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高中定语从句详解


高中定语从句详解
定语从句为高考必考内容,主要考察: 1.关系代词和关系副词的适用 2.关系代词的省略 3.介词+关系代词 4.非限制性定语从句中 as 和 which 的用法 (一)定义及相关术语 1.定语从句:修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。定语从句一般紧跟在它所修饰的先 行词之后。 2.先行词:被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词。 3.关系词:引导定语从句的词叫关系词

。 关系词有关系代词和关系副词。关系代词有 that, which, who, whom, whose, as 等;关系副 词有 when, where, why 等。 关系词通常有下列三个作用:A、引导定语从句;B、代替先行词;C、在定语从句中担 当一个成分。例如: The man who is shaking hands with my father is a policeman. 该句中, who is shaking hands with my father 是定语从句,修饰先行词 the man, “who”是引导定语从 句的关系词,代替先行词 the man,在定语从句中作主语。 (二)分类:限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句 限制性定语从句 形式上:不用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 关系词的使用上:A.作宾语时可省略 B.可用 that The teacher told me that Tom was the only person that I could depend on. 老师告诉我说汤姆是 我唯一的可以依靠的人。 China is a country which has a long history. 中国是一个历史悠久的国家。 In the street I saw a man who was from Africa. 在街上我看到一个来自非洲的人。 非限制性定语从句 形式上:用逗号“,”与主句隔开。 关系词的使用上:A.不可省略 B.不用 that His mother, who loves him very much, is strict with him. 他妈妈十分地爱他, 对他要求很严格。 China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. 中国是 1949 年成立 的, 现在正变得越来越强大。 Last summer I visited the People’s Great Hall, in which many important meetings are held every y ear. 去年夏天,我参观了人民大会堂,在那儿每年都要举行许多重要会议。 (三)关系词代词的用法 1.who 指人,在定语从句中作主语。 The boys who are playing football are from Class One. 正在踢足球的男孩是一班的。 Those who want to go to the museum must be at the school gate at 7 tomorrow morning. 想 去 博 物馆的人必须在明晨 7 点到大门口集合。 Yesterday I helped an old man who had lost his way. 昨天我帮助了一位迷路的老人。 That is the teacher who teaches us physics. 那就是教我们物理的老师。 2.whom 指人,在定语从句中做宾语,常可省略。 Mr Liu is the person ( whom ) you talked about on the bus. 刘先生就是你们在公共汽车上谈 论的那个人。

Li Ming is just the boy ( whom ) I want to see. 李 明 正 是 我 想 要 见 的 男 孩 。 The professor ( whom ) you are waiting for has come. 你正在等的教授已经来了。 The girl ( whom ) the teacher often praises is our monitor. 老师经常表扬的那个女孩是我们的 班长。 注意:关系代词 whom 在口语或非正式文体中常可用 who 来代替,也可省略。 The man ( whom / who )you met just now is my old friend. 3.which 指物,在定语从句中做主语或宾语,做宾语时常可省略。 Football is a game which is liked by most boys. 足球是大多数男孩所喜欢的运动。 The factory which makes computers is far away from here. 制造计算机的那家公司离这儿很 远。 He likes to read books which are written by foreign writers. 他喜欢外国作家写的书。 The house which is by the lake looks nice. 湖边的那幢房子看上去很漂亮。 This is the pen ( which ) he bought yesterday. 这是他昨天买的钢笔。 The film ( which ) they went to see last night was not interesting at all. 他们昨晚看的电影一点 意思也没有。 4.that 指人时,相当于 who 或 whom;指物时,相当于 which.。在定语从句中作主语或宾 语,作宾语时常可省略。 The number of people that / who come to visit this city each year reaches one million. 每 年 来 参 观这座城市的人数达一百万。 Where is the man that / whom I saw this morning? 我今天早上看到的那个人在哪儿? The person that /whom you introduced to me is very kind. 你介绍给我的那个人很友好。 The season that / which comes after spring is summer. 春天以后的季节是夏季。 Yesterday I received a letter that / which came from Australia. 昨天我收到了一封来自澳大利 亚的信。 5.whose 通常指人,也可指物,在定语从句中做定语。 I visited a scientist whose name is known all over the country. 我 拜 访 了 一 个 全 国 知 名 的 科 学 家。 He has a friend whose father is a doctor. 他有一个爸爸当医生的朋友。 I once lived in the house whose roof has fallen in. 我曾经住在那幢屋顶已经倒塌了的房子里。 注意:指物时,常用下列结构来代替: The classroom whose door is broken will soon be repaired. =The classroom the door of which is broken will soon be repaired. Do you like the book whose cover is yellow? =Do you like the book the cover of which is yellow? (四)关系副词的用法 1.when 指时间,在定语从句中作时间状语。 I still remember the day when I first came to this school. 我仍然记得我第一次来到这所 学校的那一天。 The time when we got together finally arrived. 我们团聚的时刻终于到了。 October 1, 1949 was the day when the People’s Republic of China was founded. 1949 年 10 月 1 日是中华人民共和国成立的日子。 Do you remember the years when he lived in the countryside with his grandparents. 你还记 得在农村和你祖父母一起生活的那些年吗? 2. where 指地点,在定语从句中作地点状语。

