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第2章 形容词和副词


第2章
一、形容词

形容词和副词

1、形容词修饰名词或代词,表示人或事物的性质、特征 。 * 修饰名词时放在前边,如: a beautiful girl * 修饰复合不定代词 (something, someone, somebody; anything, anyone, anybody; nothing, no one, n

obody 等)时,则放在这些词之后,如:something important 2、形容词在句 中作定语、表语或宾语补足语。也可作状语,表状况、原因、结果等。 如: a famous singer(作 语); He is very famous. (作 语); They keep their room clean.(作 语) He went to bed , cold and hungry. (作 语) 3、大部分以 ly 结尾的词是副词。但下列词仍为形容词

* daily,weekly,monthly,yearly,early 等。 既为形容词,也为副词, 如:The Times is a weekly paper. The Times is published weekly. 4. 多个形容词修饰名词时,其顺序为: 如:two little fat white dogs 5.the+形容词表示一类人或物

The rich should help the poor.

二、副词
1、 副词修饰 动词、形容词、副词或全句,作状语,说明时间、地点、程度、方式等概 念。 如:My father gets up early. It is very good . He works very hard . Finally,I finished the work. Perhaps he’s watching TV at home.

2、副词分为: ①.时间副词 now then today, tomorrow, yesterday, before, late, early, never, seldom, sometimes, often, usually, always already,yet, soon,at once, tonight, just now ,recently, at last,finally

* 位于句尾 或句首:What are we going to do tomorrow? *表示时间频率副词位于 be 动词 、助动词、情态动词之后,行为动词之前。 She is seldom ill. He doesn′t often get up early . He usually gets up early. ② . 地 点 副 词 , 如 : here, there, inside, outside, home, upstairs, downstairs, somewhere, anywhere, nowhere, everywhere, down, up, here, there, Put down your name here. ③ .方式副词 , 如 : hard, well, badly, fast, slowly carefully angrily anxiously, bravely, proudly, rapidly, suddenly, successfully, happily, warmly, 位于所修饰词之后 He runs very fast. ④.程度副词, 如: very, quite, much, still, almost enough a little, a bit, too, pretty, greatly, 位于所修饰词之前,She sings quite well. 但 enough 特殊 ⑤.疑问副词,如: how, when, where, why Why did you do that? 3、 动词与副词 组成动词词组,宾语为名词 , 该 名词 放在副词之后或副词之前; 宾语为代词, 则代词 放在副词之前 a. He cut down the tree. =He cut the tree down. b. He cut it down.

三、形容词变副词
1. 一 般 加 “ly” , 如 quick---quickly real-really; helpful-helpfully; careful-carefully; hopeful-hopefully; slow-slowly; quick-quickly; quiet-quietly 2. 以 “y” 结 尾 的 , 改 “y” 为 “i”, 加 “ly” , 如 happy---happily busy-busily; angry-angrily; easy-easily heavy-heavily 3.以 ue 或 le 结尾去 e 加 ly..如: true-truly terrible-terribly; possible-possibly 否则加 ly. 如: wise-wisely polite-politely wide-widely

四、比较级和最高级
1、 形容词比较级和最高级 1) 规则变化 构成法 一般单音节词 尾加-er,-est 以不发音的 e 结尾的单音词 和少数以- le 结尾的双音节 词只加-r,-st 辅 元辅且重读双写加 er,或 est " 以辅音字母 +y" 结尾的双音 节词,改 y 为 i,再加-er, tall nice 原级 比较级 taller nicer 最高级 tallest nicest

big busy

bigger busier

biggest busiest

-est 少数以-er,-ow 结尾的双音节 词未尾加-er,-est 其他双音节词和多音节词, 在 前面加 more,most 来构成比 较级和最高级 clever/narrow important cleverer/ narrower more important cleverest/ narrowest most important

