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虚拟语气学案精讲精练习题


虚拟语气:是谓语动词的一种特殊形式,用来表示假设、猜测、建议、主观愿望、夸张或空想,而 非客观事实。 一. 虚拟语气在非真实条件句 从句 主句 例句 与现在事 主 语 + If I had time, I would attend the meeting. If + 主语+助动词的过 实相反的 should/would/could/might+ 动 词 If I were you

, I should seize the opportunity to go 去式(were, did, had) abroad. 假设 原形 与过去事 主 语 +should/would/could/might If you had taken my advice, you would not have 实 相 反 的 If +主语+had+过去分词 failed in the exam. +have+过去分词 假设 ① If+主语+动词过去 式 If you came tomorrow, we would have the meeting. 与 将 来 事 ② If+主语+were to+动 主 语 + If it were to rain tomorrow, we would put off the 实相反的 should/would/could/might+ 动 词 sports meeting. 词原形 If he should not come tomorrow, we should put off 假设 ③ If+主语+should+动 原形 the meeting till next Monday. 词原形(注意不能是 would) 1. 错综时间条件句(混合条件句) 主句与从句的动作发生在不同的时间,这是主从句中谓语动词的虚拟语气形式因时间不同而不同。 If you had asked him yesterday, you would know what to do now. If you had followed my advice just now, you would be better now. 1. 虚拟语气倒装形式(省略 if) 虚拟条件句的从句部分如果含有 were, should, had 可以将 if 省略再把上述这些词移到句首实行倒装。 If I were at school again, I would study harder. →Were I at school again, I would study harder. If you had come earlier, you would catch the bus. → Had you come earlier, you would catch the bus. If it should rain, the crops would be saved. → Should it rain, the crops would be saved. 注:在倒装时,不能有缩略形式:Weren’t it for the expense (*)→ Were it not for the expense 2. 介词短语代替条件状语从句 常用词:with, but for, without What would you do with a million dollars? (=if you had a million dollars) We couldn’t have finished the work ahead of time without your help. (=if we hadn’t got your help) Without your help, we couldn’t have finished the work ahead of time. = But for your help, ?= If it had not been for your help, ?= Had it not been for you help, ? 3. 含蓄条件句 有在虚拟语气中并不总是出现 if 引导的条件句,而是通过其他手段来代替条件句。如: I was ill that day. Otherwise, I would have taken part in the sports meeting. (副词) He telephoned to inform me of your birthday, or I would have known nothing about it. (连词) A man who stopped drinking water would be dead in about seven days. (定语从句) I might have given you more help, but I was too busy. (连词) Everything taken into consideration, they would have raised their output quickly. (独立主格结构) 二.虚拟语气在名词性从句 1. 虚拟语气用于宾语从句: 在由 suggest, demand, require, request, insist, order, command, propose 等表示建议、请求、命令、愿望等动词或其同根词引出的名词从句中,名词从句虚拟句的谓 语变化的形式只有一条规律——名词从句虚拟句无论其主句的谓语动词时何种形式, 从句的 谓语形式均为 should+动词原形,其中 should 可以省去。 (特别提醒:不是用 would,而是用 should。 ) 第1页 共2页

常见的这类动词有: ask 要求, advise, beg, suggest 建议, command 命令, demand 要 求,request 请求, insist, require 要求, order 下令, propose, advice, recommend, intend, prefer 宁愿, permit, persuade, expect, decide 决 定 , instruct, object, determine, urge, appoint 等等 在 It is/was +上述动词的-ed 形式+that 从句 中 当上述动词以其名词形式出现,并且被用 作主语,引导一个表语从句或者同位语从 句时

Our teacher suggested that we (should) not leave the classroom. 老师建议我们不要离开教室。 He insisted that she do it right now. 他坚持她马 上就做。

It is suggested by the doctor that I should give up smoking. 医生建议我戒烟。 My suggestion is that we (should) set out tomorrow morning. 我建议我们明早动身。 The suggestion that the sports meeting (should) put off

