M3 Unit 3 Grammar and Usage 宾语补足语
一．英语的五种基本句型结构： ① S 十 V 主谓结构 He runs quickly．他跑得快。 ② S 十 V 十 P 主系表结构 The story sounds interesting．这个故事听起来有趣。 ③ S 十 V 十 O 主谓宾结构 They bu
ilt a house last year．他们去年建了一所房子。 ④ S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 He offered me his seat/ his seat to me．他把座位让给我。 ⑤ S 十 V 十 O 十 C 主谓宾+宾补结构 They found her happy that day． 他们发现那天她很高兴。 I found him out． 我发现他出去了。 They named the boy Charlie． 他们给这个男孩起名为查理。 I saw him come in and go out． 我见他进来又出去。 They felt the car moving fast． 他们感到汽车行驶得很快。 He found the door of study closed to him． 他发现研究所的大门对他关闭了。 二．宾语补足语： 1、定义：The object complement gives more information about the object.顾名思义， 宾补是补充说明宾语，使句子意义完整的句子成分。 2、使用场合：Verb + object + object complement 3、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有： (1). 名词： We made him our monitor. They thought this good advice. They named their daughter Jenny. 【考点】任命某人一个独一无二的职务，职务前面不加冠词。例如： He was made captain. They elected him monitor. Obama was made president. They elected John chairman of the committee. (2). 形容词： You should keep your room clean and tidy. We’d better leave the door open. We found the ruins most interesting. (3). 介词短语 He left his bag in the office. We found ourselves in the middle of a desert.
(4). 副词 He opened the window to let the fresh air in. I saw him out with his father the day before yesterday. (5). 现在分词： I’m sorry to have you waiting for so long. I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face. At this moment she noticed the teacher coming in. (6). 过去分词： When he woke up, he found himself tied to a tree. He raised his voice to make himself heard. I had my watch repaired yesterday. (7). 不定式 或 省略 to 的不定式（秃头不定式） My mother allowed me to play games for a while. Can you make your car park over there? 【考点】 (1).使用不定式作宾语补足语时， “五看（see, watch, notice, observe, look at） 三 使（make, let, have） 两听（listen to, hear）一感觉（feel） ” 后接秃头不定式。 (2).help 一词后的不定式，可带 to，也可以不带 to。
4、宾语通常为名词或代词，但有时也可以用不定式（短语） 、动名词（短语）或 that 从句来充当。一般情况下，宾补通常紧跟在宾语之后。值得注意的是：think, find, consider, feel, make, take 等动词应使用先行 it 代替宾语，it 后面应接宾补， 而将真正的宾语移到句子的后部（形式宾语） 。 I felt it necessary to speak about our shortcomings. I think it very important to attend this meeting. We all thought it a pity that you couldn’t join us. 【小结】 1、宾语补足语是补充____语的成分，通常置于宾语之____。 宾语+宾语补 足语=>复合宾语。 2、可以用作宾补的有___词、_____词、___词、___词短语、_____式、现在 ___词和过去___词。 3、能带宾补的动词一定是____物动词。 常跟宾语补足语的动词： 第一类, 感官动词, 所接的宾补可以是不带 to 的动词不定式， 也可以是现在分词 或过去分词。 feel, hear, listen to, notice, observe, see, watch, look at I saw him cross/crossing the road. => He was seen___________/ ____________ the road. 但句子变为被动语态时，不定式的 to 要还原。
第二类, 使役动词，所接的宾补多为动词不定式或过去分词。如：let, have, get, make, would like, want 等。 This makes people know the importance of protecting the environment. If you are back, will you please make yourself known to me? The machine doesn’t work. I must have it repaired right now. 第三类, 含命名意义的动词， 所接的宾补一般是名词。 如： call, name, appoint, elect, make, consider 等。 Call me Joe, please. She was elected president of the company. 第四类, v. + sb. + to do sth. 结构中的动词，所接的宾补一般是不定式。 这类动词有：advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, expect, force, get, help, inspire, invite, order, permit, persuade, remind, request, require, teach, tell, train, urge, want, warn, wish, report 等。 第五类, find, keep, leave 等几个词的用法非常灵活，后面所接的宾补可以是形 容词、副词、现在分词、过去分词等。 We found it very difficult to solve the problem. How can you keep them waiting for so long? Keep the door closed. Exercises: 一．单句改错 1. We all elected Jason the monitor. 2. The teacher asked us not make so much noise. 3. ---What a nice fire you have in your fireplace! --- During the winter I like my house warmly and comfortable. 4. Don’t leave the water run while you brush your teeth. 5. He pushed the door opening. 6. She looked around and caught a man put his hand into the pocket of a passenger. 7. With a lot of difficult problems settle, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. 8. When I came in, I found a man died on the floor. 9. It was a pity that the great writer died of his works unfinished. 10．He was heard sing last night. 二．用所给动词的适当形式填空
