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(精品)高考英语经典长难句分析及重点词汇用法(共132页)


【精品】高考英语经典长难句分析及重点词汇用法
1. For example, adolescent boys are more likely to buy computer games than any other group, so it makes sense to make computer game ads that appeal to this group.

【句式翻译】例如,进入青春期的男孩子就可能比任何其他人群更愿意购买电 脑游戏,因此,针对这个目标群体制作有吸引力的电脑游戏广告是有意义的。 【句式分析】本句是一个含有 so 引导的结果状语从句的复合句,同时又含有一 个 than 引导的比较状语从句。 【词语点拨】 1)likely adj. 可能的; 常用于句型: sb/sth be likely to do= it is likely that… 可能做…… He’s very likely to send me an email tonight. =It’s very likely that he’ll send me an email tonight. 很可能他今晚会给我发电子邮件。 The company is likely to set up a branch in our city. =It’s likely that the company will set up a branch in our city. 这个公司可能要在我们的城市建立分公司。 2) make sense 有意义;讲得通;make sense of 理解 I can’t follow these instructions -- they don’t make sense. 我不理解这些指示--根本讲不通嘛。 We read the sentence through, but could not make sense of it. 我们我们把句子看了一遍, 但不明白它说些什么。 3) appeal to 吸引;appeal to sb. for sth/appeal to sb. to do sth 呼吁某人干某事;求 助于 Blue and red appeal to me, but I don’t like gray or yellow. 我喜欢蓝色和红色, 而不喜欢灰色或黄色。 Jack sincerely appealed to his friends to support him. 杰克真切地向朋友请求支持。 We can appeal to the website for the information we need. 我们可以在网上查找我们需要的信息。 【语法点拨】本句中的 than any other…,意为“比其他任何一个……”,所谈 论的对象在比较的范围之内;若不在范围之内,则不用 other。如: China is larger than any other country in Asia. 中国比亚洲任何别的国家都大。 China is larger than any country in Africa.
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中国比非洲的任何国家都大。 2. The more exposed young people are to financial issues, and the younger they become aware of them, the more likely they are to become responsible, forward-planning adults who manage their finances confidently and effectively. 【句式翻译】年轻人越接触经济问题,他们就能越早地了解这些问题,他们就 更有可能成为有责任感的、早作打算的成年人,能够有信心地、有效地管理自 己的经济问题。 【句式分析】本句含有“the+比较级,the+比较级”的句式,同时又含有一个 who 引导的限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 adults。 【词语点拨】1) expose vt.揭露;使暴露;be exposed to 暴露于;接触 We must expose this shameful activity to the newspapers. 我们一定要向报社揭露这一无耻行径。 We should allow children to be exposed to new ideas. 我们应当让孩子们接触新思想。 2)manage v.应付,设法对付;管理;能解决;manage to do 设法做成 We need people who are good at managing. 我们需要擅长管理的人。 He managed to send the tourists to the airport in time. 他设法把游客及时送到机场。 Small sailboats can easily turn over in the water if they are not managed carefully. 如果掌控小帆船不够小心,它们在水中就容易翻。 【语法点拨】 “the+比较级,the+比较级” ,表示“越……越……”。如: The more we get together, the happier we’ll be. 我们越是多聚会, 我们越快乐。 The longer she worked at it, the more enthusiastic she became. 她越干越来劲。 3. She found that kids praised for “trying hard” did better on testes and were more likely to take on difficult assignments than those praised for being “smart”. 【句式翻译】她发现因为努力被表扬的孩子比因为聪明被表扬的孩子在考试中 表现得更好,更愿意承担困难的任务。 【句式分析】本句含有一个 than 引导的比较状语从句。 【词语点拨】take on 承担;呈现 He is always ready to take on heavy responsibilities. 他一向乐于挑重担。 The chameleon can take on the colour of its background.
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变色龙可呈现出与其背景相同的颜色。 【语法点拨】当我们要对两个人或物进行比较时,就采用比较级,比较级的构 成: 形容词或副词的比较级+than+比较成分, 意思是: “更……些” 或 “较……” 。 Deeds are better than words when people are in need of help. 当别人需要帮助时,行动胜于语言。 In a word, practice is far more important than book knowledge. 一句话,实践远比书本知识重要。 4. Perhaps more importantly, the better you are at managing the time you devote to your studies, the more time you will have to spend on your outside interests. 【句式翻译】也许更重要的是,你越善于管理你的学习时间,你就会有更多的 时间用在你课外的兴趣上。 【句式分析】本句含有“the+比较级,the+比较级”的句式,同时含有两个非 限制性定语从句,分别修饰先行词 the time 和 the more time。 【词语点拨】1) devote vt.献身;专心于;常接 time/money/energy/life/oneself 作 宾语,构成短语 be devoted to=devote oneself to 献身于,致力于;to 为介词,后 面接名词、代词或者动名词。 Lang Lang devoted a lot of time to playing the piano even when he was a little child. 郎朗小时候就把很多时间都用来弹钢琴。 After her marriage, the singer couldn’t devote herself totally to her music. 结婚之 后这个歌手无法全力倾注于音乐。 2)spend some money/ time on sth=spend some money/time (in) doing sth 表示“花 费(时间、金钱等)做某事” ,其中的介词 in 可以省略。 Every day, most of the students in this school spend three hours on their homework. 这所学校大多数学生每天花三个小时做家庭作业。 It is bad for children to spend a lot of time playing computer games. 用很多时间 玩电脑游戏对孩子是有害的。 【语法点拨】 “the+比较级,the+比较级” ,表示“越……越……”,具体用法参见 第 2 句。 5. He worked there through his school and university years until 1942, a year after he had gained a Master’s degree at university in chemistry. 【句式翻译】他读中学和大学的那段时间都在那里工作,一直到 1942 年,也 就是他在大学里获得化学硕士学位后的那一年。 【句式分析】本句含有一个 after 引导的时间状语从句,从句中运用了过去完成 时态。
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【词语点拨】gain vt.(经过努力)获得,取得 We gain knowledge by practicing again and again. 我们从反复训练中获取知识。 They realized that passing the exam was no longer enough to gain a place at university. 他们认识到仅仅通过这个考试,并不能确保在大学获得一席之位。 【语法点拨】过去完成时的构成:had done,表示“过去某一时间或动作以前 已经发生或完成了的动作。它表示动作发生的时间是“过去的过去” 。表示过去 某一时间可用 by, before, after 等构成的短语,也可用 when, before 等引导的从 句或通过上下文表示。如: His eyes shone brightly when he finally received the gift he had long expected. 当她终于收到她盼望已久的礼物时,她兴奋得两眼闪光。 By the time he was twelve, Edison had begun to make a living by himself. 12 岁时,爱迪生就开始自己谋生。 6. By the end of the century, we will have discovered other places in our solar system suitable for living and we will have discovered ways to go further into space. 【句式翻译】 到本世纪末, 我们将会在太阳系中发现其他适合人类居住的星球, 并将发现进行更远空间探索的方法。 【句式分析】 本句是由并列连词 and 连接的复合句, 句中运用了将来完成时态。 【词语点拨】suitable adj.合适的,适当的;构成短语:be suitable for 适合…… They don’t think this article is suitable for publication. 他们认为这篇文章不宜发表。 John wanted to change over to a more suitable job. 约翰想换一个更加适合的工作。 【语法点拨】将来完成时的构成:will/shall have done,表示“到将来某一时间 为止已经完成的动作” 。 常与 by + 将来时间,before+将来时间和 by the time 引 导的表示将来时间的从句连用。如: He will have finished writing his novel by the end of next year. 到明年年底他就会写完他的小说了。 When we get there,she’ll have gone to work. 我们到那里时她会已上班去了。 7. In today’s world, winners are celebrated and treated as heroes, but if doping and gene-therapy continue to affect the outcomes of major sporting events, the word “hero” will have lost all meaning.
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【句式翻译】在当今世界,人们祝贺获胜者,并把他们看作英雄,但如果服用 兴奋剂和基因治疗继续影响着主要体育项目的成绩的话, “英雄” 就失去了它的 全部意义。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词 but 连接的复合句,第二个分句运用了将来完 成时,同时,包含有一个 if 引导的条件状语从句。 【词语点拨】1) celebrate vt.庆祝 The whole city celebrated the New Year with fireworks. 全城放焰火来庆祝新年。 2) affect vt.影响,感动 I told him firmly that his opinion will not affect my decision. 我坚定的告诉他,他的观点不会影响我的决定。 The audience present was deeply affected by his speech. 在场的听众都被他的演讲深深地打动了。 【语法点拨】将来完成时, 具体用法参见第 6 句。 8. One of the earliest epidemics on record happened about 500-550 AD when the Roman emperor at the time was attempting to rebuild the Roman Empire. 【句式翻译】历史上有记载的最早的传染病之一发生在公元 500-550 年,当时 的罗马皇帝正在试图重建罗马帝国。 【句式分析】本句包含一个 when 引导的限制性定语从句,从句中运用了过去 进行时。 【词语点拨】attempt v.& n.尝试,试图 William attempted to find the solution to the problem. 威廉试图找到问题的解决办法。 He was nearly drowned in the attempt to swim across. 他在试图游到对岸去时差一点被淹死。 【语法点拨】过去进行时的构成:was/were doing,表示“过去某个时间正在进 行的动作” 。常用的时间状语有 this morning, the whole morning, from nine to ten last evening, when, while 等。如: What was he writing all day last Sunday? 上周日他一整天都在写什么? My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 我哥哥骑自行车的时候从车上摔下来受伤了。 9. The last few years have seen environmental disasters on a grand scale, and experts are predicting far worse to come.
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【句式翻译】最近的几年里,人们见证了大规模的环境灾难,专家们预测更为 严重的灾难即将发生。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词 and 连接的复合句,第一个分句运用了现在完 成时。 【词语点拨】on a grand scale 大规模地,大张旗鼓地 We should popularize science on a grand scale. 我们应该大规模普及科学。 【语法点拨】现在完成时的构成:has/have done,常表示“某一动作或状态发 生在过去,对现在有影响” ,也可表示“持续到现在的动作或状态” 。常用的时 间状语:for 或 since 引导的时间状语及 before, until now, up till now, so far, up to the moment, in the last few years 等。如: We have booked a room for today and tomorrow. 我们已经预订了今天和明天的房间。 The house has been empty for ages. 这幢房子已经空了相当长时间了。 (现在仍空着) 10. In the last few decades, scientists have reached consensus and reported that human beings are causing changes in the Earth’s climate -- something previously seen as beyond our control. 【句式翻译】最近几十年,科学家们达成共识并报道说,人类正在引起地球的 气候变化—而这在以前看来是我们不能控制的。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,含有一个 that 引导的宾语从句,主句中运用了现 在完成时。 【词语点拨】1) reach (a) consensus 达成共识,达成一致意见 It is very difficult for them to reach a consensus on this issue. 他们在这个问题上很难取得一致意见。 2) beyond prep. 超过;越过;在…较远的一边 The delay was caused by heavy weather and was beyond our control. 延迟是由恶劣天气造成的,我们无法控制。 The beauty of the scene was beyond compare. 景色之美无与伦比。 Linda always wondered what was beyond the horizon. 琳达总是纳闷着地平线的那一边是什么。 【语法点拨】现在完成时,具体用法参见第 10 句。 11. Treatments for jellyfish stings and snakebites have also been developed and in
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the last five years there have been only three deaths from jellyfish stings and about the same number from snakebites. 【句式翻译】治疗水母刺伤和毒蛇咬伤方法也已经研制成功,在过去的五年里 只有三人死于水母刺伤,这与被蛇咬伤致死的人数大体相同。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词 and 连接的复合句,第一个分句运用了现在完 成时的被动语态。 【词语点拨】develop v.开发,发展,研制(新产品) Over the last few years tourism here has developed considerably. 在过去几年里,这里的旅游业获得了相当大的发展。 The two companies have teamed up to develop a new racing car. 那两个公司已合作研制新型赛车。 【语法点拨】现在完成时的被动语态的结构就是现在完成时态和被动语态的结 构的叠合,即:has/have been done,表示“过去发生的动作对现在有影响或持 续到现在, 并且主语与谓语动词之间为被动关系” 。 常用的时间状语: for 或 since 引导的时间状语及 before, until now, up till now, so far, up to the moment, in the last few years 等。如: The office looks nice. It has just been cleaned. 办公室看起来很干净。它刚被打扫过。 The machine has been repaired for two hours. 这台机器已修了两小时了。 12. Adverts are not only made and paid for by business, but also by individuals, organizations and associations that wish to inform or educate the public. 广告不仅 【句式翻译】广告可由商家付费制作,也可以由想给公众传达某种信息或教育 公众的个人、组织或协会来出资制作。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词 not only…but also 连接的复合句,第一个分句 运用了一般现在时的被动语态。 【词语点拨】inform vt.通知,告知;构成短语:inform sb of sth 通知某人某事 I shall inform you soon of the date of my arrival. 我将把我到达的日期通知你。 I regret to inform you that I am unable to help you. 我遗憾地告诉你我没法帮助你。 【语法点拨】一般现在时的被动语态的构成:is/are done。表示“现在经常性、 习惯性的动作,并且主语与谓语动词之间为被动关系” 。 A lot of food is wasted every year.