2. 虚拟语气用于主语从句:在 a pity, a shame, no wonder, strange, sorry, necessary, natural, impossible, important 后面 that 引导的主语从句总要使用 should+动词原形,should 可以被省 略,表示惊奇、不相信、惋惜、理应如此等含义。 在 It is /was necessary, important 等形容词 It is necessary that you should attend the +that 从 句 中 , 常 见 的 这 类 形 容 词 meeting. 你有必要参加会议。 有 :necessary, important, essential, vital, It is imperative that you arrive there in time. advisable, urgent, desirable, natural, strange, 你必须按时到达那儿。 imperative 等 在 It is a pity (a shame, no wonder)+that 从句 It is a pity that you fail the exam. It is no wonder he be late for class. 中 3. 虚拟语气用于表语从句,同位语从句,从句中同样使用 should+动词原形,should 可以省略。 这些名词有 advice, demand, plan, eida, order, request, proposal, suggestion 等。 We all agreed to his suggestion that we should go to Beijing for sightseeing. My idea is that we should do exercises first. 三. 虚拟语气的其他用法 (接第 8 页 33 题) 34. A few minutes earlier and we ____ the train. A. have caught B. had caught C. could have caught D. were to catch 35. I ________ you some money, but I hadn’t any on me then. A. would lend B. would have lent C. could lend D. may have lent 36. She made the demand that she _____ at once. A. leave B. leaves C. left D. to be left 37. The young man insisted that he_________ nothing wrong and _________ free. A. did, set B. had done, should be set C. do, be set D. had done, must be set 38. _____ I be free tomorrow, I could go with you. A. Could B. Should C. Might D. Must 第2页 共2页

虚拟语气精练习题学案 对现在的虚拟,从句的谓语动词用过 去时 I wish I were a little younger.我希 望我能够年轻一点。 I wish I had been there. 我真希 对过去的虚拟,从句的谓语动词用过 望我当时在那里。 去完成时(had done)或 “would/could+ I wish I had not attended that party. 我真希望我当时没参加那 现在完成时” 个聚会。 对 将 来 的 虚 拟 , 从 句 的 谓 语 用 I wish he could explain what he means. “would/could+动词原形” If only the rain would stop. (对将 来的虚拟)但愿雨能停。 If only I were taller. (对现在的虚 表示“但愿”“要是??就好了”用 , 拟)我的个子要是能高一点就好 法和 wish 基本相同,只是比 wish 具 了。 有更强烈的感情色彩。 If only I had followed your advice! (对过去的虚拟)要是我听 从了你的建议就好了! I really don’t like the way you are speaking to me. It seems as if you 表示与现在事实相反或对现在情况 were my father. 我真的非常讨厌 有所怀疑,谓语用过去时 你和我说话的方式。你听起来就 好像是我爸爸。 He kept telling us what had 表示与过去事实相反,谓语用过去完 happened as if he had been there himself. 他不停地和我们讲发生 成时 的事情,好像他当时在场一样。 It is becoming dark. It looks as if it’s going to rain. 天变黑了,似乎 有时也用陈述语气,这时表示较大的 就要下雨了。 真实性或可能性 It seems as if he had been to America. 他好像去过美国。 I would rather go there tomorrow. would rather do sth. 表示将来或现在 我想明天去那里。 He would rather not stay at home 的事件, “主语宁愿自己做某事” tonight. 他今晚不想在家呆着。 would rather have done sth. 表示过去 She would rather not have gone to 的事件, “主语宁愿自己过去做了某 the party. 她觉得真是不该去参 加那个晚会。 事,但实际上没有做” would rather sb.did 表示的是将来或 Don’t come tomorrow. I’d rather 现在的事件, “主语宁愿让另外一个 you came next weekend. 明天就 别来了,我希望你下周末过来。 人做某事” would rather sb. had done 表示过去的 I would rather you had returned 事件, “主语宁愿别人过去做了某事, the book yesterday. 我真希望你 昨天把这本书还了。 但实际上没有做” It is high time that we began to 从句中用过去时,表示早该做而未做 work. 咱们应该开始干活了。 的事,并含有建议的意味。 第3页 共4页 Part One 1. He ought to have handed in his homework early this morning. That’s what he ________. A. should be doing B. should do C. should have done D. would 2. Mr. White had never thought that their only son ______ sell drugs and be sent to ______ prison. A. should... / B. should….the C. would.., the D. could…/ 3. His order is that everyone ________ their own work in time. A. completed B. must complete C. completes D. complete 4. I wish you _____ the college entrance examination. A. passed B. had passed C. should pass D. have passed 5. ___________ for your help, we might have lost our ways in the forest. A. Were it not B. Had it not been C. Had it been D. Were it 6. She is in such deep sorrow at the sad news. You__________ her about it so soon. A. mustn’t have told B. shouldn’t have told C. mustn’t tell D. shouldn’t tell 7. —What did your English teacher suggest to you? — He suggested that I _______ speaking English with my classmates from time to time. A. should have practiced B. practise C. practiced D. would practise 8. —Did you see the basketball game last night? —No, I _________ to have seen it, but I was busy then. A. had liked B. would like C. liked D. like 9. You’re very selfish. It’s high time you _______ that you ______ not the person for the job A. do realize… are B. realized…are C. realize…are D. realized…were 10. We _______ last night, but we went to the concert instead. A. must have studied B. might study C. should have studied D. would study 11. The city government orders that a medical team _________ to the front at once. A. was sent B. ought to send C. be sent D. would be sent 12. If you had seen him last time, you _______ what to do now. A. would have known B. should have known 第4页 共4页

