Related Conception (相关概念)
1.名词:表示人或事物的名称的词叫名词。 2.名词在句子当中一般可以作什么成分? The boy is li Ming. 主语 表语 Mr. Liang , a 24-year-old boy, teaches us English . 主语 同位语 宾语
在英语的句子结构中，本来该由名词充当的主语、 宾语、表语和同位语，由一个句子来充当,这个句 子就叫名词性从句。 主语从句 ( The Subject Clause)
名 词 性 从 句
宾语从句 ( The Object Clause) 表语从句 ( The Predicative Clause) 同位语从句 ( The Appositive Clause)
请判断出下列的句子哪部分是从句, 并判断属于 哪种从句: 1. What I want to do is taking a bath. (主从)
2. The news that they won the game spread the whole school. (同位语从句) (宾从) 3. I don’t think (that) he is an honest boy. 4. The fact is that he stole the car. (表从) 5. Do you know the fact that he stole the car?
6. Do you know the man who is standing over (定从) there? 7. It is said that they won the game. (主从)
1. I really feel that he needs more experience. 2. I want to know whether/if she still lives here. 3. What she said is not true. 4. Who broke the window has not been found out. 5. He asked whose handwriting is the best in our class. 6. That is why she left home yesterday. 7. Have you heard the news that Mary will be back soon?
8. I will give it to whoever needs it. 9. It is unwise to give your child whatever he wants. 10. I’ve just bought five new books; you can take whichever book you like.
在句中充当及物动词, 介词或某些形容词宾语的句 子叫做宾语从句。 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? She said (that) she is going to learn English. I want to know whether/if she still lives there. I don’t know who all these people are. She wants to know which film I like best. Please tell me where she lives. I am not interested in what he is doing. I am certain that he is at home now. I am afraid he won’t come on time.
? I don’t know （that） you will come here.
? We all agreed (that) it would be a mistake not to take his advise. 注意：that在从句中不充当任何成分，在口语 或非正式的文体中常常被省去。但如果从句是 并列句时,第二个及以后的分句前that不可省. ? We all think (that) she is working hard and that she will surely go to a good college.
注意：在宾语从句中，表示“是否”既可以用 whether,也可以用if.但是，whether常与or not 连用；作介词宾语只用whether; 从句是否定句时 一般用if。 我不知道他来不来。 I don’t know whether/if he will come. 我想知道他来还是不来。 I want to know whether he will come or not. 你们是在谈论着他来还是不来吗？ Are you talking about whether he will come? 他不在乎天气是否好。 He doesn’t care if it isn’t a fine day.
1. Wang Hai told me _____ why he didn't go cycling yesterday afternoon.（how, why） who else is going to be 2. Can you tell me ______ on duty today?（who, whom） that it wouldn't matter much. 3. She said _____ （that, if） how he can do better. 4. He always thinks ______ （how, who） 5. I really don't know how ________ soon the bridge will be finished.（how long, how soon）
if/whether we are going 6. They don't know __________ hiking. if/whether her coat 7. She wanted to know ___________ would be ready the next day. 8. I was really surprised at ______ what I saw. why so many people 9. I don't know ______ crowding round him whose 10. Do you know _________ shirt it is?
注意：如果宾语从句是由think, believe, imagine, suppose等词引导的时候，要将从句 中的否定形式转移到主句中去。 我认为他不会来这里. I think he won’t come here. I don’t think he will come here. ( ( √ ) )
我认为他不会对我撒谎的. I don’t think he will lie to me. 我认为我们不应该借钱给他. I don’t think we should lend him money.
注意：如果主句中有形容词或名词作宾语补足 语时，一般用it来作形式宾语，把从句放在宾 补后面。that不能省. ? We think it our duty that we should help others. ? I find it impossible that he should finish the work in two days. believe, consider, feel, find, make, think 他们觉得要在两天内完成工作是困难的. 我们认为每个人都保护环境是重要的. 他把每天早上锻炼身体做为一个规定.
