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高考语法复习之广东高考语法填空技巧指导


技巧篇 – 广东高考 语法填空 (Rational Cloze) 专题讲座 真题剖析
阅读下面短文,按照句子结构的语法性和上下文连贯的要求,在空格处填人一个适当的词

或使用括号中词语的正确形式填空. Jane was walking round the department store.She remembered how difficult su

itable Christmas present for her father. wished that he was as easy She was always delighted with perfume. Besides, shopping at this time of the year was not feet or 33 pleasant experience: people stepped on your 31 was to choose a

32 (please)as her mother, who

34 (push)you with their elbows(肘部),hurrying ahead to get to a bargain. 35 some attractive ties were on display. “They are real silk, ”

Jane paused in front of a counter

the assistant tried to attract her. “Worth double the price. ”But Jane knew from past experience that her 36 (choose)of ties hardly ever pleased her father. Jane stopped where a small crowd of men had gathered.She found some good quality pipes 37 sale.She did not hesitate for long:although her father smoked a pipe only once in a while, 38_.

she knew that this was a present which was bound to please

When Jane got home,with her small but well-chosen present in her bag,her parents were already 39_ table having supper.Her mother was excited. “Your father has at last decided to stop 40 (inform).

smoking, ”Jane

广东高考语法填空题究竟考什么?怎么考?请看下面的研究结果吧。只有数据事实最具说服力。 考什么? (Ⅰ)纯空格形式的考点如下表: 测试内容 内 冠词 介词 容 2007 年 题号.答案 35.a 33.as 31.Behind/In 36.after/from 代词 物主代词 指示代词 人称代词 不定代词 连词 从属连词 37.Other/Some 32.who(宾从) 36.where(定从)
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2008 年 题号.答案

2009 年 题号.答案 33. a 37. on(sale) 39. at(table)

2010 年 题号.答案 31. the 35、with

39.for 40.her 33.his 31. it 形式主语 38. him 34.this/it 35. that 同位语 35. where 定从 32. who 定从 40. when 状从 38.it 36、 another

并列连词 (II)用所给词的适当形式填空的考点如下: 测试内容 内 动 词 非 谓 语 容 不定式 -ed 分词 -ing 结构 31.broke 2007 年

37. but

2008 年 题号,答案 32.to help

2009 年 题号,答案 32. to please

2010 年 题号,答案

题号, 答案

34.settled 37. saying 40.results 34. pushed 40. was informed 33. presented

谓语动词的时态,语态,语气

形容词或副词的比较级 词性转换(形、副、名、动词) 怎么考? 38.merrily

38.higher 39.natural 36. choice

39. sweeter 34. warmly

根据上表,我们知道,语法填空的考点或考查内容是: 1.纯空格题(6 空) :通常考冠词、介词、代词和连词等四类词。 倒装句中的助动词和强调谓语动词的 助动词(do, does, did),以及情态动词、强调结构中的 it, that 等都可能在纯空格题中进行考查。less, more, most 等词是可能在纯空格类题中考查的,因为这涉及到到语法——比较等级。 2.用括号中所给词填空(4 空) :通常考谓语动词的时态、语态、语气,非谓语动,形容词或副词的比较 词,词性转换等。名词的数和所有格也可能在用括号中所给词填空中进行考查,同学们千万不可忽视。 答案特点: ①纯空格题:试题要求中已明文规定死了“在空格处填入一个适当的词”,即一个小题或者一个空格只能 填一个单词。两年高考题的答案印证了这一点。 ②用括号中所给词填空:试题中要求“使用括号中词语的正确形式填空”,这个词的正确形式究竟由几个 单词组成?两年高考题的答案填一个或两个单词。 ③所填词(答案)都是一些拼写简单的单词。2007 年高考所填词均长 4.1 个字母,其中,纯空格的答案只 有 2.4 个字母;2008 年所填词均长 4.45 个字母,其中纯空格的答案只有 3.8 个字母。 ④3 年都有所填词位于句首,此时第一个字母要注意大写。 特别提醒:尽管 4 年高考中“使用括号中词语的正确形式填空”的答案只填一个或两个单词,但是我们在 平时的训练中应当不局限于此, 要训练填一个、两个或多个单词的情况。 非谓语动词中, to 的不定式、 带 现在分词的完成式都可能填两个单词;谓语动词的将来时、进行时和完成时等也都可能填两个单词,而 现在完成进行时等就可能填三个单词,被动语态至少都要填两个单词。
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一、设题特点 - 从语法填空题空格的设置来看,至少应当包括以下 4 个特点 (一)考虑语境。 (二)考查语法。 (三)语法考点分散。 (四)适当提示。 例 1 Several changes have brought wild animals to the ________ . Foremost, air and water quality in many cities have improved as a result of the 1970's pollution control efforts… 例 2 In Greece, women had little freedom. Wealthy women hardly left their houses, but they ________ (allow) to attend weddings and some festivals. 例 3 The ________ why I was sad was that he didn't understand me. (believe) that such an honest fellow should have betrayed his

例 4 It would be ________ friends!