在 wish 后面的宾语从句中

在 if only 感叹句中

在 as if/as though 引导的从 句中

在 would rather 结构中

在 It is (about, high) time+(that)从句中

C. would know D. may know 13. What should we do ________ tomorrow? A. should it snow B. would it snow C. snow D. will snow 14. Li Ping is waiting alone in the reading-room, you _________ her yesterday about the matter. A. ought to tell B. must have told C. ought to have told D. should tell 15. It is essential that ways and means to protect the environment _________as soon as possible. A. be adopted B. have be adopted C. will be adopted D. will adopt 16. Had you listened to the doctor, you _______ all right now. A. are B. were C. would be D. would have been 17. It is of the most importance that you ________here on time. A. be B. would be C. must be D. are to be 18. —How about a trip to London? —_________the expense, I ________go. A. If it were not…should B. Were it not for …would C. Weren’t it if…would D. If it hadn’t been for … could 19. _____ your arrival, I’d have met you at the railway station. A. If I know B. Should I know C. If I had known D. If I know 20. Our demand is that another experiment __________. A. shall be made B. will be made C. must be made D. be made 21. You _____ me earlier if you did not like your house bought last month. A. would tell B. had told C. told D. would have told 22. It is not likely that Jack is unfriendly, so he ____ you when you called. A. should not have seen B. had not seen C. could not have seen D. did not seen 23. But for the doctors, the patients _____ A. did not recover well B. had not well recovered C. has not recovered so well D. would not have recovered so well 24. Had it been a meaningful meeting, I _________ it at all. A. wouldn’t have missed B. would have missed C. would have missed D. wouldn’t miss 25. When I took the dictionary back to Maria, she said coldly, “ You ________ it earlier, for I _____ it at any time.” 第5页 共6页

A. should have returned…might use B. should return…might have used C. could have returned…might have used D. might return…might have used 26. I _____ to go to your help, but I had to _____an important meeting. A. have planned… have attended B. had planned… attend C. planned…have attended D. planned… be attending 27. He _______ the 5:30 train because he didn’t leave until 5:35. A. mustn’t have caught B. could not have caught C. can’t have caught D. mustn’t catch 28. Father insisted that _______ before nine in the evening. A. they should back B. they ought to be back C. they be back D. they had to be back 29. He _____ full marks, but he was so careless _______ a spelling mistake. A. could gain… to make B. could have gained … to make C. should have gained… and be made D. could have gained…as to make 30. You shouldn’t have asked the boy to run across the street to buy cigarettes, he _______ by a passing car. A. maybe knocked down B. should have been knocked off C. might have been knocked down D. will have been knocked down Part Two 1. If she had worked harder, she______. A. would succeed B. had succeeded C. should succeed D. would have succeeded 2. I wish I_________ you yesterday. A. seen B. did see C. had seen D. were to see 3. If my lawyer_______ here last Saturday, he_____ me from going. A. had been, would have prevented B. had been. would prevent C. were, would prevent D. were, would have prevented 4. Without electricity human life________ quite different today. A. is B. will be C. would have been D. would be 5. —If he_______, he_______ that food. —Luckily he was sent to the hospital immediately. 第6页 共6页