1.Could you tell me if it _____ tomorrow? A. rains B. is raining C. will rain D. rain
2. The teacher told his students the sun_____ in the east. A. rise B. rises C. rose D. risen
3. Peter knew _______. A. whether he has finished reading the book
B. why the boy had so many questions C. there were 12 months in a year D. when they will leave for Paris
4. Could you tell me ______? A. where is the nearest railway station B. where the nearest railway station was
C. where the nearest railway station is D. where was the nearest railway station
5. I really don't know if she _______ it when she ________. A. finds/ arrives B. finds/ will arrive C. will find/ will arrive D. will find/ arrives
6. ─Where do you think _____ he ____ the TV set? ─ Sorry, I've no idea. A./, bought B. has, bought C. did, buy D. did bought
7. Can you tell me ______? A. what's the matter with him B. what the matter with him is C. what happened with him D. what with him happened
宾语从句中谓语用should do的情况: ? The general ordered that troops (should) set off at once. ? He suggested that we (should) all buy dictionaries. ? I insisted that he (should) apologize to me.
句型转换 1. When does the train arrive? Please tell me.（改 为宾语从句） → when the train Please tell me ________ _________ ________ arrives _________. 2. What does he do? Do you know? （改为宾语从 句）→ does Do you know what _______ he _______? 3. Do they want fried chicken? He asked the boys. （改为宾语从句） → if/whether they wanted He asked the boys ___________ _______ fried chicken.
4. Was the watch made in Shanghai? I don't know. （改为宾语从句）→ I don't know __________ if/whether the watch _______ was made in Shanghai.
5. “Do you want to try something new?” Tom's mother asked him. （同义句）→ Tom's mother asked him ___________ if/whether he wanted to try something new. _______ _______
6. I think this is a good idea.（改为否定句） → don’t ________ think is I _______ this ________ a good idea. 7. Lucy hasn't decided which trousers to buy.（改 为复合句） → which _________ trousers Lucy hasn't decided ________ she will buy. ________ _______ 8. I don't know how I can get to the hospital.（改为 简单句） → how to get I don't know ________ ________ ________ to the hospital.
在句中充当表语的从句(即放在be动词后面) 叫做表语从句。 我们的目的是他能认识到错误。
Our purpose is that he can realize his faults. 注意：引导表语从句的连接词一般不省略。 问题是它是否值得做。 The question is whether it is worth doing. 注意：表语从句表示“是否” 只用“whether” 而不用“if”
Is this museum what you visited?
Is this the museum that you visited?
Is this museum the one that you visited? (定从) 注意：这种句子考试时一定要记住这句话：名 词前（尤其是单数可数名词前）一定要有限定 词。然后把句子变换成陈述句，接着判断句子 是属于哪种从句再完成。
? It appears that they are in need of help. ? It happened that he had no money on him. ? It seems that he doesn’t like living here. ? It turned out that two people had been killed in the accident.
where the garden tools are 1. That house is _______ stored. 2. The reason I don’t want to go there is ______ that I’ve just got a new job here. 3. That was ______ how they had made the mistake. 4. Everything in the room is _____ what it was ten years ago. that he 5. The dream Jack has in mind is ______ will become a scientist in the future.
6. What we care about is _________ whether it will be a fine day tomorrow. why they didn’t pay much 7. That was ____ attention to the teacher in class. that everyone of us takes 8. My opinion is _____ out $5 for Jane’s birthday present. whether we can be 9. The problem is ________ allowed to stay out at such a late hour. that she used to 10. Her explanation is ______ live in the country and she knows it better than us.
The question is who can help me with my English.
That is why she is unwilling to study abroad.
That is what I will tell you.
The question is whether he will agree with the suggestion.
? That he will come here on Wednesday is certain. 他星期三来这里是肯定的。 ? Whether he will come here on Wednesday is not certain. 他星期三是否来这里还不肯定的。
What he said is not true. Who broke the window has not been found out. How he escaped is still a mystery. Whom she borrowed money from still puzzled him.
1. 2. 3.
What she said puzzled him. _______ Why _______ she said such a thing puzzled him. _____________ we should send to take Whom/who part in the party is to be discussed. 4. _______ That they don’t want to drop the plan is clear. 5. _______ How he finished the work in so short time remains a question. Whether it is going to snow this evening is 6. ________ not certain.
That she left him 1. _____________________________ (她离开他) cut him to the cut. That there is no life on the moon 2. ______________________________________ (月球上没有生命) is known to all. 3. _________________________ What I said at the meeting(我在会议上说的) must be kept secret. 4. ______________________ (是否这件事是真的) Whether it is true remains a question. 5. ______________________________________ When we will have the meeting (我们什么时候开会) is to be discussed.
