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高考英语写作词汇升级


第十讲、高考英语写作宝典

上篇:语言基础 :造句基础; 汉英语序的区别; LiHua is a girl. ——LiHua is a smart girl. I love you. —— I love you very much. I am a student. —— I am a student of New Oriental School. There

are some children playing b-ball. —— There are some children playing b-ball on the playing ground. 从以上四对句子的对比中,看出汉语和英语语序的关系: 主干成分:汉英语序基本一致;修饰成分:汉语前修,英语短前长后;结论:我们在造句时,应该 1、先抓主干造句,再添加修饰成分; 2、用“句型”造句;翻译句子的难点:修饰成分的位置;句型或固定搭配; 6 种主干句型; 主谓: I come. 主谓宾:I love you. 主谓宾宾 I give you my heart. 主谓宾补:You make me your friend. 主系表: You were my everything. There be 句型:There is a girl dancing in my heart. 四种修饰成分; 四朵金花:修饰词:adj. adv.;介词短语:从介词开始到名词结束,表达一个独立的、完整的含义的结构; 从句:非谓语动词: 【练习】 请用括号画出 2010 年高考英语试卷阅读理解部分中的全部的修饰成分,然后看看将修饰成分后, 剩下的主干语序和汉语是否“基本一致”;尝试翻译每个句子,体会“后修变前修”的语序规则! 句子拓展方法;利用句中名词进行拓展;利用句中动词进行拓展; 首先练习以下基本句子的翻译: 你应该理解你的母亲。You should understand your mother. 我们应该学好英语。We should learn English well. 我爱吃鱼。I love eating fish. 今天是个好天气。Today is a great day. / It is a great day today. 如何在这些基本句子基础上进行语法拓展? 利用“帽子家族”(黄金圣衣句型)和“尾巴家族”(原因 结果 目的 程度)进行拓展; 词汇升级; 40 个常见升级词汇: 1、like → love\ enjoy\ prefer...; be fond of + 物; be crazy about + 人/物; appreciate I appreciate your sense of humour. 2、want to do sth →倾向于做某事 tend/intend to do sth ;渴望做某事 be longing for doing sth. 渴望做某事 be thirsty for doing sth;期待做某事 ;look forward to doing sth;迫不及待做某事 can't wait to do sth 渴望做某事 ;desire to do / have the desire to do sth /for sth 3、Should do → be supposed to do; ought to ; had better do ; Why not do sth? 4、think about sth/consider sth→ take into account +sth;take into consideration +sth 【例】take into consideration /account other people's opinion. 考虑别人的意见 5、not → by no means eg:By no means shall we give up trying.我们决不能停止努力。【不完全倒装】
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eg:This is by no means a good way to solve the problem. 这绝不是解决问题的最好方法。 6、although → admitting that... 7、because + 句子→ considering that...考虑到 ,for...(一般用在句中,比 because 的表达方式更为简洁) 8、because of +n → due to +n ;thanks to +n;owning to+n 9、so → ... ,therefore, ...; ... ,as a result, ..; ... ,accordingly, ... ;... ,consequently,... 10、1)more and more+n. → students in growing numbers 2)more and more +adj→ increasingly important 11、think → guess;harbor the idea that...;take the attitude that...;hold the view that... It is widely shared that... ;It is universally acknowledged that... 12、believe →sb insist on sth 坚持(某种观点);sb insist that... 坚持做某事;be sure that 13、can do sth →will do sth; be able to do sth ;be capable to do sth can't do sth →fail to do sth;are not able to do sth 15、not → by no means / at no time eg:By no means shall we give up trying.我们决不能停止努力。【不完全倒装】 eg:This is by no means a good way to solve the problem. 这绝不是解决问题的最好方法。 16、adj.=of+n. Important → of great importance ;Different → of great difference Beautiful → of amazing beauty ; wise → of outstanding wisdom;useful → of great use 【例句】My mom is a woman of beauty. 我的母亲是一位用美丽来诠释的女人。 17、we →We high school students ;We teenagers; We Chinese ;We Chinese young generation 18、20 students ;as many as 20 students 【强调数量多】 19、用 as 比喻: (使文章具有修辞意识) Blue → as blue as the sea Red → as red as blood 【例句】 The sky was once as blue as the sea ,but now they are both dark and dirty . 20、Happy →joyful / delighted 21、use →make good use of 22、learn →pick up (偶然学到) master(掌握) 23、do → make good use of your time and effort to do;never fails to do have every reason to do can't help doing 忍不住做某事 24、cry → burst into tears;with tears in her/his/my/our eyes 25、laugh → burst into laughter 26、really →undoubtedly / absolutely 27、very → extremely / surprisingly ;unusually 28、Enough → adequate 29、in fact → as a matter of the fact;actually 30、may be → probably;may as well 也可以 31、good →desirable / satisfactory;beneficial / useful;excellent / terrific ;wonderful /outstanding very good / great 32、bad → terrible;undesirable;unsatisfactory 33、many → a lot of;a number of+可数名词;plenty of+可数/不可数名词;a multitude of+可数名词 many+可数名词+,if not most,+... 34、all + 名词复数(如 students)→every single student 【强调“每一个”,注意名词要用单数】 such as →including 【用来列举图画中的细节】 36、will do →will be doing sth + 未来时间点 【将来时变成将来进行时】 38、have done → have been doing 【现在完成时变成现在完成进行时】