1. In the end, we found the girl _______________ (lock) in a dark room. 2. Just at that time, I saw an old woman _______________ (cross) the narrow street. 3. Don’t let your son _______________（play）computer games like this any more. 4. I’ve never heard the word _______________ (use) in spoken English. 5. I think you can’t force your son _______________(go) to see her. 三．单项填空 1．Tell him _______ the window. A. to shut not B. not to shut C. to not shut D. not shut 2. ----There’s a hole in your bag. --- I know, I’m going to have it _______. A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended 3. Though he had often made his little sister _______, today he was made _______ by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry 4. They would not allow him _______ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking to go C. for risk to go D. risk going 5. I found the door _______when I got home. A. opened B. close C. unlocking D. open 6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _______. A. not to B. not to do C. not do D. do not to 7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise_______. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 8. With a lot of difficult problems_______, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 9. I advised _______ at once. A. him to starting B. him to start C. to starting D. to start 10. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his heart still _______. A. beat B. to be beating C. beating D. was beating 11. You had better get a doctor _______ your bad tooth. A. pull out B. to pull out C. pulled out D. pulling out 12. He managed to make himself _______ with his _______ English. A.understand; breaking B. understand; broken
C.understood;breaking D. understood; broken 13. The doctor asked him not to leave his wound _______. A. expose B. exposed C. to expose D. exposing 14．Don’t you think it ______ to learn this kind of skill at present? A. difficulty B. difficult C. difficultly D. the different 15. My advisor encouraged _______ a summer course to improve my writing skill. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take 16. The director had her assistant _______ some hot dogs for the meeting. A. picked up B. picks up C. pick up D. picking up 17. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _______in the kitchen. A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked 18. To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English _______ as much as we can. A. speak B. speaking C. spoken D. to speak 19. I smell something ________ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? A. burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt 20. He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them _______ in his lectures. A. interesting B. interest C. interested D. to interest 一、定义： 宾语补足语通常紧跟在宾语之后，对宾语进行补充说明。 二、句子结构是： 主+谓+宾+宾补 三、两种结构： 1.主表型： 1) make our country beautiful (adjective) 2) call him Lao Li 3) find sb. out (adv.) 4) find sb. at home (Prep. phrase) 2. 主谓型：
1) ask sb. to do sth.（有to 不定式） 2) have sb. do sth. （无to 不定式） 3) see sb. doing sth. （现在分词） 4) have sth. done. （过去分词） 四、什么动词后可有宾语补足语： 1. 在表示心理状态的动词后作宾语补足语。 这类动词有： consider, think, believe, discover, find, imagine, judge, suppose, prove等。这类动词后的不定式通常 是"to be+形容词或名词"结构，think, consider, find后的to be常可省略。 We consider him (to be) a good teacher.
He proved that theory (to be) very important.
I thought her (to be) nice and honest the first time I met 我第一次见到她的时候就认为她人很好，很诚实。
2. 在表示情感状态的动词后作宾语补足语。 这类动词有： love, like, prefer, hate, want, wish, expect等。 I'd prefer you to leave him alone.
I don't want there to be any trouble.
我不想有任何麻烦。 3. 注意：hope, demand, suggest等动词后面不能接不定式作宾语补足语。 I hope you can give me a hand. 我希望你能帮我一把。 I wish you to give me a hand. 我希望你能帮我一把。 He required us to be present at the meeting. 他要求我们出席会议。 Mr Li suggested that she should not go there alone. 李先生建议她不要独自去那里。 五、可作宾语补足语的形式有： 不定式，现在分词，过去分词，名词，形容，副词，介词短语都能作补语。 六、具体说明： （一）副词作宾语补足语 I found him in yesterday. （二）常接形容词作宾语补足语的动词有：keep, make, find等。 如：We must keep our classroom clean. （三）常接名词作宾语补足语的动词有：call, name, make, think等。 如：We call them mooncakes.
（四）常接动词-ing形式作宾语补足语的动词有：see, watch, hear, find, keep等。 如：In the country, we can hear birds singing. （五） 常接介词短语作宾语补足语的动词有： keep, find, leave等。 如： I left my pen on my desk at home. （六）不定式作宾语补足语 1. 常接带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有：ask, tell, want, teach, wish等； 2. 接不带to的动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有： see, watch, hear, make, let advise, allow, ask, beg, command, tell, invite, force, oblige, get, help, encourage, persuade, permit, remind, request, order, warn, cause等。 如：
I often see him play football. She often asks me to help her.