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每年浪费掉很多食物。 Millions of tons of waste and poisonous gases are sent into the air with the smoke. 数百万吨的废气和毒气随着烟尘散发到空中。 13. Margaret, married with two small children, has been working for the last seven years as a night cleaner, cleaning offices in a big building. 【句式翻译】玛格丽特,已婚,带着两个孩子,七年来一直在做清洁工,晚上 给一座大楼里的办公室打扫卫生。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,运用了现在完成进行时,包含有两个非谓语短语, married with…在句中作后臵定语,cleaning offices 作伴随状语。 【词语点拨】marry v. (使)结婚;嫁;娶 Because of her beauty, she has managed to marry above her. 由于貌美,她得以嫁给一个地位比她高的人。 I'm sure Jack was sincere when he said he wanted to marry you. 我相信杰克说想娶你是真心的。 They got married to each other against their parents’ wishes. 他俩的结合违背了各自父母的愿望。 【语法点拨】现在完成进行时的构成:has/have been doing。表示“一个动作从 过去某个时间开始,延续到现在,并且还有可能持续下去” 。如: You have been sitting in front of that computer too long. 你在电脑前坐的时间太长了。 No wonder he is so tired. He has been working all day. 难怪他这么累,他工作一天了。 14. Ever since they were first put on the market in the early 1990s, genetically modified (GM 转基因) foods have been increasingly developed and marketed in many countries in the world, mainly on the basis of their promise to end the worldwide food crisis. 【句式翻译】自从二十世纪九十年代早期首次投入市场以来,转基因食物就不 断地在很多国家开发和销售,主要是基于想要结束世界粮食危机。 【句式分析】本句是一个含有 since 引导的时间状语从句的复合句,have been developed and marketed…是现在完成时的被动语态形式。 【词语点拨】basis n. 基础;构成短语:on the basis of 以……为基础 Don’t evaluate a person on the basis of appearance. 不要以相貌取人。 Mr. Smith goes to the gym on a regular basis.
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史密斯先生定期去健身房。 【语法点拨】现在完成时的被动语态,具体用法参见第 11 句。 15. At nine o’clock on Saturday morning, I’ll be sitting in the front row and listening to the great professor Willard talking about the future of my brain. 【句式翻译】星期六上午九点钟,我将会坐在前排,聆听伟大的威拉德教授谈 论大脑的未来发展。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,运用了将来进行时,含有一个复合宾语的结构, talking about…在句中作宾补。 【词语点拨】listen vi. 听(后面常接介词 to) Whatever you said, he simply wouldn’t listen. 你怎么说他也不听. We’re going to listen to a report this afternoon. 今天下午我们要去听报告。 【语法点拨】将来进行时的构成:will be doing,表示“将来某一时间正在进行 的动作, 或表示要在将来某一时间开始, 并继续下去的动作” 。 常用延续性动词, 常用来表示礼貌的询问、请求等。如: The minister will be giving a speech on international affairs. 部长将就国际事务发表演讲。 Please don’t call me between 8:00 and 10:00 tomorrow. I’ll be having my classes then. 明天 8 点到 10 点之间请不要给我打电话,我那时正在上课。 16. The recent case of an American women, Terri Schiavo, whose husband won a legal battle to have her taken off life support machines after she spent 15 years in a coma-like state, has exposed the many sensitive legal and medical issues that surround the care of coma patients. 【句式翻译】最近一位美国妇女 Terri Schiavo 的案例已经暴露出许多关于对昏 迷病人的护理的敏感的司法和医学问题,她的丈夫打赢了一场官司,在她在昏 迷状态下度过 15 年之后,把她与她的生命供应机切断了。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,主语是 The recent case,谓语是 has exposed,关 系代词 whose 在句中引导一个非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 Terri Schiavo; 关系代词 that 在句中引导一个限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 issues,taken off 在句中作宾补。 【词语点拨】1) sensitive adj.敏感的;易受影响的 A baby is sensitive to the slightest changes in its mother ’s voice.
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婴儿对母亲声音的最细小变化都很敏感。 My teeth are really sensitive to hot and cold. 我的牙齿对冷热真地很敏感。 2) surround vt. 包围;环绕, 围绕 You will discover that you are surrounded by happiness. 你会发现,幸福其实就是在你身边。 The video images made the visitors feel they were surrounded with wild life. 这些图像给参观者产生身处野生动物之中的感觉。 【语法点拨】 have sth done 有三种含义: 1)请别人做某事, 相当于 get sth done 2) 遭受一种不幸 3)完成某项工作;在这一结构中,done 做宾补,和宾语 sth 之间 是被动关系。如: We had the computer repaired immediately. 我们立刻请人把电脑修好了。 I had my watch stolen last night. 昨晚我的手表被偷了。 另外,have sb do...让某人去做……,have sb doing 让一直做……;在这两个结 构中,do 和 doing 和宾语之间都是主动关系。如: I would have my friend wait for me at the gate of the park. 我要朋友在公园门口等我。 The two men had their lights burning all night long. 那两个人让灯通宵亮着。 17. The court gave their approval for the life support machines to be turned off and while this ruling left Terri’s parents feeling numb and others claiming that life is sacred, which no one has the right to end, many would say it was the right thing to do for Terri. 【句式翻译】 法院批准把生命供养机关掉, 虽然此项裁决使得 Terri 的父母感到 吃惊,而且使其他人声称生命是神圣的,没有人有权力将其终止,但是许多人 都会说这对 Terri 来说是一件正确的事情。 【句式分析】 本句是复合句,while 引导让步状语从句, that 引导宾语从句, which 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 life,feeling numb 和 claiming 宾补,it 在 句中代替 to do for…作形式主语。 【词语点拨】1)approval n.批准;同意,赞成 The plan had the approval of the school authorities. 计划得到学校当局的认可。
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We expected our plan to meet with approval. 我们希望计划能得到批准。 2)approve v.同意,赞成 Her father will never approve of her marrying such a lazy fellow. 她父亲永远不会赞成她嫁给这样的懒人。 【语法点拨】1)leave sb doing 让/使某人做……,doing 在这个结构中作宾补, 和宾语 sb 是主动关系。如果宾语和宾补是被动关系,用 leave …done。如: Repeated failure had left them feeling very discouraged. 三番五次的失败使他们情绪非常低落。 His reply left us all rather confused. 他的答复我们都搞糊涂了。 2)动词不定式或主语从句作主语时,为了保持句子结构的平衡,常用 it 作形 式主语,而将真正的主语臵于句末。it 没有具体意义。如: It is a pity that he should refuse my invitation. 他竟然拒绝了我的邀请,真是遗憾! Is it difficult to understand the English program. 理解这个英语节目难吗? 18. Edmonds is the first African American ever to work as a full-time speechwriter for a U.S. president; he is also the first African American to serve as director of speechwriting for the White House. 【句式翻译】埃德蒙兹是第一个非洲裔美国人作为全职演讲撰稿人为美国总统 工作。他也是第一位非洲裔美国人作为演讲撰稿人总监为白宫工作。 【句式分析】本句包含有两个由分号分隔开的分句,不定式短语 to work…和 to serve…都作定语,修饰 the first African American。 【词语点拨】serve v. 服务;用作;端上 We found that birch bark could serve as paper. 我们发现桦树皮可以作纸用。 Air hostesses all smile when they serve the passengers. 空姐们为乘客服务时总是满脸笑容。 Please clear your books away so that I can serve dinner. 请把你的书收拾一下以便我端上饭菜。 【语法点拨】 动词不定式可以放在表示次序的词 the first, the last 等后面以及 the only, the very, the right 等词后面作定语, 且与这些词有逻辑上的主谓关系。 结构 为:the first/last /only/very/right/best/youngest ...+n./pron. + to do sth,表示“第一
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个/最后一个/唯一的/恰好的/合适的/最好的/最年轻的……做某事的人/物” 。 如: The last man to leave the sinking ship was the captain. 最后一个离开正在下沉的船的那个人是船长。 New Zealand was the first nation in modern times to allow women to vote. 新西兰成为现代史上第一个允许妇女有选举权的国家。 19. The Olympic spirit -- the spirit of competition which emphasizes taking part rather than winning -- has been violated by the desire to succeed at all costs. 【句式翻译】奥林匹克精神—强调参与而不是取胜的竞技精神—已经被为成功 而不惜一切代价的愿望所亵渎。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,which 引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 spirit,to succeed 修饰 desire,作定语。 【词语点拨】rather than 与其;不愿;而不是。用于连接两个并列成分,连接 两个名词或代词作主语时,谓语动词应与 rather than 前面的名词或代词在人称 和数上保持一致 Tom rather than his friends has been chosen. 是汤姆而不是他的朋友们被选中。 The sweater she bought was beautiful rather than cheap. 与其说她买的这件羊毛衫便宜不如说它漂亮。 I decided to send an e-mail rather than telephone. 我决定发邮件而不是打电话。 【语法点拨】有些名词后常跟不定式作定语,如:time, way, right, reason, effort, chance, movement, ability, desire, tendency 等。如: Thank you for giving me a chance to make a speech. 谢谢你给我发言的机会。 Mr. Green has the ability to bring out the best in others. 格林先生能做到扬人之长。 20. When you set out to do something different, there’s no end in sight, so to find myself in a position where I now have my own name on a contract of the publisher -- to be a published writer -- is unbelievably rewarding. 【句式翻译】当着手去做不同的事情,看不到结果,所以,发现自己的名字写 在出版商的合同上—要成为一个出版作家—是令人难以臵信的回报。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,包含有三个从句,when 引导时间状语从句,so 引导结果状语从句, where 引导限制性定语从句, 修饰先行词 position, to find … 在句中作主语。
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【词语点拨】rewarding adj. 值得的;有报酬的 So far my time with these children has been very rewarding. 到目前为止,我和这些孩子们度过的时光非常有价值。 Government service can be a rewarding and secure career. 政府部门的工作可以很有回报,很有保障。 【语法点拨】动词不定式可以作主语,位于句首。如果动词不定式短语过长, 为了避免句子头重脚轻,可用 it 作形式主语,而将真正的主语动词不定式短 语后臵,具体用法参见第 17 句。如: To obey the law is the duty of everybody. 遵守法律人人有责。 To love and to be loved is the greatest happiness in the world. 爱人和被人爱是这个世界上最大的幸福。 21. To really develop empathy, you’d better volunteer at a nursing home or a hospital, join a club or a team that has a diverse membership, have a“sharing circle” with your family, or spend time caring for pets at an animal shelter. 【句式翻译】要真正开发同理心,你最好在养老院或医院做志愿者,加入一个 有多样化的会员的俱乐部或团队,与你的家人有一个“共享圈” ,或者在动物收 容所照顾宠物。 【句式分析】 本句是复合句, that 引导一个非限制性定语从句, 修饰先行词 a club or a team,volunteer, join, have 和 spend 是并列的谓语动词,To really develop… 在句中作目的状语。 【词语点拨】volunteer v. 志愿 n. 志愿者 Some graduates volunteer to work in the countryside. 一些大学生自愿到农村去。 She now helps in a local school as a volunteer three days a week. 目前她在当地的一家学校做志愿工作,一周去 3 天。 【语法点拨】不定式 to do 可以作目的状语(其否定形式:not to do) ,相当于 in order to do 和 so as to do (so as to do 只能放在句中,不能位于句首)。如: One should get enough exercise to keep healthy. 为了维持身体健康,一个人要有足够的锻炼。 To find a better job, a lot of people choose to go to the big cities. 为了找份更好的工作,很多人愿意到大城市去。 22. Proudly reading my words, I glanced around the room, only to find my classmates bearing big smiles on their faces and tears in their eyes.
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【句式翻译】自豪地阅读我写的内容时,我环顾整个房间,却发现我的同学笑 得眼泪都要流出来了。 【句式分析】 本句是简单句, 包含有三个非谓语短语, reading my words 和 only to find…分别作时间状语和结果状语,bearing…作宾补。 【词语点拨】glance vi 瞥;浏览;后面常跟 at, through, over 等介词 I picked up the phone book and glanced through it. 我拿起电话簿,匆匆扫了一遍。 He glanced at his watch and left the room. 他匆匆看了一下手表,离开了房间。 【语法点拨】动词不定式作结果状语时,通常表示出乎意料的结果,常被 just 或 only 修饰,臵于句末,用逗号和句子分开。如: I went to the classroom, only to find nobody there. 我去了教室,却没有见到一个人。 He rushed to the door, only to discover that it was locked and barred. 他冲到门边, 却发现门已被锁死了。 23. At 12 years old she won a Guinness Record when she became the youngest female to win the women’s world title for platform diving at the World Championships in Australia in 1991. 【句式翻译】1991 年,12 岁的伏明霞就获得了一项吉尼斯纪录,当时她参加 了在澳大利亚举行的跳台跳水世界锦标赛,成为最年轻的女子世界冠军。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,when 在句中引导状语从句,to win the women's world title…作定语,修饰 the youngest female。 【词语点拨】championship n.冠军称号;锦标赛 We are proud for you to win the championship. 我们为你赢得冠军而骄傲。 All the gold medals for the championship fell to the team. 本届锦标赛的所有金牌都被这个队夺得。 【语法点拨】动词不定式作定语,具体用法参见第 18 句。 24. To get rid of alcohol from the body is a very slow process and it is not possible to speed it up with any measures like taking a shower or having a cup of tea or coffee. 【句式翻译】把酒精从体内消除是个缓慢的过程,也不可能通过任何措施如洗 澡或喝杯茶或咖啡来加速其消除的过程。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词 and 连接的复合句,To get rid of alcohol 和 to
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speed it up 在句中都作主语。 【词语点拨】1)get rid of 摆脱;除去 How to get rid of air pollution is still a big problem. 如何清除空气污染仍然是个大问题。 2)measure n. 尺寸;措施;手段 vt. & vi. 测量;有……长(宽、高等) A clock measures time. 钟是用来计量时间的。 This room measures ten metres across. 这个房间宽十米。 Mr. Smith asked the tailor to make some new clothes to his own measure. 史密斯先生要求裁缝照他的尺寸做新衣服。 We must take measures to prevent the water from being polluted. 我们必须采取措施防止水被污染。 【语法点拨】动词不定式作主语:具体用法参见第 20 句。 25. Having identified the target group, researchers find out as much as possible about those in the target group, such as their likes and dislikes, and how the product would fit into their lives. 【句式翻译】明确了广告的目标群体后,研究人员就会尽量获取这个群体的有 关信息,例如他们的好恶,以及如何使产品适应他们的生活。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,how 在句中引导定语从句,Having identified the target group 是现在分词的完成形式作状语。 【词语点拨】identify vt. 识别,认出 Could you identify your bike among a hundred others. 你能从 100 自行车中认出你的那一辆吗? The bad weather is identified as the possible cause of the accident. 坏天气被认为可能导致了这个事故。 【语法点拨】having done 可以作状语,此时,它代表的动作发生在句子谓语动 作之前,它的逻辑主语和句子的主语一致。如: Not having tried his best, he failed in the exam. 由于没有尽最大努力,他这次考试没能通过。 Having known the situation well, they could deal with the problem efficiently. 由于对形势的深刻了解,他们有效地处理了问题。 26. Having heard wolves howling in the forest, Lala accelerated her walk up the path to the caves fearing that there might be wild beasts lying in wait for her.