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37、didn't do sth → should have done 【把真实语气的否定变成虚拟语气里的“肯定表否定”】 38、remember → keep in mind 【例】We should remember this lesson.=We teenagers are supposed to keep in mind this lesson. 六大黄金圣衣句型 【使用说明】任何句子上面都能套用的神奇句型!实在没什么亮点的短句子上面可以套用! 清:It is clear that ... 明:It is obvious that ... 疑:There is no doubt that ... 否:No one can deny ... 不用:Needless to say, ... 走:It goes without saying that ... 四大尾巴句型; 原因 because/,for/considering that...+句子 because of/ owing to/ thanks to/due to + 名词 【注意搭配!】 结果 ....so.../ ...,as a result ,.../ ...,therefore ,... / ...,consequently ,... / ...,accordingly,... 目的 so that/in order that...+ 句子 so as to/in order to...+名词 程度 so + adj + that such + n +that 【最常用的段落框架】 On the one hand,... . On the other hand,... . For one thing, ... . For another, ... . First and foremost, ... Additionally,.../In addition,... Last but (certainly) not least,.. . To begin/start with,... Moreover,... Furthermore,... / What's more,... Finally,... 【十五大类过渡词】 温馨提示:有必要一一研读!对写作、完型、翻译都很有帮助!花 30 分钟抄几遍吧! 最佳学习方法:先把全部的学一遍,再挑出你自己写作时可能用到的背过! (1)表并列关系的过渡词: and, also, as well, as well as, or, too, not only ... but also, both ... and, either ... or, neither ... nor (2)表递进关系的过渡词: besides, in addition ( 加之, 除……之外) , moreover (此外, 而且), what’ s more ( 更重要的是) , what’ s worse(更糟糕的是) (3)表转折对比的过渡词: but, however, yet, instead, on the other hand, on the contrary(相反), although, despite, in spite of, whereas (而) , unlike, nevertheless(然而) , not only ... but also, years ago ... today, the former... the latter, the first ... Whereas the second, once ... now, on the one hand ...on the other hand, some ... others (4)表原因的过渡词:because, because of, since, as, for, now that, thanks to, due to(由于) (5)表结果的过渡词:So, ...; Thus,...; therefore,...; as a result,...; so that,...; then,...; hence ( 因此),...; so ...that...; such ... That ... ; (6)表条件的过渡词:If = on condition that(条件是); as/so long as(只要); unless; (7)表时间的过渡词 when, while, after, before, until, as soon as, later, afterwards ( 事后) , soon, lately, recently, since, from then on, eventually, in the meantime, then, suddenly, at the same time, next, early this morning / year / century, after a while, in a few days, now, presently, finally, at last, all of a sudden, from now on, at present, immediately, the moment (8)表特定的顺序关系的过渡词:first, firstly, second, secondly, third, thirdly, above all, first of all, then, next, finally, in the end, at last, afterward( s) (后来) , meanwhile (几乎同时) , thereafter(在那以后) , last, finally, eventually(终于) (9)表"换一种方式表达"的过渡词:In other words,...; That is to say,...; To put it another way,...; (10)表进行举例说明的过渡词:for instance, for example, like, such as,including,
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(11)表陈述事实的过渡词:in fact, actually, as a matter of fact, to tell you the truth (12)表强调的过渡词:certainly, indeed, above all, surely, most importantly, in fact, no doubt, without any doubt, truly, obviously (13)表比较的过渡词:like, unlike, in the same way, similarly, similar to (14)表目的的过渡词:for this reason, for this purpose(为此), so that, in order to, so as to (15)表总结的过渡词:in a word(总之, 简言之), in general, in short (总之), above all, after all, generally speaking, to sum up, finally, in conclusion, at last, in summary 【按照写作文时的具体用法分类】 1 有关“启” 的常用词语 用于引导主题句,或用于主题句的后面,引导第一个扩展句。 first(ly)/ at first/ first of all 第一, 最初, 首先 in the first place 首先, 第一 at present /now 现在 in the beginning 起初 to begin/start with 首先, 第一 for one thing 首先, (常与 for another 连用) (其次) on the one hand 一方面 (常与 on the other hand 连用) (另一方面) currently 目前 lately/recently 最近 in general/generally speaking 一般来说 2 有关“承” 的常用词语 用于承接主题句, 或第一个 (或前一个) 扩展句。 second(ly) 第二; 第二点 third (ly) 第三; 第三点 also/too 并且; 又, 也 besides (this) 此外 in addition 此外 in addition to 除…之外 furthermore/ moreover/ what is more 而且,此外 for another 其次 for example /instance 例如 as an example 例如 namely 即, 就是 then 然后 of course 当然 in other words 换句话说 in particular 特别,尤其 in the same way 同样地 after that 此后 afterwards 此后 after a few days 几天以后 after a while 过了一会儿 from now on 从此 later 后来 just as 正如 similarly 同样地 meanwhile/ at the same time 同时 by this time 此时 soon 不久 consequently 结果 3 有关 “转” 的常用词语 用来表示不同或相反的情况 after all 毕竟 but 但是 yet 仍,然而 however 然而 nevertheless 尽管,如此 though / although 尽管如此 despite / in spite of 尽管 on the contrary 相反地 unlike… 与…不同 on the other hand 另一方面 unfortunately 不幸地 still 仍然 in fact/ as a matter of fact 事实上 4 有关 “合” 的常用词语 用于小结段落中上文的内容, 引导最后一个扩展句或引导结尾句表示段落的结束。 Finally/at last 最后,终于 in brief /short 简言之 in conclusion 总之 in summary 摘要地说 therefore 因此 thus 因此 to conclude/ summarize/ sum up 总而言之 briefly 简单地说 above all 最重要地 as a result 结果 as I have said 如我所述 at length 最后, 终于 eventually 最终 indeed 的确 surely 无疑 no doubt 毫无疑问 truly 的确 so 所以 obviously 显然 certainly 无疑

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