We don't allow such things to happen again. Most of the parents agree to forbid their children to smoke. She asked me to answer the phone in her absence. Please remind me to leave her this note. She requested him to go with her. 3. 用不定式作宾语补足语的几种说明： ①help后面作宾语补足语的动词不定式可以带to也可以不带to。 如：I often help my mother(to) do some housework. ②在使役动词后作宾语补足语，不定式不带to。有些动词跟不定式作宾语补足语 时省去了to，这些动词有： 一感二听三让四观看。 一感：feel 二听：hear, listen to 三让：let, have, make 四观看：observe, see, watch, look at 这类动词有：make, let, have等。转为被动语态时，其后通常都用带 to的不定式 (have没有被动语态)。 What would you have me do?
She made him give up smoking. Let him do whatever he wishes to do.
他想干什么就让他干吧。 Though he had often made his little sister cry, today he was made to cry by his little
3. 掌握“使役动词 have + 宾语＋过去分词”的几种含义
在“ have ＋宾语＋过去分词”结构中，过去分词作宾语补足语， have 也可用 get 。这一结构具有以下几种含义： ①意为“主语请别人做某事” 。例如：
He wants to have his eyes examined tomorrow.
他明天想去检查眼睛。 （ “检查”的动作由医生来进行） ②意为“主语遭遇、遭受某一不愉快、不测的事情” 。例如：
Be careful, or you'll have your hands hurt.
当心，否则会弄伤手的。 ③意为“使完成某事” ，事情既可以是别人做完，也可以由主语参与完成。 例如：
He had the walls painted this morning.
他今早把墙漆了。 （主语自己可能参与） ④动词不定式也可作一些短语动词的宾语补足语。 I'm waiting for James to arrive. 我正等着詹姆斯的到来。 He's arranged for a car to pick them up at the station. 他已安排了一辆汽车去车站接他们。 The UN has called on both sides to observe the cease fire. 联合国号召交战双方遵守停火协定。 （七）分词作宾语补足语
用现在分词作宾补， 说明宾语是动作的发出者， 形成逻辑上的主谓关系； 用过去分词作宾补， 表示宾语是动作的承受者，构成逻辑上的动宾关系。
1. 跟分词作宾补的动词有：catch, have get, keep, hear, find, feel, leave, make, want, start, notice, observe, watch, set等。例如：
There was so much noise that the speaker couldn’t make himself heard.
由于十分吵闹，讲话人没法让人听到他的声音。 When he awoke, he found himself being looked after by an old woman. 他醒来的时候发现一位老大娘正在照顾他。
2. 几种用过去分词作宾语补足语的情况说明： ①表示“意欲；命令”的动词如 like, want, wish, order 等，可用过去分词 作宾语补足语。例如： The father wants his daughter taught the piano. 这位父亲想让女儿学钢琴。 ②感官动词 see, hear, notice, observe, watch, feel, find 等后，可用过去分词作宾语补足 语。例如：
I saw an old man knocked down by a car just now. 刚才我看到一位老人被车撞倒了。 ③使役动词 have, get, make, leave, keep 等后，可用过去分词作宾语补足语。例如： Have you got your films developed? 你拿胶卷去冲洗了没有？ ④“ with ＋宾语＋过去分词”结构中，过去分词用作介词 with 的宾语补足语。这一结构 通常在句中作时间、方式、条件、原因等状语。例如： The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了，他的双手被绑在背后。 （表方式） With water heated, we can see the steam. 水一被加热，我们就会看到水蒸气。 （表条件） With the matter settled, we all went home. 事情得到解决，我们都回家了。 （表原因）
1. The manager discussed the plan that they would like to see year.(NMET2000) A. carry out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out the next
2. ----There’s a hole in your bag. ---- I know, I’m going to have it _____. A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended
3. Though he had often made his little sister ____, today he was made ____ by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry
4. They would not allow him _____ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking to go C. for risk to go D. risk going
5. I found the door _____ when I got home. A. opened B. close C. unlocking D. open
6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ___. A. not to B. not to do C. not do D. do not to
7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise____.
A. going on
B. goes on
C. went on
D. to go on
8. With a lot of difficult problems_____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled
9. I advised _____ at once. A. him to starting B. him to start C. to starting D. to start
10. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his heart still ____. A. beat B. to be beating C. beating D. was beating
11. You had better get a doctor _____ your bad tooth. A. pull out B. to pull out C. pulled out D. pulling out
12. He managed to make himself A. understand; breaking B. C. understood; breaking
with his____ English. B. understand; broken D. understood; broken
13. The doctor asked him not to leave his wound ______. A. expose B. exposed C. to expose D. exposing
14. They are going to have the service man ____ an electric fan in the office tomorrow. A. install B. to install C. to be installed D. installed
15. After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory dispute ______. A. being settled B. to be settled C. had settled D. as settled
16. You will see this product ____ wherever you go. A. to be advertised B. advertised C. advertise D. advertising
17. His remarks left me _____ about his real purpose. A. wondered B. wonder C. to wonder D. wondering
18. When I caught him ______ me I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop. A. cheating B. cheat C. to cheat D. to be cheating
19. Though he had often made his little sister ____, today he was made ____ by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry
20. Did you intend us ___ the new method?
21. The teacher encouraged us ______ good compositions. A. Writing B. written C. to write D. is writing
22. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ___________. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to
23. Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had _______went wrong again. A .it B. it repaired C .repaired D. to be repaired
24. With a lot of difficult problems_____, the newly—elected president is having a hard time. A .settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled
25. With trees, flowers and grass_____ everywhere, my native town had taken on a new look. A. planting B. planted C. to plant D .to be planted
26. She was glad to see her child well_____ care of. A. take B. to be taken C. taken D. taking
27. The result of the entrance exams was not made _____to the public until last Thursday. A. knowing B. known C. to know D. to be known
28. I can make you _____what I say, but you can’t make yourself ____ in English. A. understand; C to understand, understand understand B .understand, D. understand; understood to be understood
29. He found them ____ at a table_____. A. sat; to play chess C. seated; playing chess B. sitting; to play chess D. seat; play the chess
30. John rushed out in a hurry, ___ the door_____. A. leaving; unlocked C. left; unlocked B. leaving; unlocking D. to leave; unlocking
31. We are pleased to see the problem___ so quickly. A. settled B. settling C. be settled D. having been settled
32. I could feel the wind ___on my face from an open window. A .to blow B .blowing C. to be blowing D .blown
33. ____ production up by 60%,the company has had another excellent year. A. As B. For C. With D. Through
34. ____ everything ____ , she left the supermarket with satisfaction. A. As, buying B. For, to buy C. With, bought D .Because, to buy (天津 2004)
35. Don’t leave the water ____ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run
D. to run
36. He looked around and caught a man ___ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting
37. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions against the laws get parents _______. (重庆 2004) A. worried B. to worry C. worrying D. worry (北京 2003) D. not to make
38. The teacher asked us _____ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make
C. not making
39. An army spokesman stressed that all the soldiers had been ordered ____ clear warnings before firing any shots. (上海 2003) A. to issue B. being issued C. to have issued D. to be issued
40.－Good morning. Can I help you? －I'd like to have this package __ ,Madame. A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed
41. Father will not __us to use his recorders. A. have B. let C .agree D. allow
42. John was made __the truck for a week as punishment. A .to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing
43. The missing boys were last seen __ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play
44. Paul doesn't have to be made __ .He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C .learned D. learning
45. Seeing the sun __ above the surface of the sea, we let out a shout of joy. A. to rise B. to raise C. rising D .raising
46. I was disappointed to find his suggestions __ . A been turned down B. turned down C. to be turned down D. to turn down
47. The patient was warned ____oily food after the operation. A. to eat to B. eating not C .not to eat D not eating
48. The speaker raised her voice but still couldn’t make herself _______. A. hear B. hearing C. to hear D. heard
49. If you go to Xi’an, you’ll find the palaces there more magnificent than commonly _________. suppose 50. It’s so cold today, we must keep the fire ________. A. to burn B. burning C. burn D. burnt A. supposing B. to suppose C. supposed D.
51. The mother was asked ________ let her children ________ TV every evening; A. not to; watch B. not to; to watch C. not; watch D. not; watching
52. They didn’t observe her _______ in and go upstairs. A. come B. came C. to come D. coming (MET93 17)
53. How about the two of us ____ a walk down the garden? A. to take B. take C. taking D. to be taking
54. I have had my bike tomorrow. A. repair; to repair C. repaired; repair 55.
, and I’m going to have somebody
B. repairing; to be repaired D. to repair; repairing .
the room, the nurse found the tape recorder A. Entering; stealing C. To have entered; being stolen B. Entering; gone
D. Having entered; to be stolen
56. Could you show me the mobile phone you’d like ______? A. to have repaired B. repairing it 57. I have often heard the ABC Song C. having it repaired D. to repair it it.
, but I have never heard Alice
A. to be sung; to sing B. being sung; sang C. sung; sing D. sang; singing
58. I can hardly imagine Peter __________ across the Atlantic Ocean in five days. A. sail B. to sail C. sailing D. to have sailed
59. ---Have you had anyone ______ your newly-bought flat? ---Not yet. I am going to get John _______ a design for it first. A. to decorate; make C. decorate; make B. to decorate; to make D. decorate; to make
60. ---“Did you have any difficulty in today’s homework?”---“No, in fact I found __________.” A. it very easy to do easy to do it Keys: 1-5 CCAAD 6-10 AACBC 11-15 BDBAD 16-20 CDAAB 21-25 B. it very easy done C. very easy for doing D. very
CACAB 26-30 CBBCA BCDCB 51-55 A ACCB 56-60 A CCDA 31-35 A BCCB 36-40 DADAD 41-45 D AABC 46-50
copyright ©right 2010-2020。