例 5 Oil prices have risen by 32 percent since the start of the year, ________ US$ 57.65 a barrel on April 4.

(reach) a record

二、题目类型 - 考实词有提示,考虚词无提示。出题一般涉及到以下几个方面: 1)动词与介词或副词搭配构成的固定动词短语; 2)冠词的用法; 3)连词的用法,包括从属连词和并列连词;4)派生词的用法;5) 名词的词形变化; 6)动词的适当形式;7)情态动词的用法;8)定语从句、名词性从句的引导词等; 9)代词的适当形式;10)形容词或副词的用法,如比较级、最高级变化或形容词变副词; 三、解答语法填空题的七条思路 1. 根据逻辑关系进行填充; 2. 根据语法知识进行填充;3. 根据生活常识进行填充。 4. 根据语篇标志进行填充 - 如表示结构层次的有 first, second, third, finally 等;表示逻辑关 系的有 thus,therefore,so 等;表示转折关系或变换话题的有 however, but, by the way 等。 5. 根据固定词组进行填充 - 常见的词组如 as a matter of, be proud of, by the way, come from, congratulate…on…, devote…to…, earn one’s living, keep one’s word, make up one’s mind 等。 6. 根据句型搭配进行填, 就是根据一些常用的句型搭配, so/such…that…, it is…(for sb.) to 如 do sth., There is no doubt that…, there is no sense in doing sth.等来解题。 7. 根据词汇知识进行填充 – 即特殊搭配,如只能接动词的-ing 形式作宾语的动词,只能 接 to do 作宾语的动词,接 to do 作补语的动词,接 do 作补语的动词,接 doing 或 done 作补 语的动词,对句式搭配要求较为特别的词语等。 【例】I crossed the street to avoid 1. ____________ (meet) him, but he saw me and came running towards me. It was no use 2. ____________ (pretend) that I had not seen him, so I waved to him. I never enjoy 3. ____________ (meet) Nigel Dykes. He never has anything 4. ____________ (do). No matter how busy you are, he always insists on 5. ____________ (come) with you. 四、备考策略 - 1.不断记忆,积累词汇。 2.夯实基础,学好语法。 3.大声朗读,培养语感。 4.坚持不懈,多做练习。 五、解题技巧 - [ 解题技巧一]
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* 下列情况很可能填不定冠词: (1)________+可数名词(单数); (2)________+形容词+可数名词(单数)。 * 下列情况下很可能填定冠词: (1)________ (+定语)+名词+ of 等介词短语(表示特指); (2)________ (+定语)+名词+定语从句(表示特指); (3)________ (+定语)+名词+不定式短语或分词短语(表示特指)。 [例 1] It was mid-afternoon and I had been listening to the radio and reading ____________ book. (09 执信中学、中山纪念中学、深圳外国语学校三校联考) [解题技巧二] 当“________(+限定词)+名词”或“________+代词”在句中不充当主语或宾语时, 该空格通常应填介词。此外,填介词时要考虑与名词、动词、形容词等的搭配。 [例 2] Being very short of money and wanting to do something useful, I applied, fearing as I did so, that ____________ a degree and with no experience of teaching my chances of getting the job were slim.(09 肇庆一模) [解题技巧三] 句子的主语或宾语主要由名词、代词、动名词或不定式充当,但纯空格所填词 在句中作主语或宾语时,通常填代词,包括人称代词、指示代词、不定代词、名词性物主代词、 疑问代词、反身代词(不能作主语)等。在名词前作定语就只能用形容词性物主代词了。 [例 3-1] A real trial began when I stood on the platform with my legs trembling and my mind blank. ...Gradually I found _________ back, giving out my speech with difficulty. (09 深圳二模) [例 3-2] It has been said before, but experiencing it myself has made ____________ want to say it again: a smile can cross all language barriers. (09 江门二模) [解题技巧四] (1)连接两个功能对等的单词或短语时,应填并列连词 and, or, but 等。 (2)若两个句子/两个主谓结构之间,没有句号或分号,也没有连词,空格处必定是填连接词。 根据两句之间的意义和逻辑关系,或者根据句式结构的需要,确定是并列句(多要求考生填 and, but, while, when, or 等)还是某种主从复合句。然后根据从句的特点确定所填的连词。 [例] They spent a couple of days and nights on the farm of ____________ would be considered a poor family. (09 广州一模) [例]…two world-famous artists, Pablo Picasso 34 Candido Portinari, which are worth millions of dollars. [例]…all I saw was this beautiful girl, whose smile just melted me 36 almost instantly gave me a completely new sense of what life is all about. (2008 年深圳一模) [例] I wanted to see as much of the city as possible in the two days 32 I was to return to Guangzhou. (2008 年广州一模) [例] He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, ___37___he felt very happy… [例] This made the goat so jealous___34___it began plotting against (谋划对付) the donkey. (2007 年惠州二模) [例]Cynthia’s story shows vividly that people remember more how much a manager cares ___40___ how much he pays. (2007 深圳宝安期末)