Shanghai is the city where I was born. 上海是我出生的城市。 The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. 我十年前住的房子已经被拆掉了。 I visited the farm where a lot of cows were raised . 我参观了那个饲养了许多奶牛的农场。 Is this the place where they fought the enemy? 这是他们当初打敌人的地方吗? 3. why 指原因,在定语从句中作原因状语。 Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane. 请告诉我你误机的原因。 The reason why he was punished is unknown to us. 他受惩罚的原因我们都不知道。 I don’t know the reason why he looks unhappy today. 我不知道他今天为什么看上去不愉快。 注意:关系副词引导的定语从句经常可以用“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句来表示。 when=in/on/at +which, why=for+ which, where=in+ which 如: From the years when / in which he was going to primary school in the country he had known w hat he wanted to be when he grew up. 自从他在农村读小学时, 他就已经知道长大后要做什 么。 Great changes are taking place in the city where / in which they live. 他们生活的城市正发 生巨大的变化。 The reason why / for which he refused the invitation is quite clear. 他为什么拒绝接受邀请 的原因是十分明了的。 (五)关系代词与关系副词的选择 看从句句子是否完整: 句子不完整 (先行词在从句中做主、 宾语) 用关系代词; 句子完整 (先 行词在从句中做状语)用关系副词。 判断作宾语还是状语要看从句中的谓语动词是及物还是不及物。及物动词又无宾语就选 which/that,不及物动词就选 when/where/why 试比较: A. I know a place where we can have a picnic. 我知道一个我们可以野炊的地方。 we can have a picnic 句子完整,所以用关系副词 I know a place which / that is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 我知道一个以自然景 色优美而闻名的地方。 is famous for its beautiful natural scenery. 缺主语,所以用关系代词 B. I will never forget the days when we spent our holidays together. 我永远忘不了我们一起 度假的日子。 we spent our holidays together. 句子完整,所以用关系副词 I will never forget the days that / which we spent together. 我永远忘不了我们一起度过的 日子。 we spent together. 缺宾语(spend 是及物动词,后须加宾语) C. This is the reason why he was dismissed. 这就是他被解雇的原因。 he was dismissed. 句子完整,所以用关系副词 This is the reason that / which he explained to me for his not attending the meeting. 这 就 是 他向我解释的他没有参加会议的原因。 he explained to me for his not attending the meeting. 缺宾语(explain 是及物动词,须加宾语, explain sth. to sb.) 其他注意事项: (一)限制性定语从句中只能用 that 引导定语从句的情况 1. 当先行词是 everything, anything, nothing (something 除外), all, none, few, little, some 等不定 代词时,或当先行词受 every, any, all, some, no, little, few, much 等代词修饰时。如:

Have you taken down everything that Mr. Li said? 李老师讲的你都记下来了吗? There seems to be nothing that is impossible to him in the world. 对他来说似乎世界上没有什么 不可能的事。 All that can be done has been done. 所有能做的都做好了。 There is little that I can do for you. 我不能为你干什么。 He stayed in the library and looked up any information that they needed. 他呆在图书馆查找所需 的资料。 注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词 who,如: Any man that / who has a sense of duty won’t do such a thing. 任何有责任感的人都不会做这样 的事。 All the guests that / who were invited to her wedding were important people. 所有应邀来参加她 婚礼的客人都是重要人物。 2.当先行词被序数词修饰时。如: The first place that they visited in London was the Big Ben. 在伦敦他们参观的第一个地方是大 本钟。 3.当先行词被形容词最高级修饰时。如: This is the best film that I have ever seen. 这是我看过的最好的电影。 4.当先行词被 the very, the only 修饰时。如: This is the very dictionary that I want to buy. 这正是我要买的词典。 After the fire in his house, the old car is the only thing that he owns. 家里发生了火灾过后, 那辆 旧车成了他的唯一拥有。 注意:当先行词指人时,偶尔也可用关系代词 who。如: Wang Hua is the only person in our school who will attend the meeting. 王华是我校唯一出席会 议的人。 5.当先行词前面有 who, which 等疑问代词时。如: Who is the man that is standing by the gate? 站在门口的那个人是谁? Which is the T-shirt that fits me most? 哪件 T 恤衫最合我的身? 6.当先行词为人与动物或人与物时。如: They talked about the persons and things that they remembered at school 他们谈论着他们所能 记起的在校时的人和事。 Look at the man and his donkey that are walking up the street. 瞧 瞧 那 个 沿 街 走 来 的 人 和 他 的 毛驴。 (二)只能用 which 引导的情况: (1)当先行词本身就是 that 时。 What’s that which flashed in the sky just now.?刚从天空一闪而过的是什么? (2)引导非限制性定语从句时。 Football, which is an interesting game, is played all over the world. 全世界都踢足球,它是一项有趣的运动。 (3)直接放在介词后作定语从句宾语时。 Language is an important tool without which people can't communicate with each other. 语言是最重要的工具,没有它,人们便无法 交流。 (三)关系代词 as 和 which 引导的定语从句 as 和 which 都可以在定语从句中做主语或宾语,代表前面整个句子。如: He married her, as / which was natural. 他跟她结婚了,这是很自然的事。

He is honest, as / which we can see. 他很诚实, 这一点我们看得出来。 2. as 引 导 的 非 限 制 性 定 语 从 句 可 以 放 在 主 句 之 前 、 主 句 之 后 , 甚 至 还 可 以 分 割 主 句。 which 引导的非限制性定语从句不可放在主句之前。另外,as 常常有“正如、正像”的含 义。如: As is known to all, China is a developing country. (不可用 which)众所周知,中国是发展中国 家。 2.as 常用于 be known(expected, announced, reported, shown), be often the case 等结构中。 表“正 如、正像”的含义 As we expected, our class won the match.(作宾语) As is known to all, Edison discovered electricity.(作主语) 3.从句为否定句时,用 which Zhang Hua has been to Paris more than ten times, which I don’t believe. 张华已去过巴黎十多次 了,这一点我不相信。 4.当从句的谓语动词是系动词时,可用 as 或 which 作主语。但当从句的谓语是行为动词时, 只能用 which 作主语。例如: He married her, as(也可用 Which) was / seemed natural. Tom was late for school again and again, which(不可用 as) made his teacher very angry. 汤姆老 是迟到,这使得老师很恼火。 These tables are made of metal, which(不可用 as) made them very heavy. 这些桌子是金属的, 这使得这些桌子很重。 5. 当先行词受 such, the same, so 修饰时,关系词常用 as。 如: I’ve never heard such stories as he tells. 我从未听过象他讲的这样的故事。 He is not such a fool as he looks. 他可不象他看上去的那样傻。 This is the same dictionary as I lost last week. 这部词典跟我上星期丢失的一样。 注意:当先行词受 the same 修饰时,偶尔也用 that 引导定语从句,但与 as 引导的定语从句 意思有区别。如: She wore the same dress that she wore at Mary’s wedding. 她穿着她在玛丽婚礼上穿过的同一 条连衣裙。 She wore the same dress as her younger sister wore. 她穿着跟她妹妹所穿的一样的连衣裙。 (四)“介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 如何判断介词 1)看定语从句中动词与介词的搭配 This is the book__for___ which you asked 注意:动词短语不能拆开,即介词不能提前 The old man whom I am looking after is better . 2)看定语从句中形容词与介词的搭配 He referred me to some reference books ___with___ which I am not very familiar. 3)根据先行词判断,所用的介词与先行词搭配 This is our classroom , __in front of ___ which there is a teacher’s desk. 1.直接位于介词之后的关系代词只能是 which 或 whom,不可用 whom 或 that。关系代词是 所有格时用 whose。 【例】The man to whom you talk just now is a famous runner. 【例】The service about which the students complain a lot should be improved. 【例】He is a library assistant from whom I borrowed some books.