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【句式翻译】拉拉沿着回洞穴的路走着,听到狼群在森林里嚎叫,她的步伐加 快了,担心会有野兽在等者伏击她。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that 引导宾语从句,Having heard 和 fearing…在 句中作状语。 【词语点拨】1)accelerate v. 加快,加速 In order to catch up with and surpass the advanced world levels we’ll have to accelerate our speed. 要赶超世界先进水平,我们还得快马加鞭。 Sunshine, fresh air, and rest often accelerate a person's recovery from sickness. 阳光 、 新鲜空气和休息常会促使病人早日康复。 2)lie vi.平躺;位于(lay, lain) ;撒谎(lied, lied) ;n.撒谎 The factory lies to the west of town. 工厂在小镇的西边。 David felt tired, so he went and lay down for a rest. 戴维感到疲劳,所以去躺下休息了。 His books lay open on the desk when I went in. 我进去时,发现他的书平摊在书桌上。 Richard wasn’t telling the truth. He was lying. 理查德没讲实话,他在撒谎。 The only way to meet the manager is to lie in wait for him as he leaves one of his meetings. 找到这个经理的唯一办法是,等着他从会议结束出来。 【语法点拨】1)having done 作状语:具体用法参见第 25 句。 2)现在分词作状语: ①现在分词 doing 所代表的动作或状态与谓语动词是同时或几乎是同时发生 的,可以作时间、原因、方式、条件、结果、目的、让步、伴随等状语。分词 的逻辑主语就是句子的主语。如: Rushing out of the house, he was knocked down by a car. 他一冲出屋子就被一辆车撞倒了。 My cousin went to Shenzhen, hoping to find a job there. 我表兄去深圳了,希望在那儿找份工作。 The child fell,striking his head against the door. 小孩摔了一跤,头在门上碰了一下。 In the last few years, the country has had a hard time, suffering several killer quakes.
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过去几年里,这个国家经历了艰难的时期,遭受了几次致命的地震。 Being spring, the flowers are in full bloom. 因为是春天,所以花都盛开着。 ②有些分词作状语,没有逻辑上的主语,已成为习惯用法:considering, judging from, talking of, allowing for(考虑到), generally/frankly/honestly/roughly/strictly speaking, assuming that(假设)等。如: Talking of this film, it’s wonderful. 说到这部电影,好极了。 Assuming that it is true, what should we do now? 假定那是真的, 我们现在该怎麽办? Judging by the direction of the wind, it won’t rain today. 根据风向测度, 今天不会下雨。 Social psychology, strictly speaking, deals with the behavior of people in groups. 严格地说, 社会心理学研究人们的群体行为。 27. Having scared the little beings, I began struggling to get loose and managed to break the strings that tied my left arm and slightly moved the strings that tied down my hair. 【句式翻译】吓跑了小人,我开始挣扎以使绳子松开,终于挣断了绑着左臂的 绳子,并轻轻地解开绑着头发的绳子。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,两个 that 在从句中都引导定语从句,修饰先行词 the strings,Having scared…在句中作状语,to break…作 manage 的宾语。 【词语点拨】struggle vi. 搏斗; 挣扎;争取 n.打斗;挣扎;斗争 The climbers struggled against the strong wind and finally reached the top of the mountain. 登山者在强风中艰难的行走,最终到达山顶。 They struggled to get out of the burning building. 他们艰难地逃离了着火的大楼。 With a struggle, I managed to control my feelings. 经过一番斗争,我把情绪控制住了。 【语法点拨】1)having done 作状语,具体用法参见第 25 句。 2)不定式 to do 常跟在下列动词后作宾语:ask, agree, beg, begin, start, wish, choose, decide, expect, fail, hope, manage, seek, offer, plan, prepare, pretend, promise, refuse, want, would/should like 等。如: His parents choose to live in the countryside.
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他的父母决意在乡下居住。 We agreed to meet here, but so far she hasn’t turned up yet. 我们约定在这里见面,但是到现在她还没露面。 Would you like to go and have a picnic with us tomorrow? 明天和我们一起去野餐好吗? 28. Having killed up to 50 million people in 18 months, with a tendency to strike the young and fit rather than the old, the Spanish Flu is believed to have been the most acute epidemic in history. 【句式翻译】西班牙流感在十八个月内夺去了五千万人的生命,该病似乎专门 袭击年轻力壮的人,而不是老迈长者,被认为是历史上最严重的一次传染病。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,包含有一个句式: be believed to do/be 被认为 做……/是……, Having killed…在句中作状语, to strike…作定语, 修饰 tendency。 【词语点拨】 strike vt. 攻 (袭) 击; 打, 打动; (钟)敲响报(时); 使突然想起 n. 打击;罢工 Snowstorms often strike that area in winter. 冬天暴风雪常常袭击那个地区。 Strike while the iron is hot. 趁热打铁。 The clock struck twelve. 钟敲十二点。 I was struck by the beauty of the West Lake. 我被西湖的美景给迷住了。 It suddenly struck me that I ought to make a new plan. 我突然想到, 我应该制订一个新的方案。 The bus drivers have been on strike for several days. 公共汽车司机罢工好几天了。 【语法点拨】1)(sth/sb)be believed to do/be 被认为做……/是……= It is/ was believed that…,在这个句式中,不定式作主语补足语,可以代替 believe 用于 这个句式的动词还有:say, suppose, think, know, report 等。如: Do you know why Friday is believed to be an unlucky day? 你知道为什么星期五被认为是不吉利的日子吗? The old castle was believed to have ghosts living in it for many years. 多年来人们一直相信这座古堡里面居住着幽灵。 The great pyramid is believed to have been built over a 20-year period.
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人们认为建造这座大金字塔花去了 20 多年的时间。 Yao Ming is thought to be one of the best basketball players in the world. 姚明被认为是世界上最棒的篮球运动员之一。 2)having done 作状语,具体用法参见第 25 句。 3)to do 作定语,具体用法参见第 19 句。 29. I don’t know what your expectations are of London, but knowing that you’ve never travelled outside of Asia, I thought I’d tell you a bit about what you can expect to find. 【句式翻译】我不知道您对伦敦有什么期望,但我知道您从未到过亚洲以外的 地方旅行,所以,我想告诉你一点关于你期望找到的东西。 【句式分析】本句是有并列连词 but 连接的复合句,同时包含有四个从句,what your expectations are…,that you’ve never travelled…,I’d tell you 和 what you can…都是宾语从句;knowing…和 to find…在句中分别作主语和宾语。 【词语点拨】expect v.期望;预期 You can’t expect to succeed if you attempt tasks above your ability. 如果你要做能力达不到的事,就别指望成功。 The beauties of the West Lake in spring were beyond his expectation. 西湖的春景要比他所预想的更加美丽。 【语法点拨】1)doing 可以作主语: ①很多情况下,相当于 to do,有时也可用 it 作形式主语。常用 doing 作主语的 句型: It is no good/use doing…做……没用 It is useless doing…做……没用 It is worthwhile doing…做……是值得的 It is useless trying to persuade Miss Li to accept our advice. 劝说李小姐接受我们的建议是没有用的。 ②如果 doing 有自己的逻辑主语, doing 前可以用形容词性的物主代词或名词所 有格来修饰。如: Tom’s/his coming late made the manager very angry. 汤姆/他来晚了让经理很生气。 ③to do 和 doing 做主语的区别: to do 常表示具体的某一动作; doing 表示泛指或 一般的抽象的概念时,多用动名词。如: Bicycling is a good exercise; moreover, it doesn’t pollute the air. 骑自行车是很好的运动; 而且还不污染环境。
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2)不定式 to do 作宾语:具体用法参见第 27 句。 30. The best way to get rid of a negative serf-image is to realize that your image is far from objective, and to actively convince yourself of your positive qualities. 【句式翻译】摆脱负面的自我形象的最好办法是意识到你的形象远远不是客观 的,同时主动地使你相信自己的积极的品质。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that your image is…是宾语从句,to get rid of…在 句中作定语,to realize… 和 to actively convince…是并列成分,作表语。 【词语点拨】far from 远离;远非,远远不是 The work he did yesterday is far from perfect. 他昨天做的的工作远非十全十美。 Far from relieving my cough, the medicine made it worse. 这药非但不镇咳,反而使我咳嗽得更厉害。 2)convince vt. 使信服;常用于以下结构: ①convince sb of sth 使某人相信某事。如: You need to convince your boss of your ability to do the job. 你需要让你的老板相信你有做这份工作的能力。 ②convince sb to do 说服某人做某事 It took me a long time to convince him to go with me. 我用了很长时间才说服他和我一起去。 ③convince sb+that 从句 使某人相信 I managed to convince my friend that I didn’t mean to hurt him. 我设法使朋友相信我不想伤害他。 【语法点拨】1)不定式 to do 作定语:具体用法参见第 19 句。 2)不定式 to do 作表语: ① 说明主语的具体内容。如: My only wish is to do something for the public. 我唯一的愿望是为公众做些事。 ② 表示不可避免将要发生的事。如: The discovery is to have a great effect on our life. 这个发现将对我们的生活产生重大影响。 ③不定式作表语, 且主语部分有 all, what, only 或是最高级形容词修饰的名词和 实义动词 do 时,作表语的不定式可省去 to。如: All you need to do now is have a good rest. 现在你所需要的是好好休息。
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31. In setting out its plans for a five-term year, Nottingham City Council is seeking to reduce the summer holiday down to four and a half weeks, with a more balanced five terms of roughly eight weeks, each followed by a two-week break. 【句式翻译】诺丁汉城市委员会设立了一个计划,将一学年划分为五学期,并 将暑假的时间减少为四周半,这样一来,五个学期均有八周的时间,每个学期 之后都有两周的休息时间。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,Nottingham City Council 作主语,is seeking 作谓 语,each followed by a two-week break 是独立主格结构,setting out…和 to reduce…在句中宾语。 【词语点拨】1) seek vt. & vi.寻找;探索;寻求;固定短语:seek for 寻找;寻 求;seek after 寻求 Richard sought to speak to her. 理查德寻找机会与她说话。 We sought an answer to the question, but couldn’t find one. 我们寻求这个问题的答案,可是没能找到。 Most men seek for wealth; all men seek for happiness. 大多数人都追求财富; 但所有的人都希望获得幸福。 One mustn’t only seek after comfort, personal fame and gains. 一个人不应当只贪图安逸,追名逐利。 2)balance vt.平衡;权衡 balanced adj.平衡的,均衡的 We have to balance the good points against the bad and then make a decision. 我们必须权衡优劣,然后做出决定。 You must learn to keep your balance while skating. 在溜冰时你得学会保持平衡。 A balanced diet and regular exercise are both important for our health. 均衡的饮食和有规律的锻炼对我们的健康很重要。 【语法点拨】1)不定式 to do 作宾语:具体用法参见第 27 句。 2)doing 作宾语: ①介词后常接 doing 作宾语,如: She left the room without saying a word. 她没说什么就离开了房间。 ②有些动词或短语后只能跟动名词作宾语,这类词有: finish, imagine, fancy, insist on, enjoy, escape, consider, can’t help(禁不住), admit, avoid, mind, miss, practise, keep, resist, appreciate, put off=delay, suggest, advise, allow, permit, forbid, ban, prohibit, forgive, excuse, risk, tolerate, recommend, stand, feel like,