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[解题技巧五] 首先,判断要填的动词是谓语动词还是非谓语动词。然后按以下两点进行思考。 1:若句中没有别的谓语动词,或者虽然已有谓语动词,但需填的动词与之是并列关系时, 所给动词就是谓语动词;若是谓语动词,就要考虑时态语态。 [例]His fear of failure ____36____(keep) him from classroom games that other children played with joyous abandon. (2008 年深圳一模) [例] That was definitely not an attractive idea so I politely declined her invitation, 40 (close) my book and walked away. (2008 年广州一模) [例] In Logan, three people ___38___ (take)to a hospital, while others were treated at a local clinic. (2007 梅州二模) 2:若句中已有谓语动词,又不是并列谓语时,所给动词就是非谓语动词。若是非谓语动词 就要确定用—ing 形式、—ed 形式,还是用不定式形式,确定的方法主要有: (1)作主语或宾语,通常用—ing 形式表示习惯或一般情况,用不定式表示具体的情况。如: [例] but it is not enough only 35 (memorize) rules from a grammar book. (2007 年佛山一模) [例]________ (speak) out your inner feeling won’t make you feel ashamed, on the contrary… [例] _______ (complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day. [例] Some people say that oldest children, who are smart and strong-willed, are very likely ___33 (succeed). (2008 年佛山一模) [例] He saw the stone, 37 (say) to himself: “The night will be very dark.” (2008 东莞一模) [例] The headmaster went into the lab, ________ (follow) by the foreign guests. [例] There will be a meeting, __40__ (start) later this year to review the film. (广州二模) [例] Lessons 39 (learn) in sports can help us in our dealing with other people. [例] On their return the father asked his son to explain what he had learnt. The boy, who had remained silent and deep in thought on the journey home, ____________ (reply) in a way that shocked his father. The boy said he wanted to become a farmer. (09 广州一模) [解题技巧六] (1)根据本句句意和空格前一句的内容及其两句间的逻辑关系,判断空格处是不 是需要填代替前文某个内容的代词 it;(2)根据句式结构判断是否填作形式主语/宾语的 it; ①it is adj. /n. +to do /doing /that... ②find /feel /think /consider it +adj. /n. +to do /doing /that... [例] Jane was walking round the department store. She remembered how difficult ____________ was to choose a suitable Christmas present for her father. (09 广东高考) [例] …as 32 took them just three minutes to steal paintings by two world-famous artists… [例]Dating sites also make 36 easy to avoid someone whom you are not interested in. [解题技巧七] 有表示范围的 in/of 介词短语,一般要用最高级; than 的前面一定要用比较级, 但在特定语境中,“than+比较对象”和在最后级中表示比较范围的 of/in 短语常常被省略,此时 我们要注意辨别这种隐性的比较级和最高级。 [例 7] One day, he came up with an idea that he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches. He did so the next day. He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, but he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” ____________ (high). (08 广东高考) [解题技巧八] 根据该词在句中所作句子成分来确定用哪种形式。具体方法有: (1)作表语、定语或补语,通常用形容词形式; 如: [例] The youngster immediately fell _______ (silence) as tears flew down from his big blue eyes.
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[例] In a ________ (danger) part of the sea off the coast of New Zealand, they learnt to… [例] Teachers must try their best to make most of their students ________ (interest) in the subject (2)作主语、在及物动词或介词后作宾语,用名词形式; 如: [例] When China’s ancient scientific and technological ________ (achieve) are mentioned, the nation will generally refer to the Four Great Inventions. [例] These people have made great ___39 (contribute) to China with their work. (2007 年二模) [例] …instructors expect students to be familiar with ___32___ (inform) in the reading… (3)在冠词、形容词性物主代词后,或者“冠词+形容词”后,用名词形式; 如: [例] …the remains date from this period because of their __38__ (similar) to those found elsewhere. (2008 年广州二模) [例] With the large numbers of students, the ________ (operate) of the system does involve a certain amount of activity. (4)修饰动词、形容词、副词或整个句子,作状语,用副词形式; 如: [例] As I looked 32 (close) at this girl, I fount that… (2008 年深圳一模) [例] There must be something ____40___(serious) wrong with our society. (2008 潮州期末) [例]Singles are flocking(涌向) to the Internet 33 (main) because their busy lifestyles leave them little time… (2008 年惠州三模) (5) 括号中所给词有可能是要求词义转换,词类不一定要变,主要是考查具有与词根意义相 反的派生词,需根据句子意思及前后逻辑关系,在词根前加 un—, im—等,在词根后加—less 等。如: [例] People certainly have a variety of reasons for going back to school but one important thing to know is, no knowledge is ________ (use). [例] Your mistake caused a lot of ________ (necessary) work in the office. (6)括号中所给动词也不一定是考动词的时态语态或非谓语动词,而是考词类转换;若是 形容词或副词,有可能是考查其比较等级。如: [例]…there was a lot of information about the city’s well-known tourist 34 ___ (attract)… [例]The other frog went on jumping as hard as he could…He jumped even ___36___ (hard) and finally made himself out. (2008 年期末) [例]Storms which produced at least 13 tornadoes swept along New Mexico’s border with Texas on Friday, destroying homes and other buildings and injuring at least 16 people, several critically, authorities said.The ___33__ (bad) damage was reported in the towns of Logan and Clovis, which are about 80 miles apart, police said. (2007 梅州二模) [解题技巧九] (1)若结构较完整,空格后的谓语动词是原形,特别是与上下文时态不一致或主 谓不一致时,很可能是填情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词(do, does, did 等)。 (2)关于强调结构 it is/was...that...,若短文中有 it is/was 就可能填 that,或者有 is /was 和 that,就 可能填 it,确定的方法是:去掉 it is/was 或 is/was...that 后,句子(或稍加调整后)依然成立,就是倒 装句,可以确定是填 it 或 that。 [例] My new neighbor, whose name I didn’t even know, had got up who knows how early to put snow chains on my truck. My throat suddenly felt tight. I wasn’t used to being taken care of like that and it was at this moment ____________ his unspoken concern caught me by surprise.
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(09 广州二模)
[例] He had no time or energy to play with his children or talk with his wife, but he ________ bring home a regular salary. [例] …and 40 was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG (味精)! (2007 年广州一模) [例] _______with hard work can you expect to get pay rise.