A. was warned, would not take B. had been warned, would not have taken C. would be warned, had not taken D. would have been warned, had not taken 6. I told Sally how to get there, but perhaps 1 ___________ for her. A. had to write it out B. must have written it out C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out 7. I didn’t see your sister at the meeting. If she _________, she would have met my brother. A. has come B. did come C. came D. had come 8. When a pencil is partly in a glass of water, it looks as if it___________ A. breaks B. has broken C. were broken D. had been broken 9. You didn’t let me drive. If we _____ in turn, you ________so tired. A. drove, didn’t get B. drove, wouldn’t get C. were driving, wouldn’t D. had driven, wouldn’t have got 10. If I had_______, I’d visit Europe, stopping at all the small interesting places. A. a long enough holiday B. an enough long holiday C. a holiday enough long D. a long holiday enough 11. The two strangers talked as if they ________ friends for years. A. should be B. would be C. have been D. had been 12. _____it rain tomorrow, we have to put off the visit to Yangpu Bridge. A. Were B. Should C. Would D. Will 13. Without the air to hold some of the sun’s heat, the earth at night _______, too cold for us to live. A. would be freezing B. will be freezing C. would be frozen cold D. can freeze coldly 14. If only he _________ quietly as the doctor instructed, he would not suffer so much now. A. lies B. lay C. had lain D. should lie 15. —We could have gone there by bus. —Yes, otherwise we _______ late. A. weren’t B. hadn’t been C. couldn’t be D. couldn’t have been 16. The teacher demanded that the exam______ before eleven. A. must finish B. would be finished C. be finished D. must be finished 17. I wouldn’t have succeeded___________ for his help then. A. hadn’t it been B. were it not C. had it been not D. had it not been 18. If it ______for the snow, we ______ the mountain yesterday. A. were not, could have climbed B. were not. could climb C. had not been, could have climbed D. had not been, could climb 第7页 共8页

19. Yesterday, Jane walked away from the discussion. Otherwise, she________ something she would regret later. A. had said B. said C. might say D. might have said 20. I’d rather he________ here. A. come B. comes C. came D. will come 21. It’s high time you___________ there. A. go B. went C. would go D. would have gone 22. If he had listened carefully, he ________ the problem now. A. can work out B. could work out C. could have worked out D. can have worked out 23. If only I ______ as young as you are! A. being B. am C. be D. were 24. It is necessary that he________ there in time. A. is B. was C. were D. be 25. My advice is that he________ there at once. A. go B. goes C. went D. going 26. What should we do if it_______tomorrow? A. should snow B. would snow C. snow D. will snow 27. He ______ the test, but he wasn’t careful enough. A. could have passed B. were able to pass C. must have passed D. might be able to pass 28. —Have you ever been to Beijing? —No, but I wish I_________. A. have B. will C. do D. had 29. Mother suggested we _________ TV before we have finished our homework. A. not watching B. not to watch C. didn’t watch D. not watch 30. The doctor’s words suggested that the old man ______ seriously ill. A. be B. was C. were D. to be 31. Our English teacher insisted that it ___________ important to study English well. A. be B. was C. is D. to he 32. If you ______ at school, you ______ a college student now. A. had studied hard, would have been B. should have studied hard, should have been C. had studied hard. would be D. would study hard, must have been 33. —We could have walked to the station, it was so near. —Yes. A taxi ________at all necessary. A. wasn’t B. hadn’t been C. wouldn’t be D. won’t be

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