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名词性从句(高三复习课)


名词性从句

主+谓+状 ? 1. He has been working all morning.
? 2. She remains loyal to her father despite his 主+系+表+状 cruelty towards her. ? 3. He offered some help to the children in the 主+谓+直宾+间宾+定 disaster areas. ? 4. Our teacher makes it a rule to do the dictation 主+谓+it+宾补+宾语 in the morning. ? 5. He never watches TV on weekdays.

The revision of five basic sentences:

主+谓+宾+状

朗读下列各句,并思考划线的从句在全 句中作什么成分? 1. What he did made me extremely angry. 主语从句 主语

2. My suggestion is that we should turn the land into rice fields.
表语从句 表语

3. The fact that he tells lies all the time makes us surprised. 同位语 同位语从句 4. Our success depends upon how well we can cooperate with one another.
宾语从句 介词宾语

5. He told me that his father had died and 动词宾语 that he lived alone. 宾语从句 6. She has made it clear that she will get married next month. 宾语 宾语从句

? Tell the part of the underlined

Rope(绳子) or ox(牛)? The man in the prison asked a new comer 宾语从句 why he was sent there. The new comer answered, “ I am out of luck, I think. A few days ago I was walking in the street when I saw a piece of dirty rope. I thought nobody 宾语从句 wanted it so I picked it up and took it home.” “ But it is not against the law that a man picks up a piece of rope and take home!” 主语从句 “ I told you I had bad luck, didn’t I?” the man sighed, “The trouble is that I didn’t notice there was an ox at the other end of that rope.” 表语从句

Ⅱ.名词性从句的连词 引导名词性从句的连词可分为三类: that (无词义,在从句中不充当成分) 单纯连接词: whether, if (有词义,在从句中也不充当成分) 连接代词: what, whatever, who, whoever, whom, whose, which. (在从句充当主语、宾语、表语、定 语等,有词义) when, where, how, why 连接副词:

(在从句充当状语等,有词义) 小结:连接代词和连接副词在从句中充当 一定的句子成分,而连接词在从句中不充 当句子成分,只起连接作用。

1. (08安徽)Students are always interested in finding out ___ they can go with a new teacher. A. how far B. how soon C. how often D. how long 2. (08陕西)Tomorrow is Tom’s birthday. Have where you got any idea ______ the party is to be held? 3.(08上海)As his best friend, I can make what accurate guesses about _____ he will do or drink.

动词/介词+宾语从句

4. (2012年)The new boy looked at the teacher for a few seconds and all the other what students wondered ______the boy would do.

1. that 与what

2. whether 与 if 3. that 引导同位语从句与定语从句的 区别

用that 或what 填空
1. I wonder if this is ______you are looking for. what ? 2. Our school is quite different from _______ it what was before. that ? 3. Father made a promise ______ if I passed the examination he would buy me a computer. What ? 4._______ I can’t understand is why he has changed his mind. ? 5.________the earth is round is known to us all. That ? 归纳:
?

连词_______在从句中不作成分,只起连接作用, that what 而_____在从句中作成分,且起连接作用。

Practice time Fill in the blanks with if / whether if / whether 1. I asked her ___________ she had a bike. Whether 2._________ we will hold a party in the open air tomorrow depends on the weather. 3. We’re worried about whether he is safe. ________ whether 4. I don’t know ________ or not he is well. 5. The question is _________ he should do it. whether 6.The doctor can hardly answer the question whether _________ the old man will recover soon. whether 7. I don’t know __________ to go. If 8.______ you are not free tomorrow, I’ll go without you.

1. 及物动词后引导宾语从句whether和if可互换;

2. 引导宾语从句位于句首时用whether
3. 引导宾语从句位于介词后只能用whether, 与or

not 连用时常用whether
4. 引导表语、主语或同位语从句只用whether

5. 和不定式连用时只用whether.

同位语从句和定语从句的区别
that ? The news _____ he was badly injured surprised us. (that/which) ? The news ___________ he told me just now is true.

Practice :判断下列各句是同位语从句还 是定语从句
? 1.They expressed the hope that they would come to visit China again. 同位语从句 ? 2. The hope that she expressed is that they 定语从句 would come to visit China again. ? 3.The fact that she works hard is well known 同位语从句 ? to us all. ? 4. I can't stand the terrible noise that she is 同位语从句 crying loudly.

同位语从句
? The fact has worried many scientists

that ____ the earth is becoming warmer and warmer these years. 同位语从句一般放在抽象名词之后:
fact, news, idea, promise, suggestion, advice, order, plan, proposal, request 作用:说明或解释这些抽象名词的具体内容 that, where, when, who…. 引导词:

Practise more
? 1. They are still disturbed by the question

whether ________ the bridge can be completed next month. that ? 2. When she heard the news ______ the earthquake happened in her hometown, she lost consciousness. ? 3. They have no idea whether they should _______ go on with the search. who ? 4. The question ______can go to the meeting hasn’t been decided.

