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British Culture英国文化


British Culture
Chapter 5

Introduction
? Focus of this chapter
– Similarities shared by the British people – Contemporary middle-class culture

General Traits of the British People
reserved generous & hospitable

humorous



Cherishing one’s own space & privacy

? Manners
– Table manners – Manners outside home
? Greetings ? Addressing

– Giving priority to the good of the community
? Queue lovers

? British Pageantry and Royalty
– the Lord Mayor of London’s parade/ the Lord Mayor’s Show(伦敦市长就职游行)
? about 800-year-old tradition ? one of the longest established and best known annual events in London ? a street parade in form of a fairly lighthearted combination of traditional British pageantry and elements of carnival(狂欢节, 嘉年华)

The show starts in the centre of the City of London (near the Bank of England).

The golden coach built in 1757

Beautiful horses

Band of the Welsh Guards

Band of the Household Cavalry

The Lord Mayor of London

Temple Bar

to swear allegiance to the Queen

http://you.video.sina.com.cn/b/26084801-1354527745.html http://world.people.com.cn/GB/57505/5027352.html

The Monarchy Today
The present Sovereign, Queen ElizabethⅡ, was born on April 21, 1926 Her title in the UK is : “ Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and of Her Other Realms and Territories Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith.” 。“蒙上帝恩典,大不列颠及
北爱尔兰联合王国与其领土及属地之女 王,伊丽莎白二世,英联邦之首,信仰 (国教)的守护者”

The Queen ElizabethⅡ

The Queen Mother (died in 2002)

She came to the throne on February 6, 1952; and was crowned on June 2, 1953.

Coronation (加冕礼)

The Westminster Abbey
威斯敏斯特大教堂/西敏寺

帝国王冠和权杖

Elizabeth II’s crown

Elizabeth II’s crown

Elizabeth II’s crown

Elizabeth II’s hats

Elizabeth II’s hats

She was married to the Prince Philip, the Duke of Edinburgh, on November 20, 1947.

The Prince of Wales, eldest son of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, is heir apparent to the throne.

Former Princess of Wales, Diana
the present Princess of Wales, Duchess of Cornwall

Prince William and
Prince Harry

Prince William and Kate

The Duke of York , the second son and the third child of The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh.

The Princess Royal(长公主), the second child and only daughter of The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh.

The Earl of Wessex is the third son and youngest child of The Queen and The Duke of Edinburgh.

The Buckingham Palace

Q: Why do the British continue to support their monarchy?
Scandals: ceaseless coverage from the mass media Spending: £36,700,000 (2005)

Symbol of the nation Public trust in the Queen is much higher than in other politicians

A Rigid Class System
? The Upper Class: the aristocracy
– the royal families, the peerages and the offshoots of these families – Peerage system
? Duke ? Marquess ? Earl ? Viscount ? Baron

A Rigid Class System
? The Middle Class
– the upper-middle class: the professionals – the lower-middle class: white-collar workers and shop owners

? The Working Class: blue-collar workers ? The Under Class ? Interesting facts

– An ingrained class consciousness – Money has little to do with the class system in England. – Differences in education, language patterns and regional accents, leisure activities and even food – Few people try to move out of their class

Stiff Upper Lips 《玩转上等人》

Education
? 3-5: nursery schools or day care facilities (paid) ? 5-12: primary schools (free)
– expensive public schools/ independent schools: Eton or Harrow (private schools) – less expensive public schools – free state schools
– grammar schools – comprehensive schools

? 12-16: secondary schools (free) ? 16-18: tertiary schools

– Who plan to enter the university – Who choose some kind of vocational training – Forms
? Advanced degrees: evening classes ? Associate degree: 2 years ? College degree: 3 years

Education
? 18: A-Level (Advanced Level) examinations
– a requirement to enter a university

? Degrees
– Bachelor’s: 3 years – Master’s: 2 years – Doctorate: 2 years

? Open University
– by correspondence – through TV

The Health Care System
? National Health Care System (NHC)/ National Health Service (NHS)国民医疗服务制度
– free for all British people – financed by taxation and social insurance – system
? ? ? ? ? Dental care, glasses and prescription: paid

