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What is writing



What is writing? Writing is a way of making thoughts stand still…. It’s oral language translated into a permanent and at times a more structured form. Writing requires the ability to listen, speak, read and think. Writing is the process of talking an idea from inside of one’s head and putting it into a code so that it can be shared with others. Basic principles of being good writing: honesty, clarity, brevity, and variety. Being honest: don’t try to fake your ideas. Being clear: don’t puzzle your readers. (being easy to understand) Being brief: don’t waste your reader’s time. Seeking variety: vary sentence length, work on aliveness. The structure of writing: The main idea Topic sentence1 Support sentences Details / examples topic sentence2 support sentences details / examples Concluding Sentence 巧用英文特征的语句结构 1. 巧用静态语句结构: 例:He is a big eater. 他的饭量很大 He is a big beef-eater.他很能吃牛肉 He is a slow walker.他走路很慢 Presently, books of science are best sellers.目前科技书籍非常畅销 He was a regular visitor of the city.他经常浏览这座城市 He is a theater-goer.他经常去看戏 All of us are lovers of English.我们大家都喜欢学习英语 Please give me an immediate answer.请立即回答我 He walked around the hall with a book in hand.他手上拿着一本书绕着大厅走来走去 He was waiting for me in the rain.他淋着雨在等我 With a smile, he began his lecture.他笑了笑,开始讲课 Another try will bring us to success.再试一次我们就会成功 I have a flat tire.我的车子没气儿了 2. 巧用介词语句结构 after 隐含“追求,追赶,探求,尾随,模仿,仿照,依照,接着”等意义 The police are after me. This painting is after Rembrandt. on 隐含“依靠,依赖,靠近,根据,凭靠,由。。支付,论述,关于,从事”等意义 。 A car runs on petrol. A book on China. A job on a newspaper. Do you have money on you?
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topic sentence 3 support sentences details / examples