? 1. 我们只好放弃下周度假的计划了。

Translate:

We will have to give up the plan

that we will have a holiday next week. ? 2. 我们什么时候讨论是否在这条河上建一座新桥? When shall we discuss the problem whether a new bridge will be built on the river? ? 3. 你认为他关于我们明天去野餐的建议如何? What do you think of his suggestion that we have a picnic tomorrow? ? 4. 我不相信老师已经出国的消息。 I don’t believe the news that our teacher has gone abroad.

that引导的同位语从句与定语从句的区别 1.引导同位语的连词that在句中不作任何 句子成分,而在定语从句中,that充当的 可以是从句的主语或宾语等。 2.同位语从句是对前面名词的内容的具 体说明,而定语从句是对前面名词进行修 饰,解释为“….的” 3.连词that在同位语从句中不可省略而在 定语从句中当它充当的是从句宾语时可以 省略。

名词性从句的语序和时态。
Practice time.单句改错

小结:

1. I know that he studies English last term.studied ___ 2. I know that he would study English next year. ______ will 3.We all know that he studied English since 1998. ______ has studied 4. The teacher told us that the earth went around ____ goes the sun. 5.Could you tell me when will he arrive? he will ______ 6.You can begin to see why does English have ___________________ such strange rules. English has

在名词性从句中,从句运用 陈述句 语序。 ____

7. The reason is because he is ill.
正:The reason is that he is ill.

8.Can you tell me how many students are
there in your class?
Can you tell me how many students there are in your class?

名词性从句与写作中的高级句式
1. That they will win the game is certain. It is certain that they will win the game. 2. Whether the task can be finished on time is still It is still unkown whether the task can be unkown. finished on time. 3. Why he didn’t come here is not clear to anyone. It is not clear to anyone why he didn’t come here. ? 句式一: ? It is +adj. /p.p(obvious / certain/ clear /important/ necessary/ unkown/ reported….)+that –clause ?

翻译下列句子并注意其句式:
1. 他昨天上学迟到,因为遇上了交通堵塞。 (the reason why ….is that…; be stuck in) The reason why he was late for school yesterday was that he was stuck in the heavy traffic. ? 2. 唯一奇怪的是各州都对这个消息充耳不闻。 (the only wonder is that…, close one’s ears to sth) ? The only wonder is that so many states insist on closing their ears to the message.
?

3. 我想了解的内容是那个嫌疑犯昨天晚上这 个时候在干什么。(what ….is …; suspect) What I want to know is what the suspect was doing at this time last night. 4. 大家都公认,树木对于环境保护是很有必 要的。(It is universally acknowledged that….) It is universally acknowledged that trees are necessary to environmental protection.

?

5. 空气污染对气候有很大影响是明摆的事实。 It is an obvious fact that air pollution is having a great effect on climate. 6. 你是否接受她的邀请与我无关。(have nothing to do with…) It has nothing to do with me whether you will accept her invitation.

?

?

7. 谁泄露了那个消息还是不得而知。

It remained unknown who let out the news.

改写句子
? 1.

To my great disappointment, he failed in the exam again.(what …is that….) What disappointed me most was that he failed in the exam again. ? 2. The things we know from books has not the same effect on us as the things we has experienced.

What is learnt in books can’t have the same deep effect on us as what is learnt through experience.

3. The company is considering whether she should be promoted. It is being considered by the company whether she should be promoted. 4. China is not the same China as it was before. China is no longer what it used to be. 5. My parents praised Ah Fu warmly. It had saved my little sister bravely.
My parents praised Ah Fu warmly because it was our brave Ah Fu who had saved my little sister bravely.

Summary
重点考查: 1. 连接词的使用。 that/whether/if ① 单纯连接词: ②连接代词: what/who/which/whose/whom ③连接副词:how/why/where/when

2. 名词性从句的语序和时态。 难 点 考 查 :1. that 与what
2. whether 与 if 3.that 引导同位语从句与定语从句的 区别

主从复合句与广东高考 主从复合句是广东高考语法填空的必考点, 也是写作中必用的表达手段。 解题方法:当空格前后都是句子(一个主谓 关系算一个句子),且这两个句子之间没有关联 词时,应填关联词;若其中一个句子是作整个句 子的一个成分,如定语、状语(如时间、地点、 原因、条件、让步等),或者主语、宾语、表语、 同位语等时,就要填引导从句的关联词。 根据一个句子在整个句子中所作句子成分 确定从句类型后,就根据该类从句的关联词的 使用特点确定具体的关联词。