? That he can’t attend the party is a pity. It is a pity that he can’t attend the party. ? How much money is needed is hard to say. It is hard to say how much money is needed. ? That the moon moves around the earth is known to all. It is known to all that the moon moves around the earth.
用it形式主语的that从句有以下四种 不同的搭配： It + be + 形容词 ＋ that从句
It is necessary that… It is important that …. It is obvious that…… 有必要… 重要的是… 很明显……
It + be + -ed分词 ＋ that从句
It is believed that… 人们相信… It is known to us/all that …. 众所周知… It has been decided that…… 已经决定……
It + be + 名词 ＋ that从句
It is common knowledge that… …是常识 It is a surprise that …. 令人惊奇的是… It is a fact that…… 事实是……
It + 不及物动词 ＋ that从句
It appears that… 似乎… It happens that …. 碰巧… It occurred to me that…… 我突然想起……
that you weren't injured. 1. It is a wonder _____ where this took 2. It is still unknown ______ when and ______ place. whether he is 3. It makes no difference to me _________ rich or poor. who is to take her place 4. It is not yet decided _______ as secretary. that this plaza has 15 cinemas. 5. It is said ______ 6. It doesn't matterwhether _______ you are going to do it.
It is a pity that you missed the new movie yesterday.
Is it true that they are going to set up a new hospital here?
It is said that we’ll take three days off on Tomb Sweeping Day.
It isn’t important to me whether he can make a lot of money
在句中用作同位语的从句叫做同位语从句。 同位语从句一般放在如idea, news, fact, promise, suggestion, belief, truth等含有 丰富内涵的抽象的词语后面，用来说明前面 那个词的具体内容。一般说来，同位语从句 都用that来作连接词，而且不能省略。也可 用how, when, where等。 他给了她一个承诺，他会在两个月后回来。 He gave her a promise that he would come back after two months.
Do you know the fact that he stole the car? (同从) Do you know the fact that they were talking (定从) about?
注意：1. 如果是定语从句，它的从句肯定是 不完整的，关系词肯定在句中充当成分的；而 同位语从句中的that只起连接作用。 2. 定语从句是对先行词起修饰作用， 而同位语从句则解释说明先行词的具体内容。
Tell the difference
1.The news that the plane would take off on time made everybody happy. 同位语从句
2.The news that is spreading around the airport is that a heavy storm is coming.
3.The suggestion that students should learn something practical is worth considering.
4.The suggestion that they are considering is that students should learn something practical.
? The suggestion ________________________________________ that students should learn something practical is worth considering. 学生应该学些实用的东西的建议值得考虑。
? Dad made a promise ________________________ that he would buy _ ___________________________________________ me CD player if I passed the English test.
? 他建议我们走着去那儿是可以被接受的。 (proposal)
His proposal that we go there on foot is acceptable.
? 很多老师都持有一个观点：青少年不应该 花费太多时间上网。(hold a view)
Many teachers hold the view that teenagers should not spend too much time online.
Do you have any idea when we will have the meeting.
? 他借口说他的车坏在半路了。(make an excuse)
He made an excuse that his car broke down on the half way.
1.The question is ____the C film is worth seeing. A. if B. what C. whether D. how 2.They received orders _____ the work be done at once. D A .which B. when C. / D .that C I have to go is ____ my mother is ill in bed. 3.The reason ____ A .why; why B. why; because C. why ; that D. that; because A I can’t understand is ___ she wants to change her mind. 4. ___ A. What; why B. Which; how C. That; why D. What; because B his dream of going to college will come true is uncertain. 5. ____ A. That B. Whether C. If D. Even if 6. It is known to us ___ D where there is pollution, there is harm. A. which B. where C. what D. that B 7. I have the information ____. A. of what he’ll come soon B. that he’ll come soon C. of that he’ll come soon D. his coming soon
8. --- I saw your neighbor break your window with a basketball. A it made me nearly mad. --- ____ A. That he broke B. What he broke C. He broke D. His break A we can get so much money in such a 9.It remains a question ____ short time. A.how B. that C. when D. what 10.--- Can I help you? D --- Yes, do you know ____? A. when comes the bus B. when will come the bus C. when does the bus come D. when the bus comes 11. He made a promise ___ D anyone set him free he would make him very rich. A. that B. if C. what D. that if A made matters worse 12. They lost their way in the forest and ____ was ___ night began to fall. A. what; that B. it; that C. what; when D. which; what
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