少数单音节形容词加 more / most 构成比较级和最高级, 如: fond, tired, pleased, glad, often, fit 等 2) 不规则变化 原级 good well(健康的) bad old much/many little far late badly worse older 指年龄/elder 用于兄 弟姐妹的长幼关系 more less farther 更 远 指 距 离 /further 进一步指程度 later 较迟,后来(指时间) latter 后者(和“前者”对 比,指顺序) worst oldest/eldest most least farthest /furthest latest 最近(指时间) last 最后(指顺序) ill(有病的) better 比较级 best 最高级

2、副词的比较级和最高级变化和形容词的 变化一样,但以 ly 结尾的副词须用 more 和 most。( 除外) 3、 比较级的用法: 两方进行比较, 多用 than .可 用 等 词 修饰比较级 ,表示“更??” 、 “??得多”等 如:Reading is much easier than speaking. * much more +不可数名词,many more +可数名词复数。 * A 和 B 一样??,用“as+形容词(副词)原级+as”的句型。在否定句或疑问句中可用 so? as 或 as?as。例如:He cannot run so/as fast as you. 他没你跑得快。 * A 比 B??,用“比较级+than” 如:This pen is better than that one . * A“几倍长宽高?? 于”B 或“比 B 长宽高??几倍” 1) 、用 倍数加 as?as 结构来表示。 This room is three times as big as that one. ( ) 2) 、用倍数+ 比较级 +than?”表示 This room is three times bigger than that one. ( ) * “越来越??”表示法: 用“

” 表示

But she looked at me and cried harder and harder. * 越??就越??表示法: 用“ ” 表示 。 如:The more,the better. The harder she studied , the more progress she made . * the +比较级+of the two 两者中较? 的一个 He is the taller of the two. 4、 最高级的用法: 三方或三方以上进行比较时, 用最高级, * 形容词 最高级前多用 the, 基本形式为: the + adj / adv 的最高级 + (名词) + 表 示范围的短语或从句。 如: John is the oldest boy in the class. *副词最高级前可省去定冠词 the 如: She writes (the) most carefully of the three. *“the +序数词+最高级” 表示“第几”之意 a. China is the third largest country in the world. b. The Yellow River is the second longest river in China.

形容词和副词专练
1. ---Which is ________, the sun, the moon or the earth? ---Of course the moon is. A. small B. smaller C. smallest D. the smallest 2. Bob never does his homework ________ Mary. He makes lots of mistakes. A. so careful as B. as carefully as C. carefully as D. as careful as 3.--- It’s so c old today. --- Yes, it’s than it was yesterday. A. more cold B. more colder C. much colder D. cold 4.She isn’t so at maths as you are. A. well B. good C. better D. best 5.Peter writes of the three. A. better B. best C. good D. well 6.He is enough to carry the heavy box. A. stronger B. much stronger C. strong D. the strongest 7.The box is heavy for the girl carry. A. too; to B. to; too C. so; that D. no; to 8.Wu Lin ran faster than the other boys in the sports meeting. A. so B. much C. very D. too 9. Jone looks so _______ today because she has got an “A” in her maths test. A. happy B. happily C. angry D. angrily 10. ---Mum, could you buy me a dress like this? ---Certainly, we can buy ______ one than this, but ______ this. A. a better; better than B. a worse; as good as C. a cheaper; as good as D. a more important; good as 11. If you want to learn English well, you must use it as _______ as possible. A. often B. long C. hard D. soon 12. English people _____ use Mr. Before a man’s first name. A. never B. usually C. often D. sometimes 13. ---Remember this, children. ______ careful you are, ______ mistakes you will make. ---We know, Miss Gao. A. The more; the more B. The fewer; the more C. The more; the fewer D. The less; the less 14. I have ________ to do today. A. anything important B. something important C. important nothing D. important something 15. This box is___ that one. A. heavy than B. so heavy than C. heavier as D. as heavy as