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look forward to, prefer…to…等。如: He admitted taking the watch. 他承认拿了手表。 Much as she likes him, she would never consider marrying him. 尽管她很喜欢他, 但她并不打算嫁给他。 ③begin,start,like,prefer, hate 后既可接 to do 也可接 doing 作宾语,意思差别 不大,如: He likes playing/to play basketball. 他喜欢打篮球。 ④ stop, try, go on, remember, forget, mean, regret 后面用 doing 或 to do 不定式, 意思不一样。 stop doing 停止做 stop to do 停下来开始做 try doing 试一试做 try to do 尽力做,企图做 go on doing 继续做(同一件事) go on to do 继续做(不同的事) remember doing 记着做了 remember to do 记着要做 forget doing 忘记做了 forget to do 忘记要做 mean doing 意味着 mean to do 打算做 regret doing 后悔做了 regret to do 遗憾要做 比较: I forgot teaching the students the words. 我忘记了曾教过学生们这些词。 (已经教过) I forgot to teach the students the words. 我忘了教学生们这些词。 (未教) 32. The computer burst into life and second later, the screen turned into colors, shifting and changing and then two big white words appeared in the center of the screen: “SPACE TRANSPORTER.” 【句式翻译】电脑突然活跃起来,几秒钟后屏幕变成彩色,图像开始不断变换, 然后屏幕中间出现两个白色大字: “空间运输车” 。 【句式分析】本句是并列连词 and 连接的复合句,shifting and changing 在句中 作伴随状语。 【词语点拨】burst into…匆匆进入(某处) ;突然开始(某事) ;突然进入(某 种状态) The door was suddenly pushed open and he burst into the house. 门忽然推开,他闯进了屋来。
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Suddenly the leading car in the race burst into sight. 突然,比赛中的那辆领先的车出现了。 The plane burst into flames, killing two of the airmen on board. 飞机突然起火, 机上的两名飞行员丧生。 【语法点拨】现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 33. People today prefer living together to putting their signatures on a marriage certificate because they refuse to accept responsibility for the relationship. 【句式翻译】现在的人宁可同居,却不愿在结婚证上签字,因为他们拒绝为这 种关系负责。 【句式分析】 本句是复合句, because 在句中引导原因状语从句, living together, putting their signatures 和 to accept 都作宾语。 【词语点拨】prefer vt.更喜欢;宁愿 Some people like to lie on the beach, but I prefer going/to go sightseeing. 有些人喜欢在海滩上躺着, 但我喜欢去游览. 表示“宁愿……而不愿……” , “喜欢……而不喜欢……” ,其基本句型是: ① prefer…to…,主要用于比较两个名词或动名词 I prefer the seaside to the mountains. 我喜欢海边,不喜欢山区。 I prefer questioning my pupils to lecturing them. 我喜欢少讲课,多提问我的学生。 ② prefer…rather than…, 主要用于比较两个不定式 (后面的不定式通常省略 to, 但前面的不定式必须带 to) He prefers to read rather than watch television. 他喜欢读书而不喜欢看电视。 【语法点拨】1)不定式 to do 作宾语,具体用法参见第 27 句。 2)doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 34. In addition to encouraging reading as a pursuit to be enjoyed by all, the program allows strangers to communicate by discussing the book on the bus, as well as promoting reading as an experience to be shared in families and schools. 【句式翻译】除了鼓励把阅读当作所有的人的一种追求外,这个项目还允许陌 生人在汽车上通过讨论这本书来交流,同时宣传把阅读当作家庭和学校共享的 一次体验。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,the program 作主语,allows 作谓语,strangers 作 宾语,to communicate…作宾补,encouraging …和 discussing…都作介词宾语。
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【词语点拨】1)in addition to 除……之外,后接名词或动名词

in addition 此

外;还有 In addition to his salary, he has a bonus of 500 yuan per month. 除工资外,他每月还有五百元钱奖金。 We need money and time; in addition, we need opportunity. 我们需要金钱和时间,此外我还需要机遇。 2)as well as 既……又;……和……。as well as 连接名词或代词作主语时,谓 语动词应与前面的名词或代词在人称和数上保持一致。如: The child is lively as well as healthy. 这孩子既健康又活泼。 We are repairing the roof as well as painting the walls. 我们在粉刷墙壁同时也在修理屋顶。 The teacher as well as several students is doing experiments in the lab. 老师和几个学生正在实验室做实验。 【语法点拨】1)doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 2) 不定式 to do 做宾补的用法: ①常跟动词不定式作宾语补足语的动词有 advise, cause, expect, force, get, order, permit, tell, want, warn, wish, prefer, allow 等。如: The mother permits her son to play computer games twice a week. 这个母亲允许儿子一周玩两次电脑游戏。 My teacher told me not to make the same mistake again. 老师告诉我不要再犯同样的错误。 ②感官动词 feel,listen to,hear,see,look at, watch,notice,observe 后和使役 动词 let,make,have 后,跟动词不定式作宾语补足语时,要省略不定式符号 to。如: I didn’t observe the man open the door and go out. 我没看到那个人打开门出去了。 I saw Lucy hurry to the station just now. 刚才我看见露西匆忙去车站了。 He told us a joke, which made us laugh immediately. 他给我们讲了一个笑话,让我们立刻笑了。 ③在被动语态中,动词不定式在感官动词后作主语补足语时,不定式符号 to 不 省略。如: The workers are made to work far into the night.
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工人们被迫干活到深夜。 35. Noticing that the driver was struggling to see through the snow covering the windshield, she found herself wondering why there couldn’t be a built-in device for cleaning the window. 【句式翻译】注意到司机要很费力的透过覆盖在挡风玻璃上的雪向外看,她不 禁想为什么不能有一个内臵的设备来清除雪呢。 【句式分析】 本句是复合句, that 和 why 在句中引导宾语从句, Noticing , covering 和 wondering 分别作状语、定语和宾补。 【词语点拨】notice ①vt.注意到;看到。常用于 notice sb do sth; notice sb doing sth 和 notice sth done 结构中。 I didn’t notice you wearing a new hat. =I didn’t notice you were wearing a new hat. 我没有注意到你戴了一顶新帽子。 We noticed Jack leave the house an hour ago. 我们注意到杰克一小时前离开了这所房子。 No one but Miss Zhou noticed the flowers on the table changed. 除周小姐外,没有人注意到桌子上的花被换过。 ②n.注意;通知 The notice was set above the door, and I didn’t see it. 通知贴在门的上方,我没看见。 He is too proud to take notice of others. 他很骄傲,不理睬别人。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词 doing 作定语:在逻辑上与所修饰的名词之间为主谓 关系,也可改成定语从句。单个分词作定语一般放在被修饰词之前,分词短语 作定语一般放在被修饰词之后。如: The glow of the setting sun is splendid; it is a pity that dusk is fast approaching. 夕阳无限好,只是近黄昏。 He is a businessman growing rich in recent years. 他是一位最近几年才发起来的商人。 2)分词作宾补: 分词一般只在两类动词后作宾补,感官动词(feel,listen to,hear,see,look at, watch,notice,observe) 和使役动词(have, make)。现在分词作宾补表示正在进 行的主动意义,过去分词则表示已经完成的被动意义。如: Through the window Jane saw children playing in the yard. 透过窗户简看见孩子们在院子里玩。
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Maria has had her wallet stolen on her way to school. 上学路上,玛利亚的钱包被偷了。 36. To get ahead in the world and lead a happy successful life means getting on with other people and being able to understand and react to situations in the best way possible. 【句式翻译】 在这个世界中生存并快乐的生活意味着能够与其他人很好的相处, 能够理解形势并以最好的方式作出反应。 【句式分析】 本句是简单句, 句子的主语是 To get ahead…, means 作谓语, getting on with…和 being able to…是并列的宾语。 【词语点拨】react v. 反应,做出反应 When the sun comes out, the flowers react by opening. 当太阳出来的时候,花以张开的形式作出反应。 Do children react to kind treatment by becoming more self-confident? 对孩子们和善是否会使他们更有信心? 【语法点拨】doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 37. We even have different word for some foods, meat in particular, depending on whether it is still out in the fields or at home ready to be cooked, which Shows the fact that the Saxon peasants were doing the farming, while the upper-class Normans were doing most of the eating. 【句式翻译】我们甚至对某些食物有不同的单词,特别是肉类,取决于它是长 在田野里,还是在家里准备被烹饪,这表明一个事实,即萨克森农民在农田干 活,而上层阶级的诺曼人在大吃大喝。 【句式分析】本句是复合句, whether 引导宾语从句,which 引导非限制性定语 从句,while 引导并列句,表对比,depending on…作状语。 【词语点拨】1)in particular 尤其,特别 His statement refers to people in general, not to anyone in particular. 他的发言是泛指一般情况,不是针对某一个人的。 2)depend on 依赖,依靠 All living things depend on the sun for their growth. 万物靠太阳生长。 The plan can have different results depending on the weather. 根据天气的不同这项计划会有不同的结果。 【语法点拨】doing 作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 38. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of
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Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is introduced, the printers start working overtime. 【句式翻译】由于因特网的使用,计算所使用的纸张的数量是很难计算的,然 而几乎任何在办公室工作的人能告诉你,当引进电子邮件后,打印机就开始超 时工作。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,主句是 It 作形式主语的句式,to measue…作真正 的主语,although 引导让步状语从句,从句中又包含 who 和 that 引导的定语从 句和宾语从句,working overtime 作宾语。 【词语点拨】measure n. 尺寸;措施;手段 vt. & vi. 测量;有……长(宽、高 等) :具体用法参见第 24 句 【语法点拨】1)动词不定式 to do 作主语,具体用法参见第 17 句。 2)doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 39. In the last three years, Indonesia has had a rough time, suffering several killer quakes and it is still recovering from the Asian tsunami caused by an offshore earthquake on December 26th, 2004. 【句式翻译】在过去的三年里,印尼饱受自然灾害之苦,它遭受了几次致命的 大地震, 至今仍然处于 2004 年 12 月 26 日发生的亚洲海啸所造成的创伤的恢复 期中,那次海啸是由一次离岸地震所引起的。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词 and 连接的复合句,suffering…作状语,caused by…作后臵定语。 【词语点拨】1)rough adj.艰难的;粗糙的 The book was printed on rough yellow paper. 这本书用粗糙的黄纸印刷。 They had a rough time,sailing on the Pacific Ocean. 他们航行在太平洋上,处境艰难。 2) recover v. 恢复 What magic drug have you taken to recover so quickly? 你吃什么灵丹妙药,好得这样快? It’s going to be some time before I recover my full strength. 还要一些时间我才能完全恢复体力。 【语法点拨】doing 作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 40. The children played in the courtyards and because of the hutongs, courtyards were joined together for miles around creating a network of people working, playing and living together—a real community.
