ) 9. The dog ____ mad. ? A. looks B. is looked ? C. is being looked D. was looked ? ( )10.I will never forget the day ______ I joined the army. ? A. that B. when ? C. in which D. where


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