【例】It is a famous school from which he graduated 3 years ago. The manager in whose company I work pays much attention to improving our working conditions. 我工作的那家公司的经理十分注意改善我们的工作条件。 2.直接位于介词后面的关系代词不能省略, 但如果将介词移于句子末尾而不位于关系代词之 前时,可省。 【例】The man (who/that/whom) you talk to just now is a famous runner. 【例】The service (which/that) the students complain about a lot should be improved. 【例】He is a library assistant (whom/that/who) I borrowed some books from. 【例】It is a famous school (which/that) he graduated from 3 years ago. 3.关系副词 when, where, why 可以相应地转化为:介词+which 结构。 【例】This is the house where I lived two years ago. =This is the house in which I lived two years ago. 【例】Do you remember the day when you joined our club? =Do you remember the day on which you joined our club? 【例】I don’t know the reason why he said so. =I don’t know the reason for which he said so. 4.有一些动词短语中的介词是固定搭配,不可以拆开,不提前: 如:look for, look after, take care of 等。 This is the watch (which / that) I am looking for. (正) 这是我正在找的手表。 This is the watch for which I am looking . (误) The babies (whom / who / that) the nurse is looking after are very healthy. (正) 那 个保姆照看 的小宝宝们都很健康。 The babies after whom the nurse is looking are very healthy. (误) 5.注意复杂介词短语+which 或 whom 引导的定语从句,是高考考查热点。 【例】They finally climbed up the mountain, on top of which many strange birds were seen. 【例】Look at the photo. This is Mr. Green, in front of whom sit three students. 6.不定代词+of+ which/ whom 引导的定语从句可化为 of+ which/ whom+ 不定代词 结构; 这 也是高考常考点。其中用到的不定代词有 some, any, none, both, all, many, a few, few, a little, little, either, neither, one, 等等。 【例】There are 40 students in our class, most of whom(=of whom most)like English. 【例】These are books written by Mark Twain, one of which(=of which one)was read to me by my father 【例】She has two sons, neither of whom(=of whom neither)is a teacher. 【例】She has many books, none of which(=of which none) is interesting. 7.关系代词 whose+名词 引导的定语从句可转化为 the+名词+of+ which / whom 或 of+ which/whom+ the +名词结构;of 表所属关系。 【例】I live in a room whose windows are all broken. =I live in a room of which the windows are all broken. = I live in a room the windows of which are all broken. 【例】This is my teacher whose handwriting is excellent. = This is my teacher the handwriting of whom is excellent. = This is my teacher of whom the handwriting is excellent. (五) 以 the way 为先行词的限制性定语从句 当先行词是 the way 时, 如果在定语从句中作主语, that/which 引导; 作宾语时, that/which 用 用