16 When we speak to people, we should be . A. as polite as possible B. as polite as possibly C. as politely as possible D. as politely as possibly 17 I think the story is not so ___ as that one. A. interesting B. interested C. more interesting D. most interesting 18. I think science is _ than Japanese. A. much important B. important C. much more important D. more much important 19 This pencil is___ than that one. A. longest B. long C. longer D. as long 20 These children are ____ this year than they were last year. A. more tall B. more taller C. very taller D. much taller 21 It was very hot yesterday, but it is___ today. A. even hotter B. more hotter C. much more hot D. much hot 22 The house is small for a family of six. A. much too B. too much C. very much D.so 23 The earth is about____ as the moon. A. as fifty time big B. fifty times as big C. as big fifty times D. fifty as times big 24 When spring comes, it gets____. A. warm and warm B. colder and colder C. warmer and warmer D. shorter and shorter 25 When spring comes the days get ____ and nights ____. A. short; long B. long; short C. longer; shorter D. shorter; longer 26 I like___ one of the two books. A. the older B. oldest C. the oldest D. older 27 Which do you like ___, tea or coffee? A. well B. better C. best D. most 28 Who jumped____of all? A. far B. farther C. farthest D. the most far 29 Li Lei is___ student in our class. A. tall B. taller C. tallest D. the tallest 30English is one of____ spoken in the world. A. the important languages B. the most important languages C. most important language D. the most important language 31 Which month is____, June, July or August? A. hot B. hotter C. hottest D. the hottest 32 Do you have ____ to tell us? A. something new B. new something C. anything new D. new anything 33. I'm not ___ to lift the heavy box. A. short enough B. enough tall C. health enough D. strong enough 34 "Do you want____?" the shop assistant asked. A. else anything B. anything else C. other anything D. else something

35 Wei Fang is only six, but she speaks English____ her mother. A. as good as B. as better as C. as well as D. as best as 36 She was sick yesterday, but she is____ to go to school today. A. enough good B. good enough C. enough well D. well enough 37 This kind of book is______ for the children to read. A. enough well ' B. enough good C. well enough D. good enough 38 -Are you feeling ____? -Yes, I'm fine now. A. quite good B. quite better C. any well D. any better 39 This shirt is no good. That one is even A. better B. worse C. well D. worst 40 My ____ brother is three years ____ than I. A. elder; elder B. older; oldest C. elder; older D. older; elder 41 I think the book is very____. A. interesting B. interested C. interest D. interests 42 They were very ____ to see each other again. A. pleased B. surprising C. happily D. angrily 43 The boys are ___ computers. A. interesting in B. interested C. interesting about D. interested about 44 ___ helped a lot in our country. A. The blind is B. The blind areC. The blinds is D. Blind are 45 ___ should study hard for their work. A. Young B. The young man C. The young D. The young girl 46 The___ boy was taken to the nearest hospital. A. ill B. sick C. good D. clever 47 He has not been at school, because he is___. A. ill B. well C. fine D. nice 48 She writes____than I. A. more careful B. much careful C. much more carefully D. much carefully 49 The night was very ___, so he had to take off his shoes ___. A. quiet; quietly B. quite; quickly C. late; quick D. quite; quietly 50 How ___ the girls are playing! A. happy B. happier C. happy ly D. happily 51 Better___than never. A. late B. the later C. later D. the late 52 I got up____today. A. later B. more lately C. lately D. late 53 Alice___goes to school at seven. A. usual B. usually C. hard D. a little 54 We won't go to the cinema next Saturday. They won't____. A. too B. also C. neither D. either 55 He likes to do some reading in the morning, I like it, ___. A. too B. either C. neither D. also

costly lonely deadly lively friendly silly lovely kindly likely weekly ugly brotherly monthly down, on, off, in, out, up,away"近""仔细地""晚""最近"。"深"空间深度感情上的深度深深地空间 高 度 程 度 空 间 宽 度 广 泛 地 免 费 无 限 制 地 much , many any a little , a bit ,still, far, by far(位于最高级前, 比较级后), rather, even, no, a lot , a great deal long wide high deep heavy longer wider higher deeper heavier length width height depth weight 比较级+and+比较级 the+比较级??,the+比较级??


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