【课后巩固】
Will ____________ matter if you don’t take your breakfast? Recently a test ____________ (give) in the United Sates. Those tests included people of different ____________ from 12 to 83. During the experiment, these people were given all kinds of breakfasts, and sometimes they got ____________ breakfast at all. Special tests were set up to see ____________ well their bodies worked and when they had eaten ____________ certain kind of breakfast. The results show that if a person eats a proper breakfast, he or she will work with better effect ____________ if he or she has no breakfast. This fact appears to be ____________ (especial) true if a person works ____________ his brains. For example, if a student eats fruit, eggs, bread and milk before going to school, he will learn more quickly and listen with ____________ (much) attention in class.

词数:166

完成时间:8 分钟

难度:***

According to a recent survey, violence did exist in schools. Students showed their fear and parents and teachers also expressed their great concern about it. Experts hope the whole society pay more attention to the mental health of adolescents. Nowadays, school violence is 31 hot issue. I think this is a phenomenon, 33 32 calls for our

great concern. We should try every effort students would drop out of school violence can 34

(prevent) violence happening at school for more and more 35 37 (guarantee). In fact, they see on television

their personal safety could not

36 (learn). Children learn violent behavior from adults or from

or on the Internet. If I meet with school violence, I will not answer violence 38 violence, for it will result in 39

(much) fighting. I will tell my teachers or parents about it. I think they will help me deal with it well and they will protect me from the bad guys. All in all, every student should behave 40 (he) and keep away from violence.

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