I. 单句填空:在空格处填入一个适当的词。 1. European officials hope to avoid the economic disastersthat / which could become even worse if ________ Greece fails to pay (pay) its debt. (2010广州二 模) but 2. I had been abroad a couple of times, ________ I could hardly claim to know my way around the continent.(2010中山市一中第二次统测)

3. It was a lesson to me ______ it’s possible to give that without expecting anything in return. (2010广州调研) where 4. It is one of the few places in the world _______ the bones and footprints of dinosaurs have been found together. (2010广州一模) 5. But each time you try something, you learn, and as ________ the learning piles up, the world opens to you. (2010中山一中高三统测) what 6. “Thank you for ________ you’ve said, I hope

I will never be too busy to help others.” (2010

8. The old man looked at him straight in the eyes and said, “I looked into their eyes, I found they didn’t care, ________ told me it would be useless… (2010 which 深圳一模) 9. This ability that some humans have developed to how handle pain should give us ideas about ________ the mind can deal with pain. (2010届中山市期末考) As 10. ________ is known, failure is the path to success. (2010梅州二模)

11. Tickets can be purchased on the Official Ticketing Website of the 16th Asian Games, at ticket or outlets_____ at venue-based ticket booths during the Games. (2010广东四校联考)
12. After 10 hours of labor, he returned to find his bike gone, ________ was our only transport. (2010深圳调研) which 13. The long history of the Chinese Knot dates back to ancient times when people first used knots for fastening, wrapping, hunting and fishing. (2010东莞调研)

that/which 14. Mr. Obama said he understood the tensions ________ many students faced. (2010揭阳二模)

15. Last year, it was even more embarrassing that the scene ________ some drunken employees set fire where to one of the tables was viewed by other customers in the restaurant. (2010广东省六校联考) 16. Home was only two blocks away _____ it was not a but pleasant walk with one small boy fast asleep in the pram (手推婴儿车)…(2010广州调研) 17. He hopes that sharing ________ he’s been through will what help others. (2010佛山一模)

After 18. ________ the lazy pig reached the finish line in the 12th place the race was over and he was awarded the final place on the calendar. (2010届 湛师附中高三月考)

20. In Japan, for example, it is normal for the woman to send chocolates to the man, while ________ in Korea April 14th is known as “Black Day”… (2010江门二模) 21. They spent a couple of days and nights on the farm of ________ would be considered a what poor family.(2010肇庆一模) 22. It’s really very dangerous. One more step, ________ the child will fall into the well. (2010 and 韶关一模)

II. 语篇模拟:阅读下面短文,在空格处填入一个 适当的词。 (1) When I put forward the suggestion that he go to 1 work in the countryside, he promised to take it into consideration. He, whose name is Wang Lin, just graduated from an 2 agricultural university in Guangzhou. Of course, it will mean living in the countryside for at least three years or more before he returns to the city. Wang Lin 3 studied hard at university. Whenever he had time, he would go to the library or reading room to refer to information which/that/ he needed. 4

I would like him to work in the countryside just so that he could help rid people there of hunger by expanding the output of crop. In this way, it will make it possible to get most of people to improve their living condition, which is the 5 policy of our country. I know there is little entertainment in the faraway area in the countryside. I shall give him the violin I bought the other day (so)6that he can play it sometimes.

But only when he comes to see me this evening, 7 will/shall I give it to him. I shall also tell him to be modest when/while working with the farmers even if 8 he knows more scientific knowledge than they do.
Do you think that he will follow my advice? Of course he will. Though/Although 9 I am not his mother, he always regards me as his. He always believes whatever 10 I say to him.

二、写作运用
暑假即将来临, 你校于上周就“高中生是否应 参加暑期补习班”对3000名学生进行了一次调查。 以下是调查情况:
39%的同学支持 61%的同学反对 实际情况 我的观点

原因:补习班能帮他们拓宽视野。 原因:他们需要更多时间放松自己。 更多学生更喜欢一个自由的暑假, 这样的暑假让他们能与朋友玩乐。 我需要在暑假期间好好休息。

[写作内容] 根据以上表格, 写一篇短文, 包括以下内容: 1. 调查时间, 地点, 内容以及调查对象; 2. 认为应该的学生比例及原因; 3. 反对的学生比例及原因; 4. 调查反映出的事实; 5. 你的观点。

Last week there was a survey among 3000 students in our school on whether senior students should attend extra classes during the summer vocation. 39% of the students surveyed thought it reasonable for the reason that it could help them broaden their horizons.

However, 61% of them held their view that they objected to attending such classes, for they needed enough time to relax themselves. From the survey, we know that more students prefer to have a free summer vocation, which enables them to have a good time with their friends and enjoy themselves. To be honest, what I need is a good rest during my summer holidays.


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