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【句式翻译】孩子们在院子里一起玩耍,方圆好几里的四合院被连接起来,构 成了人们一起工作、一起娱乐、一起起居的网络和一个真正的社区。 【句式分析】本句是由并列连词 and 连接的复合句,creating…作状语。 【词语点拨】join v. 连接;参加 You should never join an electric wire to a water pipe. 你千万不可把电线连接在水管上。 All the family join me in wishing you a happy future. 所有的家人同我一道祝你未来幸福。 【语法点拨】doing 作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 41. At that time, there were restrictions on the movement of Europeans and so, in order to travel unnoticed, he developed his fluency in Chinese and dressed as a Chinese man, even shaving his head in the Chinese style. 【句式翻译】那时候,欧洲人在中国的活动受到种种限制,因此为了在旅行时 不引起别人注意,他努力使自己的汉语讲得很流利,并且穿着中国人的服装, 甚至像中国人一样削发(留辫) 。 【句式分析】 本句是复合句,so 引导结果状语从句, unnoticed 和 shaving 作状语。 【词语点拨】1)restriction n. 限制 The park is open to the public without restriction. 这个公园对公众开放,没有任何限制。 There is no restriction on the number of people. 人数不限。 2) dress v. 打扮;穿衣 n. 衣服;礼服;dress 后常接 sb/oneself,不接衣服作宾 语;构成短语:be dressed in…穿着…… Father dressed up as a clown to make children laugh. 为了逗孩子们笑,爸爸装扮成小丑。 She hurriedly dressed her son and drove him to school. 她匆忙地给儿子穿上衣服,开车送他到学校。 I feel awkward as everyone except me is in evening dress. 我感到很尴尬,因为除了我,谁都穿了夜礼服。 Angels are usually shown in pictures dressed in white. 图画中的天使通常身穿白衣。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 2)过去分词作状语: ①过去分词作状语时,常表示被动和完成,此时分词的逻辑主语就是句子的主
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语。表示时间、条件、原因、让步时可转换为相应的状语从句;表示方式、结 果和伴随时可转化为并列分句。如: My father sat quietly on the couch, lost in thought(=and he was lost in thought). 我父亲静静地坐在沙发上,沉浸在思索之中。 Looked (=If it is looked) at a distance, the painting seems much more beautiful. 隔着一段距离看,这幅画似乎要漂亮得多。 ②有些分词作状语,没有逻辑上的主语,已成为习惯用法:given(考虑到,如 果), provided that(如果),compared with/to 等。 Our greenhouse is nothing compared with yours. 我们这个温室比起你们那个简直是小巫见大巫。 I will agree to go provided / providing ( that ) my expenses are paid. 假如为我负担费用,我就同意去。 42. Brave young men took the opportunity of going on botanical expeditions, often facing many dangers including disease, near-starvation, severe environments and conflicts with the local people. 【句式翻译】勇敢的年轻人借机进行植物探索活动,他们常常面临许多危险, 包括疾病、饥饿、严酷的环境以及同当地居民的冲突。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,facing many dangers…在句中作状语。 【词语点拨】including prep.包含 include v.包含 There are ten people in this office including me. 这个办公室连我共有 10 人。 This book includes some information you need. 这本书包括你需要的一些信息。 【语法点拨】现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 43. A consumer can complain to the organization, giving reasons for their complaint, and if the complaint is correct, the organization can make the company stop using the offending advertisement. 【句式翻译】消费者可以向这个机构投诉,提出投诉的理由,如果投诉是正确 的,该机构可以责令该公司停止使用这种令人不愉快的广告。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,if 引导条件状语从句,giving reasons…作状语, using…作宾语。 【词语点拨】complaint n.抱怨;投诉 complain 是其动词形式 The worker accepted his dismissal without any complaint. 那个工人毫无怨言地接受解雇。
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She made a complaint about the noise. 她就噪音问题提出了投诉。 She wrote a letter to her local newspaper to complain about the new road. 她给当地的报纸写了一封信,抱怨新修的马路。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 2)doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 44. In no time, the Del Monte Gold took the market by storm, rapidly becoming the world’s best-selling pineapple variety, and delivering natural levels of sweetness in the mouth, up until then only found in tinned pineapple. 【句式翻译】 德尔蒙金菠萝立刻占有了市场, 很快成为世界上销售最好的菠萝, 吃到嘴里有一种天然的甜味,在那之前,只有罐装菠萝才有这种味儿。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,becoming 和 delivering 在句中作状语,tinned 作定 语。 【词语点拨】1)in no time 立刻,马上 Clothing seems to wear out in no time nowadays. 现在的衣服好像很快就穿破了。 2)variety n.种类;多样性 The hotel offers its guests a wide variety of amusements. 这个旅馆为住客提供了各种各样的娱乐活动。 My last job lacked variety; I was doing the same things all the time. 我上次的一份工作缺乏多样化, 我老是在做同样的事情。 3)deliver v. 递送;发表(演说等) The newspaper is delivered to my school every Tuesday. 每周二报纸被送到我的学校。 Mr. Smith will deliver a speech on English learning this Friday. 本周五史密斯先生要做一个关于英语学习的演讲。 4)take…by storm 强攻;使大为轰动 The news will take the public by storm. 这个消息将会令公众大吃一惊的。 The group of young musicians took Europe by storm. 一 群年轻的音乐家使整个欧洲为之倾倒。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 2)过去分词 done 作定语:过去分词作定语表示被动和完成意义,相当于一个 被动语态的定语从句。单个分词作定语一般放在被修饰词之前,分词短语作定
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语一般放在被修饰词之后。如: The injured workers are now being taken good care of in the hospital。 受伤的工人现正在医院受到良好的照料。 They are cleaning the fallen leaves in the yard. 他们正在打扫院子里的落叶。 The scientists invited (=who were invited) to the meeting are from developing countries. 被邀请参加会议的科学家来自发展中国家。 45. Shay didn’t make it to another summer and died that winter, having never forgotten being the hero and making his father so happy and coming home and seeing his mother tearfully hug her little hero of the day! 【句式翻译】Shay 在那一年的冬天死了,没有活到第二年的夏天,他永远也 忘不掉自己当英雄以及让自己的爸爸如此高兴,忘不掉跑回家看到含泪的妈妈 抱住这个小英雄的场景。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,didn’t make it 和 died 是并列的谓语动词,having never forgotten 作状语, being the hero, making his father…,coming home, 和 seeing...是并列的宾语。 【词语点拨】1)make it (to)及时到达;成功;约定时间 It's hard to make it to the top in the show business. 想在演艺圈出人头地,实非易事。 I can't make it to dinner tonight; but, can I take a rain check? 今天晚上我不能去吃晚饭, 但是我们改天再吃好吗? Make it anytime that suits you ; I’m always free. 我反正有空,就你的时间吧。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词的完成形式作状语,具体用法参见第 25 句。 2)doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 46. In the fall of 1985, I was a bright-eyed girl heading off to Howard University, aiming at a legal career and dreaming of sitting on a Super Court bench Somewhere. 【句式翻译】1985 年的秋天,我是一个有着明亮眼睛的女孩,要去哈佛大学学 习,目的是从事法律工作并梦想着坐在某处最高法院的法官席上。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,heading off…, aiming at…和 dreaming of…是并列 的定语,sitting on …作介词 of 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1)head v.朝……行进;前进(后面常接介词 for 或 to/towards 等) Where are you heading for?
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你要到哪儿去? Our ship made head against the wind and waves. 我们的船顶着风浪前进。 2)aim v. 目的在于;瞄准;针对 n.目的;目标 Businesses will have to aim at long-term growth. 企业必须以长期增长为目标。 The new measures are aimed at protecting the environment. 新措施旨在保护环境。 I aim to be a policeman when I leave school. 我打算中学毕业以后当警察。 The aim of the festival is to increase awareness of Hindu culture and traditions. 该节庆日的目的在于增强人们对印度文化和传统的认识。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作定语, 具体用法参见第 35 句。 2)doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 47. Some modern art is abstract; that is, the painter doesn’t attempt to paint objects as we see them with our eyes, but instead concentrates on certain qualities of the object, using color, line and shape to represent them. 【句式翻译】有些现代艺术是抽象的,也就是说,画家并不打算把我们眼睛看 到的东西如实地画出来,而是集中展现物体的某些品质特征,用色彩、线条和 形状把它们呈现出来。 【句式分析】 本句是复合句, doesn’t attempt to 和 concentrates on 是并列谓语,as 在句中引导状语从句,using color…作状语。 【词语点拨】concentrate vi. 专心于;集中 You should concentrate on the road when you’re driving. 开车时注意力应集中在路上。 When working, one should concentrate and not allow oneself to be distracted. 工作时要集中精力,不要分心。 【语法点拨】现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 48. Based on my experience, jogging is the most overvalued form of exercise around, and judging from the number of the people who left our neighborhood jogging army, I’m not alone in my opinion. 【句式翻译】根据我的经验,慢跑是最被人高估的运动形式,从退出我们的慢 跑大军的人数判断,不只是我有这种观点。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,who 引导限制性定语从句,修饰 the people, Based
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on my experience 和 judging from 作状语,jogging 作主语。 【词语点拨】1)base v. 基于;把……建立在 n. 基础;基地 We must base ourselves on the interests of the people. 我们一定要从人民的利益出发。 Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. 理论的基础是实践,反过来理论又为实践服务。 Knowledge is the important base of teacher's specialization. 知识是教师专业化的重要基础和前提条件。 Shanghai is the most important industrial base of China. 上海是中国最重要的工业基地。 2)alone adj.单独的,独自的 I want to have a talk with him alone. 我要和他单独谈一谈。 He doesn’t feel lonely when he is left alone. 在只剩下他一个的时候,他并不感到孤独。 3)judging from/by 从……判断 Judging from his accent, he must be from Hunan. 从他的口音判断, 他一定是湖南人. Judging by the sound of his voice, the man couldn't be very young. 听声音, 那人已不太年轻。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 2)过去分词作状语,具体用法参见第 41 句。 3)doing 作主语,具体用法参见第 29 句。 49. She retired from diving after Atlanta and went to study economics at university. While there she decided to make a comeback and went on to compete at the Sydney Olympic Games, where she won her fourth Olympic gold, again making Olympic history. 【句式翻译】在亚特兰大之后,伏明霞退役,到大学里学习经济。读书期间, 她决定复出参加悉尼奥运会,并且获得了自己的第四枚奥运金牌,再次改写了 奥运会历史。 【句式分析】While 在句中引导省略的时间状语从句,where 引导非限制定语从 句,修饰 the Sydney Olympic Games,to make 和 to compete 作宾语,making 作 结果状语。 【词语点拨】compete v.竞争;参加比赛
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He at last got a chance to compete in the Olympics. 他终于获得了参加奥运会比赛的机会。 These products are of high quality and able to compete internationally. 这些产品品质很好,在国际市场上有竞争能力。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 2)不定式 to do 作宾语,具体用法参见第 27 句。 50. With more than three children, for example, wives took on more of the extra work, clocking about 28 hours a week compared with husbands’ 10 hours. 【句式翻译】比如说,如果孩子数量超过三个,妻子们每周做家务的时间会增 加到 28 个小时,而丈夫仅为 10 个小时。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,clocking 和 compared with 作状语。 【词语点拨】take on 承担;呈现;具体用法参见第 3 句。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 2) 过去分词作状语,具体用法参见第 41 句。 51. The study, published in 2009, found that when writing with a pen and paper, participants wrote longer essays and more complete sentences and had a faster word production rate. 【句式翻译】这项研究发表于 2009 年,它发现用笔和纸来写,参与者写的文 章更长,写的句子更完整,写单词的速度更快。 【句式分析】本句复合句,that 引导宾语从句,从句中又有一个 when 引导的 状语从句,published 在句中作后臵定语,writing 作状语。 【词语点拨】1) participant n. 参加者 participate vi.参与 He is an active participant in the civil rights movement. 他是人权运动的积极参加者。 Terry can’t participate in the match because he has hurt his foot. 特里不能参加比赛,因为他扭了脚。 2) rate n.比率;速度 House prices are rising at a higher rate than inflation. 房价比通货膨胀上涨的比率高。 The car was going at the rate of 40 miles an hour. 轿车以每小时 40 里的速度行驶。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语, 具体用法参见第 26 句。 2)过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第 44 句。 52. But the donator who started sending envelopes with cash to deserving causes,
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accompanied by an article from the local paper, has made a northern German city believe in fairytales. 【句式翻译】但是,捐赠者开始给值得关注的事业发送装有现金的信封,当地 报纸随之发表一篇文章,这一切使一个德国北部城市相信童话。 【句式分析】 本句是复合句, who 引导限制性定语从句, 修饰 the donator, sending 作宾语,accompanied 作状语。 【词语点拨】1) deserving adj.值得的(后面常接介词 of) deserve v.值得 A job well done is deserving of praise. 一件工作做得好应该受到表扬。 If you do wrong, you deserve punishment. 你如做错事, 应当受罚。 2)accompany vt.陪伴 Ken agreed to accompany me on a trip to Africa. 肯答应陪我一起去非洲。 Jane was willing to accompany you to the park to go out for a walk. 简愿意陪你去公园散步。 【语法点拨】1)过去分词作状语, 具体用法参见第 41 句。 2)doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 53. Basic Math starts from the relatively easier concepts and gradually moves on to the more troublesome ones, so as to allow for steady and sure understanding of the material by students. 【句式翻译】基础数学源自相对容易的概念,逐渐转移到更麻烦的,以便允许 学生能稳定地、有把握地理解材料。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,so as to allow 在句中作目的状语。 【词语点拨】1) gradually adv.逐渐地 The drugs work well at first but gradually lose their effectiveness. 这些药的效果起初非常好,但后来逐渐失效。 After months of work, the new book is gradually taking shape. 经过几个月的努力,这本新书渐渐成型了。 2)allow v. 允许,常用于以下结构: ①allow doing 允许做 They allowed smoking in this room only. 他们只允许在这间屋子里抽烟。 ②allow sb to do 允许某人做
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My boss doesn’t allow me to use the telephone. 我的老板不允许我用电话。 ③allow sb sth 让某人有 I will allow you 10% off the price if you pay now. 如果你现在付款,我可以给你打九折。 ④allow sb in/out/up 允许某人进来/出去/起床 The patient was allowed up after ten days. 十天后病人才被允许起床(下地)。 ⑤allow for 考虑到,把……考虑进来,体谅 We should allow for every possible delay. 我们考虑到任何可能的延误。 【语法点拨】不定式作目的状语,具体用法参见第 21 句。 54. Professor H. Siegel, honored by Kentucky Educational Television as“the best math teacher in America,”is a devoted teacher and has a gift for explaining mathematical concepts in ways that make them seem clear and obvious. 【句式翻译】H?西格尔教授被肯塔基州教育电视尊称为是“美国最好的数学老 师” ,他是一个尽职的教师,在解释数学概念方面很有天赋,能把这些概念解释 得清楚明了。 【句式分析】本句复合句,that 在句中引导限制性定语从句,修饰先行词 ways, honored 作后臵定语。 【词语点拨】1) devoted adj.忠诚的;挚爱的 devote vt. 奉献,把……用于 He married well and happily and was a devoted father and husband. 他婚姻美满幸福,是位尽职尽责的父亲,忠实的丈夫。 The editors devoted a whole page to the discussion of the housing problem. 编辑用一个整版来讨论住房问题。 2) have a gift for = have a talent for 在……方面有天赋 You have a surprising gift for seeing into people's minds. 你有惊人的才能,能看出别人的心思。 Yang Liping has a love for music and a gift for dancing. 杨丽萍热爱音乐,并具有舞蹈天赋。 【语法点拨】过去分词作定语, 具体用法参见第 44 句。 55. For example, there’re the obvious tendency to smile when smiled at and there are less obvious changes that reflect emotions of surprise, anger or sadness such as a change in our heart rate and blood pressure.