3. 巧用被动语句结构: 原本没有动作的执行者或没必要探究,因此就无法说出动作执行者或出于某种原因不想说出。 Everything can be changed. The lecture has been postponed till next week. In the end they were driven apart by the pressure. 动作执行者为泛指,在句中指出执行者没有任何意义。如:人们,大家,有人,我们。。 。 You are wanted on the phone. It is feared that corruption will become rampant. It is generally believed that one can never anticipate everything in advance. 使上下文的意识流(语句所表达的意识)连贯。即所要表达的中心与其后的陈述应尽量要安排得自然流畅。 This English teacher entered the classroom and was immediately surrounded by his students. (This English teacher entered the classroom and his students surrounded him immediately.) 写作常见语言错误 1. 指代错误:在英文写作中要做到代词在句中所指代的对象明确,要严格遵守“近指”原则。 指代一致,一是要选用适合的代词,二是要选择代词合适的形式,包括“人称”形式,“数”的形式,“格”的形式。 He found a photo in the letter, but he lost it later. In the letter he found a photo, but later he lost it (which he lost later) 2. 一致错误: 因为英语是一种很重逻辑的语言,因此英语是很强调语句一致的。包括主谓一致,时态一致,名代(代 词与所指代的名词)一致,逻辑一致和平行一致。 (1) 主谓一致:主语和谓语需要保持人称和数的一致。 Many a student, in company with their teacher, have gone to the Great Wall. (has) Everyone who are from Beijing and everyone who have ever been there like the city very much. (is, has, likes) The means have been tried without success. (has) Either…or, neither…or, not…but, not only…but also, there be 邻近原则 (2) 逻辑一致 To improve our environment further, more effective measures should be taken. (we should take more …) Looking from down from the top of the hill, the river looks like a silver ribbon. (Seen from the top of the hill, the …) 3. 副词错误:副词在句中位置的不同所表达的意思也会不同。 Only she has a few relatives. She has only a few relatives. She only has a few relatives. 中式英文 中式英文指借用英文的词语却没有摆脱汉语的表达习惯的不规范的英语,如汉语式的逻辑形式,语句结构,词语搭 配及修辞比喻。 ? Heave traffic, fog, smoker ? Too much noise ? Acquire knowledge ? Tell the truth ? A strange thing happened to me. 中式用词还体现在按照汉语表达习惯选用词组句,忽略英语表达习惯: If there is something wrong with my speech, tell me. What time is it now? What’s your name? 中文用词繁复,英文简洁: He returned back to his own country after two years’ further study abroad. Besides roses, there are also the violet and the lily available in this shop. 中式逻辑表达: 我的岁数比你小得多 My age is much smaller than yours. I am much younger than you. 我们班的学生比你们班多 The students of our class are more than your class. There are more students in our class than in your class. 我的英文写作进步很快 The progress of my English writing is very rapid.
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I have made rapid progress in my English writing. 老师的英文写作经验比学生的多 The teachers’ experience of English writing is more than the students’. A teacher has more experience than his students in English writing. Teachers are more experienced than students in English writing. Using of Words: 1. 用词得体:context 不同文体和不同语境需要使用不同的词语。应力求将写作题材和内容局限在自己能够正确使用 的范围内。所使用的词语必须是当代广泛使用的规范用语,切不可生搬硬套,刻意模仿冷僻晦涩的词语。 2. 用词准确: a) 同义词与近义词: differ in attitude: slim / underweight / skinny, widespread / rampant differ in style: cop / policeman, cab / taxi, kick the bucket / die differ in register: two halves of brain / hemisphere differ in variety: fall / autumn, no worries / not at all / you’re welcome, subway / underground, tube differ in allocation: answer / reply 在英语写作中特别要注意区分同义词,选词时要考虑主题、 在英语写作中特别要注意区分同义词,选词时要考虑主题、对象及情景 在语境类似的情况下,尽量排除中文语意的干扰,可以有很多词通用。 Good student: excellent, outstanding, gifted, superior, A, intelligent, top, smart, Advantage: merits, benefit, positive aspect Lead to: result in, contribute to, account for, be responsible for, play an important part in, cause, 为了辨别这些词,学习者应通过大量阅读来体会它们在不同的语境中的不同用法。 b) 实词与泛词:泛词是指含义笼统的词;实词是指含义确切具体的词。使用范围不同,在开头,结尾,主题句中 可以多使用泛词,而在展开段落中,多用实词。 He is a nice guy. --- He is honest and generous. c) 本义和涵义:本义指字面意思;涵义指隐含的带有某种情感和思想色彩的意义或转义。 e) 一词多义:hot f) 文化影响: water-melon seed face, goose egg face, red-eyed He is 21 years old. He is obsessed in PC games, even his parents can not control him. 3. 用词要简洁 “言以简洁为贵”。在遣词造句时,要尽量避免不必要的重复,毫不可异地删掉多余的词语。 4. 用词要符合习惯用法 在英语写作过程中,遣词用字不仅要恰切、具体、简洁、生动和形象,还要符合词的惯用法,符合词与词之间的搭 配关系。 一)名词和动词的搭配 在英语中,某些名词和动词经常搭配在一起使用,已约定俗成。如: acquire knowledge (获得知识) get a job(获得工作) achieve success(获得成功) gain reputation(获得声誉) attain one’s end(达到目的) 另一方面,名词和动词根据语意可以构成不同的搭配形式。如: raise, create, cause, confront, overcome, solve, clear away 等都可以与 a difficulty 搭配,而具有不同的意义。 反之,动词和不同的名词搭配也可以构成许多短语,例如:make 可以跟名词构成 make conversation, make the bed (s), make noise, make a promise, make trouble, make difference, make progress, make money, make a speech, make mistakes, make up one’s mind 等。 (二)动词及其他词语后的非谓语动词及从名 动词后面可以分别接不定式、动名词、分词和从句。如: He wants to come.
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He enjoys coming. I watched the train coming. He says (that) he will come. 三)介词与名词、动词、形容词的搭配 在英语中,介词被称为 the biggest little words, 它们单独看起来既短又无多大意义,但其使用范围极其广泛,表达 灵活,位置多变,搭配关系十分复杂,一经搭配就意思多变且组合固定。 He has neither ear for music nor eye for painting. What is your attitude to this idea? I was tired of reciting the texts word for word. He insisted on going to London. It depends on (upon) himself. Making sentences: : 句子成分: 句子成分 1. 主语:由名词或相当于名词的词担任,置于句首 2. 谓语:由动词担任,置于主语之后 3. 表语:由名词或形容词担任,置于连系动词之后 4. 宾语:由名词或相当于名词的词担任,置于及物动词或介词等之后 5. 定语:由形容词或相当于形容词的短语或从句担任,形容词常置于名词之前,相当于形容词的短语或从句常置于名 词之后 6. 状语:修饰动词,形容词,副词以及全句,由副词或相当于副词的短语或从句担任,修饰动词时,可在动词之前或 之后;修饰形容词或副词时,常置于它们之前。 7. 补语:用来补充主语或宾语的意义的,一般都着重于说明主语或宾语的身份和特征。 句子的独立成分:它与句子没有什么语法关系,如感叹词,肯定词或否定词,情态词,称呼词或插入语。 基本句型: 基本句型: 1. 主语+谓语: (SV) The price rose. 2. 主语+谓语+表语: (SLP) The upward trend in the market is a surprise. 3. 主语+谓语+宾语: (SVO) The deforestation caused the damage. 4. 主语+谓语+间接宾语+直接宾语: (SVoO) The experts gave us some suggestions. 5. 主语+谓语+宾语+宾语补足语: (SVOC) The high demand for house caused the price high. 句子的类别: 句子的类别: 1. 简单句:The computer brings with changes. (复杂简单句): Factors resulting in the change in attitude include new ethical concerns arising from certain scientific advances; a growing sense of social responsibility among scientists over the consequence of their discoveries; a loss of confidence in science; and the wider recognition of the limitations of science as a way of know. 2. 并列句:The air pollution is getting more serious, and causes great damage. 3. 复合句: a) 主语从句: How this happened is not unclear to anyone. b) 表语从句: The problem is that we have to face this phenomenon for a very long period. c) 宾语从句: I am very happy to learn that your company has an opening for the technical manager. d) 定语从句: The corruption in China, which is becoming increasingly rampant, causes great damage to our society. e) 状语从句: I should be grateful if you could arrange an interview with me. 4. 并列复合句:Our friends promised that they would meet us, but when we arrived at the station, they were nowhere to be seen.

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