引导或省略;如果在定语从句中作方式状语时,则用 that/ in which/ 引导或省略。 This is the way that helps me a lot.这就是对我帮助很大的方法。 (主语) I don’t like the way he thought of. 我不喜欢他想出的方法。 (宾语) I like the way (that/ in which) she organized the meeting. 我喜欢她组织会议的方法。 The way (that / in which ) he answered the questions was surprising. 他回答这些问题的方式令 人惊奇。 (六)where 定语从句修饰抽象名词的用法 1.where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 point You reach a point where medicine can’t help. 你已到了药物无法治疗的地步。 The crisis has reached a point where the receiver will have to be called in. 危机已达到非把破产 管理人叫来不可的地步。 We have reached a point where a change is needed. 我们到了必须改一改的地步。 注:有时 point 也可以是具体的地点: Let the point where AB cuts CD be called E. 设 AB 线与 CD 线的相交点为 E。 The accident happened at the point where the A15 joins the M1. 事故发生在 A15 与 M1 交叉的 十字路口。 2、where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 case There are cases where the word “mighty” is used as an adverb. 在一些情况下,mighty 一词可用 作副词。 Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases where beginners of English fail to use the language properly. 今天,我们将讨论一些英语初学者对英语使用不当的问题。 3、where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 activity Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity where sight matters more than hearing. 那些失聪的成功舞蹈演员们认为,舞蹈是一种让人看胜过让人听的活动。 4、where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 situation He got into a situation where it is hard to decide what is right and wrong. 他陷入一种难以分辨 是非的局面。 If you risk something important, you cause it to be in a dangerous situation where you might lose it. 你如果拿重要的东西去冒险,那你就是将它置于一种可能会失去它的危险境地。 5、where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 position It’s put me in a position where I can’t afford to take the job. 这使我陷入一种不能接受此工作的 境地。 6、where 定语从句修饰抽象名词 job She wants a job where her management skills can be put to good use. 她想找一份能将她的管理 技能派上用场的工作。 I don’t want a job where I’m chained to a desk all day. 我不想找一份整天坐在办公桌前的工 作。 当先行词是 occasion 时,用关系副词 when. i can remember very few occasions when he had to cancel because of ill health. 注意观察以上从句句子的完整性。 1. —Where did you get to know her? —It was on the farm _____ we worked. (山东卷) A. that B. there C. which D. where

2. Some pre-school children go to a day-care center, _____ they learn simple games and songs. (全国 I) A. then B. there C. while D. where 3. Those successful deaf dancers think that dancing is an activity _____ sight matters more than hearing. (天津卷) A. when B. whose C. which D. where 4. Today, we’ll discuss a number of cases _____ beginners of English fail to use the language properly. (陕西卷) A. which B. as C. why D. where 5. After graduation she reached a point in her career _____ she had to decide what to do. (江西卷) A. that B. what C. which D. where (七)分隔式定语从句 定语从句被其他成份隔开, 没有直接位于被修饰的中心词即先行词之后, 这种现象被称为分 隔现象, 这种从句叫做分隔式定语从句。 出现这种分隔现象的原因是主语或宾语带了过长的 修饰成份。为了照顾主句结构紧凑,就常常将主语或宾语与其修饰成份隔开。 例:The film brought the hours back to me when I was taken good care of in that far-away village. 句子结构非常简单: The fllm brought the hours to me。 “这部电影把我带回到那些时光”, 哪样的时光呢? 结合后面,是指:在那个遥远的村庄里得到很好照顾的时光。 When 引导的不是时间状语从句,而是定语从句,修饰先行词 the hours。在这个句子中, 先行词 the hours 和定语从句被 back to me 分隔开了,这就是分隔式定语从句。 现将常见的几种分隔式定语从句总结归纳如下: 1.先行词与定语从句之间被用作定语的短语分开。如: Do you remember one afternoon ten years ago when I came to your house and borrowed a necklace of yours? 10 年前的一个下午,我来你家借了一条项链,你还记得吗?(先行词 one afternoon 和定 语从句被用作定语的 ten years ago 分隔开了)。 They still remember one afternoon in the first year when the professor took the students to the chemistry lab. 他们仍然记得一年级时教授带他们到化学实验室的那个下午(先行词 one afternoon 和定 语从句被用作定语的短语 in the first year 分隔开了)。 2.被副词或副词性短语隔开。例如: There is a man downstairs who wants to see you.楼下有人要见你。 There was a fellow here last year, oddly enough a namesake of mine, who was the best bridge player I met. 非常奇怪,去年这儿有个伙计竟与我同名,他是我见到的人中最会打桥 牌的人。 3. 被介词短语隔开。例如: I was the only person in my office who was invited. 我是我们办公室里惟一受到邀请的人。 4. 被谓语动词或者分词短语隔开。例如: Once something happened which I have never been able to explain. 有一次, 有件我从来都 无法解释的事情发生了。 The days are gone when we used “foreign oil”. 我们使用洋油的日子一去不复返了。 In 1898,a law was passed which meant all people above a certain age were paid a weekly “old age pension”.