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【句式翻译】例如,别人朝你笑你很可能笑,反映惊讶,愤怒或悲伤情绪的变 化不太明显,如我们的心率和血压的变化。 【句式分析】本句复合句,when 在句中引导省略的状语从句,that 引导限制性 定语从句,修饰先行词 changes,smiled at 作状语。 【词语点拨】1)tendency n.倾向;趋势;tend v.倾向 Prices continue to show an upward tendency. 物价呈继续上升的趋势。 There was a tendency in him to walk away from the impossible thing. 而对无能为力的事情,他往往就绕开走了。 People tended to accept her invitations. 人们都乐于接受她的邀请。 2)reflect v. 反映;反射; reflection n.反射;映像 Does this letter reflect how you really think? 这封信反映你的真实想法吗? Every solid object will reflect a sound. 任何固体都能反射声音。 One can see the reflection of the tower in the water. 塔的影子倒映在水中。 【语法点拨】过去分词作状语, 具体用法参见第 41 句。 56. Fans used to be crazy about a specific film, but now the public tends to base its consumption on the interest of celebrity attached to any given product. 【句式翻译】粉丝过去会对一部具体的电影而疯狂,但是现在,公众的消费倾 向于建立在对名人的兴趣上,这些名人与某种指定的产品有联系。 【句式分析】本句是并列连词 but 连接的复合句,attached to…作后臵定语。 【词语点拨】1)used to 过去经常,表示过去的习惯动作或状态,后接动词原 形。 其否定式为: used(n)’t to/ didn’t use to; be/get used to 习惯于, 其中的 to 是 介词,后接名词或动名词。如: His uncle used to live in Paris. 他的叔叔过去一直住在巴黎。 Nancy usedn’t /didn’t use to eat so many sweet things. 南希过去不常吃那么多的甜食。 You used to play basketball, usedn’t /didn’t you? 你过去常打篮球,是吗? Charles is used to looking after himself.
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查尔斯习惯于自己照顾自己。 2)attach vt. 缚上;系上;附加;连接;构成短语:①attach oneself to 依附;热 爱, 依恋 ② be attached to 连在……上, 附属于; 热爱, 依恋③attach importance to 认为……重要 Attach a stamp to the envelope and mail the letter. 把邮票贴在信封上,把信寄出去。 The cities attach great importance to the pollution problem. 这些城市非常重视污染问题。 A couple should be deeply attached to each other. 夫妻应该相亲相爱。 The little girl attached herself to her English teacher. 这个小姑娘非常喜欢她的英语老师。 【语法点拨】过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第 44 句。 57. Their study found that theobromine, found in cocoa, was nearly a third more effective in stopping coughs than codeine, which was considered the best cough medicine at present. 【句式翻译】他们的研究发现可可含有的可可碱治疗咳嗽的有效性比可待因高 三分之一,可待因目前被认为是最好的治咳嗽的药。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,which 在句中引导非限制性定语从句,修饰先行 词 codeine,found in cocoa 作后臵定语。 【词语点拨】consider v.考虑;认为 I’m considering going abroad some day. 我一直考虑有一天出国。 He considered how he should answer the question. 他考虑应当怎样回答这个问题。 We have to consider what material to use first. 我们先得考虑用什么材料。 We consider that a friend in need is a friend indeed. 我们认为患难之友才是真正的朋友。 At first they considered me as a doctor. 起初他们认为我是医生。 We consider this matter to be very important. 我们认为这件事很重要。 【语法点拨】过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第 44 句。
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58. Supported by his academic research, Professor Salovey suggests that when predicting someone’s future success, their character, as measured by EQ tests, might actually matter more than their IQ. 【句式翻译】萨洛维教授在他学术研究的基础上提出, 在预测一个人未来的成 功时, 他的性格,通过情商测验来衡量, 也许比他的智商更为重要。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that 引导宾语从句,从句中包含有一个 when 引导 的省略的状语从句,supported 和 predicting 在句中作状语。 【词语点拨】1)support vt. 支撑;支持;供养;为…提供资金;n. 支持;支撑 物;赡养 They supported us in the struggle for an increase in pay. 他们支持我们争取增加工资。 The research was supported by the government. 这项研究由政府出资。 I depend on my friends for emotional support. 我靠朋友给我感情支持。 Her job is the family’s only means of support. 她家全靠她的工作维持生计。 2)suggest vt.建议;表明。当“建议”讲时,后面可以接动名词,接从句时, 从句用虚拟语气;当“表明”时,后面的从句常用陈述语气。 His pale face suggested that he was badly ill. 他苍白的脸色表明他病得很厉害。 I suggest bringing the meeting to an end.=I suggest that we should bring the meeting to an end. 我建议结束会议。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作状语,具体用法参见第 26 句。 2)过去分词作状语,具体用法参见第 41 句。 59. For example, many companies now have to invest a lot of money in information technology and staff training in order to cope with the “phone rage”-- caused by delays in answering calls, being cut off in mid-conversation or left waiting for long periods. 【句式翻译】例如,许多公司现在不得不在信息技术和职员培训上投资很多钱 以便处理电话投诉—未及时接电话、谈话中线路中断或让等候太久引起投诉。 【句式分析】本句是简单句,many companies 作主语,have to invest 作谓语, in order to cope 作目的状语,caused 作后臵定语,delays 和 being cut off 作介词
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by 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1)delay v.&n.延迟;耽搁;后面可以接 doing 作宾语 The passengers were delayed for an hour. 乘客被延误了一个小时。 We decided to delay going on our holiday till next month. 我们决定把假期推迟到下个月。 The strike caused a great delay in the delivery of the mail. 这次罢工严重地延误了邮件的投递。 2)cope with 对付 Do not imagine that you can cope with all the problems. 别以为你能处理所有这些问题。 I don’t know how she copes with looking after her family and doing a full-time job. 既要照顾家庭又要工作,我不知道她是怎样应下来的。 3) cause v.引起;导致 n.原因;事业 The lack of eco-friendly habits among the public is thought to be a major cause of global climate change. 在公众中缺少对环境有利的习惯被认为是导致全球气候变化的主要起因。 The cause which attracted him most was the abolition of the slave trade. 最吸引他的事业是废除买卖奴隶。 Could you tell me what caused you to change your mind? 你能告诉我是什么让你改变了主意吗? 【语法点拨】1)不定式作目的状语,具体用法参见第 21 句。 2)过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第 44 句。 3)doing 作宾语,具体用法参见第 31 句。 60. With their shining brown eyes, wagging tails, and unconditional love, dogs can provide the nonjudgmental listeners needed for a beginning reader to gain confidence, according to Intermountain Therapy Animals(ITA)in salt Lake City. 【句式翻译】据盐湖城的 ITA 的观点,闪烁着棕色眼睛,摇着尾巴,并有无条 件的爱心,狗能成为无判断力的(忠实的)听者,这是刚开始阅读的小孩所需 要的。 【句式分析】 本句是简单句, dogs 作主语, can provide 作谓语, shining, wagging 和 needed 都作定语。 【词语点拨】1) provide vt.提供; 构成短语:provide sb with sth=provide sth for sb 给某人提供……
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These events provided the inspiration for his first novel. 这些事件给了他创作第一部小说的灵感。 In a word, we’ll provide you with all good service. 我们将为你们提供最好的服务。 2) confidence n.信心;构成短语:have confidence in…在……方面有信心 We have full confidence that we shall succeed. 我们完全有把握取得成功。 We have full confidence in our victory. 我们有必胜的把握。 A sick person needs absolute confidence and trust in a doctor. 病人需要对医生有绝对的信心和信任。 【语法点拨】1)现在分词作定语,具体用法参见第 35 句。 2)过去分词作定语,具体用法参见第 44 句。 61. Shay’s father knew that most of the boys would not want someone like Shay on their team, but the father also understood that if his son, mentally and physically disabled, were allowed to play, it would give him a much-needed sense of belonging and some confidence. 【句式翻译】 Shay 的爸爸明白大多数孩子是不想让 Shay 这样的孩子在队里的, 但爸爸也明白如果他的身心都有残障的孩子可以打球,这会给他急需的归属感 和自信。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,两个 that 都引导宾语从句,第二个宾语从句包 含一个条件从句,条件从句运用了虚拟语气。 【词语点拨】1)allow vt. 允许,具体用法参见第 53 句。 2) sense n.感觉;感官;意义;make sense 有意义;有道理;make sense of 理解 Can you make sense of what this book says? 你能理解这本书的内容吗? I’m afraid I haven’t got a very good sense of direction, so I easily get lost. 恐怕我的方向感很差, 因此我容易迷路。 His sense of touch gradually took the place of sight. 他的触觉逐步代替了视觉。 【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气: ①表示与现在事实相反的假设,从中的谓语动词用“过去式 (be 的过去式用 were)” ,主句中的谓语动词用“would/should/could/might+do” 。如: If I were you, I wouldn’t refuse his invitation.
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如果我是你,我不会拒绝他的请求。 If Mr. Smith had time now, he would attend the meeting. 如果史密斯先生有时间,他会参加会议的。 ②表示与过去事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“had done” , 主句中用“would/should/could/might+have done” 。如: If you had worked hard, you wouldn’t have failed in the examination. 如果你努力学习,你就不会考试不及格了。 ③表示与将来事实相反的假设时,条件状语从句中的谓语动词用“ should do/were to do/过去式” ,主句中的谓语动词用“would/should/could/might+动词 原形” 。如: If it rained/ were to rain/ should rain tomorrow, don’t expect me. 万一明天下雨,就别等我了。 ④错综时间虚拟条件句:所谓错综时间虚拟条件句即条件从句与主句所指时间 不一致,比如,从句指过去,而主句却指的是现在或将来。此时应根据具体的 语境情况,结合上面提到的三种基本类型对时态作相应的调整。如: If you’d listened to me, you wouldn’t be in such trouble now. 如果你听了我的话,你现在也不会有这样的麻烦了。 ⑤当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were, should, had 时,if 可省略,而将 were, should, had 等词臵于句首。如: Should he agree to go there, we would send him there. 要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。 Were she here, she would agree with us. 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 Had he learnt about computers, we would have hired him to work here. 如果她懂一些电脑知识的话,我们会已经聘用他来这里工作了。 62. In the past, if someone like me had failed to get into university through the college exam, he would have had no chance of getting a degree. 【句式翻译】过去,像我这样不能通过高考而进入大学的人士,是没有机会拿 到学位的。 【句式分析】本句是复合句, if 引导条件状语从句,从句中运用了虚拟语气。 【词语点拨】fail v. 失败;使失望 I wouldn’t lose courage even if I should fail ten times. 即使要失败十次,我也绝不灰心。 You can always rely on Jim, he won’t fail you.
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你可以永远信任吉姆, 他不会让你失望的。 The words fail to convey the meaning. 词不达意。 【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第 61 句。 63. Some social scientists suggest that Westerners should take advantages of the ancient Chinese wisdom to make up for the drawbacks of Westerners philosophy. 【句式翻译】有些社会科学家建议,西方人应该利用古代中国人的智慧来弥补 西方哲学体系当中的不足。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that 引导宾语从句,从句中运用了虚拟语气。 【词语点拨】1)take advantages of 利用;占……的便宜 He’s joining the club in order to take advantage of the others. 他入会是来揩油的。 In spring we usually set the clocks ahead one hour to take advantage of the summer daylight. 春季我们通常把钟拨快一小时以充分利用夏天的白昼。 2)make up for 补偿,弥补;make up 组成;补足;化妆;编造 Hard work can often make up for a lack of ability. 努力工作经常可以弥补能力的不足。 It didn’t take her long to make up. 她很快就化妆好了。 The teacher helped his pupils make up the lessons they had missed. 教师给学生补课。 The imaginative child always likes to make up fairy tales. 充满想象力的孩子喜欢编造神话故事。 Five doctors and two nurses make up a medical team. 五位医生和两位护士组成一个医疗队。 【语法点拨】宾语从句中的虚拟语气: 在表示“坚持” 、 “命令” 、 “建议” 、 “要求”等动词后的宾语从句要用虚拟语气。 这类动词可以归纳为“一个坚持(insist)、两个命令(order, command)、三个建议 (advise, suggest, propose)、四个要求(demand, require, request, ask)” ,这类虚拟语 气由“should + 动词原形”构成,其中的 should 常可以省略。如: The teacher advised that we should make good use of every minute here. 老师劝我们要好好地利用在这儿的每一分钟。 The Party asked that we should serve the people heart and soul.