– Reservation and Waiting for your turn – Medical insurance from private companies

General Practitioner (GP) 全科医师: Family Doctor Community Health Services Hospitals at different levels Free system for emergency and for pregnancy and Baby Clinics

Family and Childcare
? A nuclear family
? An extended family (+ Grandparents + other family members) ? Breadwinner
– Traditionally: Father – Double-income family ? DINK (Double Income, No Kids) – Father + Mother + Children

? Daily walks ? Early bedtime ? Sleep with parents ×

Baby in Pram

Housing
? Types of houses in England
– Detached 独立房屋 – Semi-detached 半独立房屋 – Terrace 连排别墅 – Flats (apartments) 公寓 – Bungalow 平房(一层)

? Gardens and Gardening
– private gardens – public gardens

Detached

Semi-detached

Terrace

Flats (Apartments)

Bungalow: a house without stairs

A private garden

Food
? “Full English Breakfast” replaced by simple and basic breakfast ? Tea-break : 11:00 a.m. ? Lunch: 12:30-2:00 p.m. ? ? ? ? ?

Tea-time (Afternoon tea): 3:30-5:00 p.m. High Tea: in the early evening (the Scots) Supper: 7:00-8:30 p.m. Snacks: between meals (sweets and crisps) British Pubs (Public Houses): Bar + Restaurant

– Sunday Roast: a traditional meal eaten by a family at Sunday lunchtime

– a social institution: multifunctional (restaurant, hotel, leisure and social center) – a representation of British life

An ancient British pub

Religion
? The Church of England ? Not regular church-goers ? Married in church

St. Paul's Cathedral 圣保罗大教堂

Entertainment

hobbies

Mass Media——TV
? BBC: the British Broadcasting Company
– BBC English: RP
? Received Pronunciation

– TV licenses

? Domestic for-profit stations

Mass Media——newspapers
? Quality newspapers: to inform
– – – – – The The The The The Times 《泰晤士报》 Daily Telegraph 《每日电讯报》 Guardian《卫报》 Financial Times《金融时报》 Observer《观察家》

? Popular newspapers: to entertain
– The Sun《太阳报》 – Daily Mirror《镜报》 – News of the World《世界新闻报》

Sports
? Attitudes
– a nation of sports lovers but a less competitive people: sportsmanship over competition – Why?

? Types
– annual contests between Amateur groups: the Gentlemen – annual contests between Professional groups: the Players

? Great Events
– Wimbledon: tennis (温布尔登网球公开赛) – the Soccer Cup Final (The English Premier League)(英 格兰足总杯) – the English Derby (德比赛马会): flat race – the Grand National: steeplechasing (障碍赛马)

Wimbledon

the English Derby

steeplechasing

Arts
? William Shakespeare’s works
– The Globe Theater (环球剧场) – Stratford-on-Avon

The Globe Theater

Pets
? a nation of animal lovers ? The welfare of animals ? Modern animal activists

Holidays
? Easter
– Good Friday: commemorating the crucifixion of Jesus Christ – Easter Sunday: celebrating the rebirth of Jesus Christ – Easter eggs and bunnies: symbols of life

? Christmas
– Christmas Eve – Father Christmas – Christmas gifts

节礼日

Boxing Day
? the first working day after Christmas ? the giving of Christmas boxes, or gifts, to service workers (such as service staff, postal workers and trades people) ? a "shopping holiday" associated with post-Christmas sales
Queue for Boxing Day sale in Canada

? Guy Fawkes’ Day: November 5th
– bonfire: Guys – fireworks

? New Year’s Eve The Scots: First Footing

? Bank Holidays
– Monday at the end of May – Monday at the end of August

? Summer Holidays

Questions
? How has the history of the UK contributed to the modern British character?
? How has the geography of the UK contributed to the modern British character?

? Pets and garden are important to the British people. What can you infer about the people from these two interests?


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