1898 年,通过了一项法律,规定一定年龄以上的人都按周付给“养老金”(先行词 a law 和定语从句被主句谓语 was passed 分隔开了)。 The days are gone when we suffered so much. 我们受苦受难的日子过去了(先行词 the days 和定语从句被主句谓语 are gone 分隔开了)。 The days will certainly come when the four modernizations will be realized in our country. 我们国家实现四个现代化的日子一定会到来(先行词 the days 和定语从句被主句谓语 will certainly come 分隔开了)。 How I regret the hours wasted in the woods and fields, when I should have studied. 我是多 么后悔那些浪费在树林里和地里,本来应该用来努力学习的日子。 5. 被句子隔开。例如: There is no man, whatever his fortune is, who is now engaged in any earnest offices. 那里的 人们,不管是否有钱,没有一个从事正经的职业。 “Here is the man, ”he said, “who told us the good news yesterday. ” 他说: “这就是昨天告诉 我们那个好消息的人。” Is there anything else you’d like that you haven’t seen on the shelves? 架子上有你喜欢但又 没看见过的别的东西吗? (八)定语从句中常见的错误 1.缺先行词 Is this museum ___ you visited a few days age? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 变为肯定句: This museum is ___ you visited a few days ago. 所缺部分为表语,而 where, that, on which 都不能起到宾语的作用,只有 the one 既做了主句 的表语,又可做从句的宾语,可以省略关系代词,所以应选 D。 Is this the museum ____ the exhibition was held? A. where B. that C. on which D. the one 变为肯定句: This is the museum ___ the exhibition was held. 主、谓、宾俱全,从句部分为句子的状语表地点,既可用副词 where,又因 in the museum 词组,可用介词 in + which 引导地点状语。而此题中,介词 on 用的不对,所以选 A。 2. 缺引导词:Children eat a lot of sugar often have bad teeth. 3. 成分重复:This is the house where I lived there years ago. (九)定语从句与同位语从句的区别 1.定语从句修饰限定先行词,它与先行词是修饰关系;同位语从句说明先行词的具体内容, 它与先行词是同位关系。 The plane that has just taken off is for Paris. (定语从句) 刚刚起飞的那架飞机是开往巴 黎的。 The fact that he has already died is quite clear. (同位语从句) 他已经去世了,这个事实很 明了。 2.定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导,关系词在从句中担当相应的句子成分,关系代词 在从句中作宾语时经常可省略。 同位语从句主要由连词 that 引导, 在从句中一般不担当成分; 有时也由 where, when, how, who, whether, what 等连词引导,这些连词则在从句中担当成分。 The news that he told me is true. (定语从句) 他告诉我的消息是真的。 The news that he has just died is true. (同位语从句) 他刚刚去世了,这个消息是真的。

The problem that we are facing now is how we can collect so much money. ( 定 语 从 句 ) 我 们现在面临的问题是如何筹集这么多资金。 The problem how we can collect so much money is difficult to solve. (同位语从句) 我们 如何筹集这么多资金,这个问题很难解决。 The question that he raised puzzled all of us. (定语从句) 他提出的问题让我们很为难。 The question whether he is sure to win the game is hard to answer. (同位语从句) 他是否 一定会赢得那场比赛,这个问题很难回答。 3.同位语从句与先行词一般可以用动词 be 发展成一个完整的句子, 而定语从句则不能。 如: A. The idea that he we could ask the teacher for advice is wonderful. (同位语从句)我们可 以向老师请教,这个主意不错。 The idea was that we could ask the teacher for advice. B. The fact that the earth moves around the sun is known to all. (同位语从句) 地球围绕 太阳转,这个事实人人皆知。 The fact is that the earth moves around the sun. C. Pay attention to the problem how we can protect the wild animals. (同位语从句) 请注 意如何保护野生动物这个问题。 The problem is how we can protect the wild animals.


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