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党要求我们要全心全意地为人民服务。 但是,当 insist 的意思为“坚决认为,坚持说” ;suggest 的意思为“表明,暗含, 暗示”等时,宾语从句一般不用虚拟语气。如: Tom insisted that he hadn’t stolen the watch. 汤姆坚持说他没有偷那块手表。 His smile suggested that he had succeeded in this exam. 他的微笑表明他在考试中成功了。 64. If American athlete Marion Jones hadn’t taken drugs, would she have made it to the Olympics at all? 【句式翻译】如果美国运动员玛丽昂· 琼斯没有服用兴奋剂的话,她能成功地进 军奥运会吗? 【句式分析】本句是复合句,if 引导状语从句,从句中运用了虚拟语气。 【词语点拨】make it 及时到达;成功;约定时间。具体用法参见第 45 句。 【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第 61 句。 65. Their money would be wasted if the message didn’t reach its target audience, in other words the people the advertisement intends to persuade. 【句式翻译】如果信息不能传达给它的目标群体,也就是广告意图说服的人群 的话,那么他们的钱就白花了。 【句式分析】本句是复合句, if 引导条件从句,条件从句运用了虚拟语气,the advertisement intends …是定语从句,修饰先行词 the people。 【词语点拨】1)in other words 换句话说 Joe doesn’t like work -- in other words, he’s lazy! 乔不爱劳动―换句话说,他懒惰! 2) persuade vt.说服; 劝说; 固定短语: persuade sb to do sth=persuade sb into doing sth 说服某人做某事。persuade 意为“说服” ,指劝说成功;advise 意为“劝说” , 不一定成功。 Mrs Green persuaded her husband to go to see the doctor. 格林太太说服丈夫去看病。 Nobody can persuade Linda to change her mind once it is made up. 一旦琳达下定决心就没有人可以说服她改变主意。 We advised the villagers to move immediately to a safe place,but they were not persuaded. 我们劝村民立即转移到安全的地方,但是没说服他们。 3) intend vt. 计划;打算
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①intend to do/doing sth 打算做某事…… Nowadays more and more young men intend to study/studying abroad. 现在越来越多的年轻人打算出国留学。 ②intend sb to do sth 打算让某人做某事 I intend Tom to go the concert with me. 我打算让汤姆跟我一块去听音乐会。 ③intend sth 或 intend+从句“打算,想” You misunderstood George. He intended no harm. 你误会乔治了,他没有恶意。 Mr. Black intended that his son should take over the business. 布莱克先生打算让他的儿子接管生意。 ④be intended for……是用来,为……设计/准备 This English newspaper is intended for the middle school student. 这份英语报纸是给中学生用的。 ⑤be intended as/to be 打算作为……之用 The book was intended as a pleasant surprise for her sister but was lost in the mail. 这本书原本是作为惊喜送给她姐姐的,但是邮寄丢了。 【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第 61 句。 66. Had Yeats stopped writing at age 40, he would probably now be valued as a minor poet, for there is no other example in literary history of a poet who produces his greatest works between the ages of 50 and 75. 【句式翻译】如果叶芝在 40 岁停止写作,现在他有可能是个名不见经传的诗 人,因为在文学史上没有其他的诗人能在 50 岁和 75 岁之间写出他最伟大的作 品。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,Had Yeats stopped…是虚拟条件从句,省略了 if, for 引导并列句,who 引导限制性定语从句。 【词语点拨】value v. 重视,看重 n.价值 be valued as 被认为是 Frank is greatly valued as a good student. 弗兰克被认为是个好学生。 If you value your health then you’ll start being a little kinder to yourself. 如果你重视自己的健康,你就要开始对自己好一点。 Not too much can be said about the value of early rising. 早起的好处是说不尽的。 【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第 61 句。
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67. Still, he could not help thinking that if anything should happen, the nearest person he contact by radio, unless there was a ship nearby, would be on an island 885 miles away. 【句式翻译】他禁不住寻思起来,要是果真有什么意外,除非附近有条船,他 用无线电能联系上的最近的人也远在 885 英里以外的岛上。 【句式分析】本句是复合句,that 引导宾语从句,其中又包含有一个 if 条件从 句和 unless 条件从句,if 条件从句中运用了虚拟语气。 【词语点拨】1)can’t help doing 禁不住 can’t help (to)do 不能帮助做 This cinema is so impressive that we can't help crying. 这影片如此感人以至我们禁不住流下泪来。 The medicine can’t help to get rid of your cold. 这药不能帮你治好感冒。 2)contact v.接触;与……联系 n.接触;联系 We agreed to contact again as soon as possible. 我们同意尽快再次联系。 Apparently he never tried to contact her all these years. 显然这些年来他没有跟她联系过。 The pilot was trying to make contact with his base. 飞行员正试图与基地联系。 She is still in close contact with Sarah. 她仍然同萨拉联系密切。 【语法点拨】条件从句中的虚拟语气,具体用法参见第 61 句。 68. Asimov had both an extraordinary imagination that gave him the ability to explore future worlds and an amazing mind with which he searched for explanations of everything, in the present and the past. 【句式翻译】阿西莫夫不仅有着超凡的想象力使他能够对未来世界进行探索, 而且还有惊人的智力,使他能对现在的和过去的各种事物做出解释。 【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句 : that … 引导的定语从句修饰先行词 imagination ,with which…引导的定语从句修饰先行词 mind。 【词语点拨】1)explore vt.探测,探索 The children have gone exploring in the woods. 孩子们去林中探险了。 2)search for 寻找 As they entered the forest, they began to search for a suitable camping spot.
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当他们进入森林时,就开始寻找合适的露营地点。 【语法点拨】 本句中 with which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词, 在此结 构中指物只能用 which。如: According to the old stories of Iceland and Norway, Eric the Red was forced to leave Iceland because he had committed a murder, for which he got into trouble. 根据冰岛和挪威的传说,埃里克〃雷德因一起谋杀案而被迫离开冰岛。 69. Among his most famous works of science fiction, one for which he won an award was “The Foundation Trilogy” (1951-1953), three stories about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future. 【句式翻译】在他那些最富盛名的科幻小说中,那本获奖的书叫做《基地三部 曲》 (1951-1953) ,书有三个小故事组成,讲的是未来银河系中一个伟大帝国的 灭亡与复兴。 【句式分析】本句包含一个介词+关系代词引导的定语从句,for which …修饰 先行词 works of science fiction; three stories about the death and rebirth of a great empire in a galaxy of the future 作 The Foundation Trilogy 的同位语。 【词语点拨】1) work n.「U」工作,劳动「C」常作 works,有时作 a work, 著 作,作品 I particularly like the works by Da Vinci. 我尤其喜欢达芬奇的作品。 We all consider it as a work of genius. 我们都视它为一件极具天才创意的作品。 2) award n.「C」奖,奖金;vt 授予,给予 She showed us the athletics awards she had won. 她给我们看她赢得的体育运动奖。 He was awarded a medal for bravery. 他因勇敢而获得一枚奖章。 【语法点拨】本句中 for which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词,在此结 构中指物只能用 which。具体用法参见第 68 句。如: 70. Many people fear it could be the next global epidemic, especially as scientists who studied tissue from the bodies of people who died of the 1918 Spanish Flu proved that Bird Flu is a modern adaptation of the same virus. 【句式翻译】许多人担心它会成为下一个全球性的传染病,特别是在一些科学 家研究了死于 1918 年西班牙大流感的人的尸体组织后, 证明了禽流感是同一种 病毒的现代变异体。 【句式分析】 本句包含两个定语从句,who studied …修饰先行词 scientists; who
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died of …修饰先行词 people; that Bird Flu is …引导宾语从句, 作 prove 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) especially adv. 特别,尤其,通常对前面所描述的事件进行进一 步的说明或补充;specially adv. 专门地,强调目的。 He likes all subjects, especially English. 他喜欢所有的学科,尤其是英语。 I made this cake specially for you. 我特意为你做的这个蛋糕。 2)adaptation n. 改编;适应;adapt vt. 使适应 I gradually adapted myself to living on my own. 我逐渐适应了独立生活。 3)prove vt.证明,证实 vi.「用作系动词」证明是 It has been proved that eating vegetables in childhood helps to protect you against serious illnesses in later life. 经证实,童年时吃蔬菜可帮助日后不生大病。 The book has proved (to be )very successful. 事实证明这本书非常成功。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 who studied …修饰先行词 scientists; 定语从句 who died of …修饰先行词 people; who 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人并在从 句中作主语或宾语。如: All the boys who are now swimming in the river are from Wuhan. 所有在河里游泳的孩子都来自武汉。 I’ve become good friends with several of the students who I met in the English speech contest last year. 我与好几位去年在英语演讲比赛中结识的同学成了好朋友。 71. He discovered small areas of mist which were in fact galaxies like our own, millions of light years away from us, which proved that the universe was vastly larger than had previously been thought. 【句式翻译】 他发现小的雾区实际上是像我们自己的星系一样的星系,离我 们有几百万光年之远,这一发现证明了宇宙比我们以前想象的要大得多。 【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句,which were in fact…修饰先行词 small areas of mist; which proved that…修饰前面整个句子。 【词语点拨】1)in fact 实际上,其实 In fact, exercise produces chemicals that are good for your brain. 事实上,运动产生的化学物质对你的大脑有益。
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【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 which were in fact

…修饰先行词 small areas of

mist; 定语从句 which proved that …修饰前面整个句子;which 作为关系代词引 导定语从句指物或指整个主句的内容,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。如: It sounded like a train which was going under my house. 那响声听起来就像一列火车在我的房子底下开过似的。 He was very rude to the customs officer, which, of course, made things even worse. 他对海关官员非常无理,这当然使得事情更糟糕了。 72. It is a language without words that consists of gestures, facial expressions and body movements that greatly add to -- and sometimes even replace -- spoken language. 【句式翻译】 它是一种没有字词,由手势、面部表情和身体动作组成的语言, 它极大地丰富了—后悔有时甚至取代了—口头语言。 【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句,that consists of …修饰先行词 a language; that greatly add to …修饰 gestures, facial expressions and body movements。 【词语点拨】1)consist of 由……组成 Life consists of not only sunshine but also hard times. 生活中不仅有阳光,还有艰难困苦。 2)add to 增加 Colorful umbrellas add to a lively atmosphere in the summer streets. 各色阳伞给夏日街头增添了活泼的气氛。 3) replace vt 替换,更换;把……放回原处 We’d be happy to replace the radio for you. 我们愿意为您更换这个录音机。 He suggested that we should replace the magazines after reading. 他建议我们阅读完杂志后放回原处。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 that consists of …修饰先行词 a language; 定语从 句 that greatly add to …修饰 gestures, facial expressions and body movements; that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。如: The number of people that has lost homes reached as many as 250,000. 无家可归的人数达到 25 万。 The purpose of the trip was to record the wildlife and plants that we could find in the forest. 这次行动的目的是把我们在森林里发现的野生动植物都一一做好记录。 73. However, instead of showing real, existing structures, he used photographs to
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make up imaginary structures that best represented the different architectural styles. 【句式翻译】然而,他并没有展现真实存在的建筑结构,而是用照片聚合成一 个想象中的最能代表不同建筑风格的结构图。 【 句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句, that best represented …修饰先行词 imaginary structures。 【词语点拨】1)instead of 代替,而不是 I worried that instead of making money, I would end up owing it. 我担心我最终会欠债而不会赚钱。 2)represent vt. 代表,象征 He is the ideal person to represent our class. 他是代表我们班的理想人选。 The word “love” is often represented by a heart. “爱”这个词常以心形来表示。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 that best represented …修饰先行词 imaginary structures。that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语 或表语, 具体用法参见第 71 句。 74. One reason why we may dislike reading our own work is that we’re often disappointed that the rich ideas in our minds seem very thin and plain when first written down. 【句式翻译】我们不喜欢读自己著作的一个原因是:当读它的时候,我们往往 会感到失望,因为我们脑海中丰富的想法在初稿中却显得苍白无力。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,why we may dislike…修饰先行词 one reason。 【词语点拨】1) dislike vt.不喜欢,厌恶 I enjoy learning English, but I dislike remembering new words. 我喜欢学英语,但不喜欢记生词。 2) plain adj.简朴的,简单的;清楚的,明白的 She used to wear a plain but elegant dress. 她过去常穿朴素淡雅的连衣裙。 He made it plain to us that he didn’t wish to continue. 他向我们明白的表示他不想继续下去了。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 why we may dislike…修饰先行词 reason。why 作 为关系副词引导定语从句在从句中作原因状语。如: The reason why we haven’t seen her these days is that she has been in hospital.
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我们近些天没有见到她的原因是她住院了。 75. According to the old stories of Iceland and Norway, Eric the Red was forced to leave Iceland because he had committed a murder, for which he got into trouble. 【句式翻译】根据冰岛和挪威的传说,埃里克· 雷德因一起谋杀案而被迫离开冰 岛。 【句式分析】本句包含一个介词+关系代词引导的定语从句,for which …修饰 先行词 a murder。 【词语点拨】1) according to 根据,按照 According to a UN report, some 844 animals and plants have disappeared in the last 500 years. 联合国报告指出,在过去的 500 年里,已有约 844 个物种消失。 2) force vt.强迫,迫使;force sb to do/ into doing 强迫某人做某事 We forced the enemy to surrender/ into surrendering. 我们迫使敌人投降。 3) commit vt.犯(错误、罪行) ,干(坏事,傻事;使承担义务,作出保证 Smoking is committing suicide slowly. 吸烟等于慢性自杀。 Both sides committed themselves to settle the problem peacefully. 双方承诺和平解决问题。 【语法点拨】本句中 for which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词, 在此结 构中指物只能用 which. 具体用法参见第 68 句。 76. Biarni was hoping to join his father who was with Eric, but he was blown off course and found himself in an unknown land, from where he eventually reached Greenland. 【句式翻译】比阿尼想加入他的父亲,他的父亲正和埃里克在一起,但是他被 吹离了航线,发现自己在一个未知的岛上,从那儿他最终到了格陵兰。 【句式分析】 本句包含两个定语从句, who was with Eric 修饰先行词 his father; from where …修饰先行词 an unknown land。 【词语点拨】1) blow vt&vi.吹;吹动 The trees blown down in the storm have been moved off the road. 暴风雨中被吹倒的树木已被移出路面。 2)find oneself + 介词短语 表达的意思是“不知不觉发现” 。 She woke up and found herself in a hospital. 她醒来发觉自己躺在医院的床上。
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【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 who was with Eric 修饰先行词 his father;; 定语从 句 from where …修饰先行词 an unknown land; who 作为关系代词引导定语从句 指人并在从句中作主语或宾语,具体用法参见第 70 句;from where…属于介词 +关系副词。如: China is the birth place of kites, from where kite flying spread to Japan,Korea, Thailand and India. 中国是风筝的故乡,从这里放风筝传到了日本、朝鲜、泰国和印度。 77. Today, the Xinjiang Autonomous Region remains an international crossroad where traders from surrounding countries, and tourists from all over the world regularly meet. 【句式翻译】今天,新疆自治区仍然是国际性的十字路口,从周边国家来的商 人,从世界各地来的旅游者常在这里汇合。 【 句 式 分 析 】 本 句 包 含 一 个 定 语 从 句 , where traders from … 修 饰 先 行 词 crossroad。 【词语点拨】remain vi.「用作系动词」保持,仍然是;有待,尚待 They can be trained to remain calm in noisy and crowded places. 他们可被训练得能在嘈杂和拥挤的环境下保持冷静。 It remains to be seen whether you are right. 你是否正确,尚无定论。 【语法点拨】 本句中定语从句 where traders from …修饰先行词 crossroad; where 作为关系副词引导定语从句在句中作地点状语。如: The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre where she would stay for an hour. 这个女孩安排在培训中心上钢琴课,在那儿她会待上一个小时。 78. The Silk Road got its name in the 19th century when a German geographer identified it as the route through which the Romans got their silk from China. 【句式翻译】在 19 世纪,丝绸之路得到了它的名字,当时一位德国地理学家 认为罗马人从这条线路从中国买到了丝绸。 【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句, when a German…修饰先行词 the 19th century; through which …修饰先行词 the route。 【词语点拨】identify vt.确认,证明,鉴别出。具体用法参见第 25 句。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 when a German…修饰先行词 the 19th century; through which …修饰先行词 the route; when 作为关系副词引导定语从句在从句 中作时间状语;through which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词,在此结
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构中指物只能用 which。具体用法参见第 68 句。如: There was a time when there were still slaves in the USA. 那时美国还有奴隶。 79. In the distance, they could see the misty cloud that rose from the great Niagara Falls, which is on the south side of the lake. 【句式翻译】 远处, 他们可以看到湖的南边尼亚加拉大瀑布上方升腾着的雾霭。 【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句,that rose from…修饰先行词 the misty cloud; which is on …修饰先行词 the great Niagara Falls。 【词语点拨】1)in the distance 在远处 In the distance was an ox working in a field. 远处有一头牛正在田里耕作。 2)rise vi.升起,上升;起床,起立 Red can cause a person’s blood pressure to rise and increase people’s appetites. 红色可以使人的血压升高,并增加食欲。 Seeing him, the teacher rose from his chair. 看到他,老师从椅子上站了起来。 【语法点拨】本句中 that rose from…修饰先行词 the misty cloud; which is on… 修饰先行词 the great Niagara Falls;that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物, 在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,具体用法见第 72 句; which 作为关系代词引导 定语从句指物, 在句中作主语、 宾语或表语, 在限制性定语从句中常可与 that 互 换,但在非限制性定语从句中若先行词为物只能用 which。如: It sounded like a train which/ that was going under my house. 那响声听起来就像有一列火车在我的房子底下开过似的。 He made another wonderful discovery, which I think is of great importance to science. 他又有了一项了不起的发现,我认为这一发现对科学极为重要。 80. Our outward voyage in the “Bounty” to Tahiti had been filled with the kind of incidents that I thought would be my stories when I returned home. 【句式翻译】我们乘坐“邦蒂号”出发到塔希提岛这段航程中充满了各种事件, 我以为回国后可以讲这些故事。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句, that I thought would …修饰先行词 incidents。 【词语点拨】1) be filled with 充满,装满 The theater was filled with people.
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剧院里坐满了人。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 that I thought would…修饰先行词 incidents; that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,具体用 法参见第 72 句。 81. If you decide to come to Birmingham City University, you can be confident that you’ll receive a first-class education that focuses on practical skills and professional relevance, giving you excellent future for eimployment and career development. 【句式翻译】 如果你决定去伯明翰城市大学, 你可以相信你会受到一流的教育, 它关注实际技能和与工作相关的事情,会为你的就业和职业的发展提供美好的 未来。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,that focuses on…修饰先行词 a first-class education。 【词语点拨】1) confident adj. 有信心的,自信的 We shouldn’t mind what others say so long as we are confident in what we have done. 只要我们对自己所做的事情有信心, 就不该在意别人说什么。 2)focus (…)on 集中……于,聚焦……在 You should stop focusing on whom to blame and start focusing on how to remedy the situation. 你应关注的是如何补救问题而非该去责怪谁。 3)practical adj.实际的,实用的,实践的 We will listen to your problems and offer you practical advice. 我们会倾听你的难题, 提供切实可行的建议。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句, that focuses on …修饰先行词 a first-class education; that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或 表语,具体用法参见第 72 句。 82. Martin won his third entry in the Guinness Book of World Records in 2002 when he beat his own record for long distance swimming by swimming the length of the Mississippi River in North America in 68 days, a total of 3,797 kilometres. 【句式翻译】马丁于 2002 年第三次进入《吉尼斯世界纪录大全》 ,这次他打破 了自己创下的远距离游泳的世界纪录—在 68 天内总共游完北美洲密西西比河 的 3797 公里。 【句式分析】 本句包含一个定语从句, when he beat his own record…修饰先行词
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2002。 【词语点拨】1)beat/break/cut + the/a record 打破纪录 She’s hoping to beat the record for the 100 meters. 他希望打破 100 米赛跑记录。 2)total adj. 总的,全部的 In total, these astronauts have spent more than 26,000 days in space. 这些宇航员在太空中总共逗留了 26000 多天。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 when he beat his own record…修饰先行词 2002; when 作为关系副词引导定语从句在从句中作时间状语, 具体用法参见 78 句。 83. As a university we provide practical solutions for business and use our excellent industry links to influence the teaching of our courses, giving our studnets the skills and experience that employers want so that when you complete your course you’ll be ready to take off in your chosen career. 【句式翻译】作为一所大学,我们会为企业提供实用的解决办法,并利用我们 与好的工业的关系来影响我们的教学课程,以便提供给我们的学生雇主所需要 的技能和经验,这样在你完成你的课程后能够为你所选择的职业的成功有所准 备。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,that employers want 修饰先行词 the skills and experience。 【词语点拨】influence n. 影响; vt. 影响 Under their influence, he becomes greatly interested in stories of travel and adventure. 在他们的影响下, 他对游记和历险故事很感兴趣。 He greatly influenced the development of China’s culture and education. 他对中国文化和教育的发展产生了深远的影响。 2)be ready to do 准备做;乐意去做 Everything is packed, and we are ready to leave. 东西都打包好了, 我们准备走了。 He was always ready to help others. 他总是乐于助人。 3) take off (飞机等)起飞;脱下(衣帽) ; (产品等)大受欢迎 The plane took off on time despite the fog. 尽管有雾,飞机按时起飞。 In an instant, he took off his coat and jumped into the water.
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他立刻脱下外套跳入水中。 My writing career took off when I discovered my own style. 找到了自己的写作风格后,我的写作事业开始有了起色。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 that employers want 修饰先行词 the skills and experience; that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语 或表语,具体用法参见第 72 句。 84. Parents who find older children bullying younger brothers and sisters might do well to replace shouting and punishment by rewarding and paying more attention to the injured ones. 【句式翻译】父母看到较大的孩子欺凌弟弟或妹妹,可以通过奖赏或更关注受 伤的小孩而不是指着或惩罚(较大的孩子)而达到很好的效果。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句, who find older children …修饰先行词 parents。 【词语点拨】1) reward n. 回报,奖励;奖金;vt. 报答;奖赏 My grandmother says that a good deed is its own reward. 我祖母说善举本身就是回报。 She offered a reward of $500 for the lost necklace. 她悬赏 500 美元为找回丢失的项链。 They rewarded him for saving the child. 他们因他救了那个小孩而奖赏他。 2) pay attention to 注意 Be sure to pay attention to protecting the environment and think of others while traveling. 外出旅游时务必注意保护环境,为他人着想。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 who find older children…修饰先行词 parents; who 作为关系代词, 引导定语从句并在从句中作主语或宾语, 具体用法参见第 70 句。 85. This process is also found among scholars and authors: A statement of opinion by one writer may be re-stated as fact by another, who may in turn be quoted by yet another; and this process may continue, unless it occurs to someone to question the facts on which the original writer based his opinion or to challenge the interpretation he placed upon those facts. 【句式翻译】在学者和作家中也能发现这一过程:一个作家陈述的观点可能被 另一个作家作为事实重新陈述,这个作家也会被另一个作家引用;这个过程也 许会继续下去,直到有人想去质疑最初的作家的观点所依据的事实,或者挑战
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他对这些事实所做出的解释。 【句式分析】本句包含三个定语从句,who may in turn be quoted…修饰先行词 another; on which the original writer…修饰先行词 the facts; he placed upon…修饰 先行词 the interpretation。 【词语点拨】1)in turn 依次;反过来,转而 They answered the teacher’s question in turn. 他们依次回答老师的问题。 People try to avoid public transportation delays by using their own cars, and in turn this creates further problems. 人们通过使用私家车来避免公共交通拥挤,而这转而又产生了进一步的问题。 2) occur to sb 某人想到,想起 It occurred to him that he had an important conference to attend the next morning. 他突然想到第二天要出席一个重要的会议。 3) question n.问题; vt.询问,审问;怀疑,对……表示疑问 There is no single answer to the question. 这个问题的答案不是唯一的。 He was questioned by the police. 他受到警方盘问。 No one questioned his ideas for almost 2,000 years. 近 2000 年来,没有人对他的看法产生怀疑。 4) base…on 以…为基础,把……建立在……基础上 You’ll be able to choose a room based on your own personal tastes. 你可以按照自己的品味选择房间。 5) challenge n.挑战;vt.向……挑战 The government will have to meet the challenge of rising unemployment. 政府将不得不面对失业率上升的挑战。 I challenged him to a game of chess. 我要他跟我下一盘棋。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 who may in turn be quoted…修饰先行词 another; on which the original writer…修饰先行词 the facts; he placed upon…修饰先行词 the interpretation; who 作为关系代词引导非限制性定语从句指人,在从句中作 主语或宾语,不能与 that 互换;on which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代 词,在此结构中指物只能用 which。具体用法参见第 68 句;定语从句 he placed upon…中, 因关系代词 which/ that 指物作宾语可以省略, 故省略了关系代词 that
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/ which。如: Although his teachers predicted a career in acting, Rowan was not convinced himself, until he met a group of talented people at university, who were involved in theatre, and he realized this could a career for him. 虽然他的老师预言他将来从事表演事业,但是罗恩自己并没有信服,直到在大 学遇到一群从事剧院工作的天才人物,他才意识到表演可能是他的事业。 This is the room ( which/ that ) Lu Xun used to live in. 这就是鲁迅过去居住过的房间。 86. Before the bridge was built, squirrels had to avoid traffic to and from the Park Plaza office building where office staff put out a nutty feast for the squirrels. 【句式翻译】在大桥建成之前,松鼠不得不避开出入公园广场办公楼的车辆, 工作人员提出在办公楼给松鼠一个坚果盛宴。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,where office staff…修饰先行词 the Park Plaza office building。 【词语点拨】avoid vt.避免,回避 It seems that you need to apologize quickly to avoid losing a good friend. 看来你得赶紧道歉,以避免失去一个好朋友。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 where office staff…修饰先行词 the Park Plaza office building;where 作为关系副词引导定语从句在句中作地点状语,具体用 法参见第 77 句。 87. So far, efforts to cut emissions(排放)of planet-warming greenhouse gases are not seen as enough to prevent the Earth heating up beyond 2℃ this century -- a point scientists say will bring the danger of a changeable climate in which weather extremes are common, leading to drought, floods, crop failures and rising sea levels. 【句式翻译】到目前为止,人类在温室气体减排方面付出的努力还不足以阻止 地球在本世纪升温超过 2℃—科学家说这个度数将带来多变的气候,极端天气 将是常见的,导致干旱、洪水、作物歉收和海平面上升。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,in which weather extremes are common… 修饰先行词 a changeable climate。 【词语点拨】1) so far 迄今为止 So far we have done a lot to build a low-carbon economy, but it is far from ideal. 迄今为止,我们做了很多来建立低碳经济,但这还远非理想。 2) prevent sb (from)doing sth 阻止某人作某事 There were many ways to prevent this (from )happening.
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有很多方法可以防止此事发生。 3) lead to 导致;通向 A lack of confidence can lead to a lot of suffering. 缺乏自信会导致很多痛苦。 The path leads down to a small lake. 这条小路通向一个小湖。 【语法点拨】 本句中定语从句 in which weather extremes are common…修饰先行 词 a changeable climate,in which…引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词,在此 结构中指物只能用 which。具体用法参见第 68 句。 88. In every moment and every circumstance, you can choose to have fuller, richer life by setting a clear intention to transform the victim within, and by inviting into your life the powerful creator that you are. 【句式翻译】在每一个时刻,每一种情况下,通过设定一个明确的转变牺牲品 的意图,通过邀请你的强有力的创造者进入你的生活,你可以选择更充实、更 丰富的生命。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句, that you are 修饰先行词 the powerful creator。 【词语点拨】1) intention n.意图,本来的想法 This program was set up with an intention of providing help to homeless people. 设立这个项目是为了帮助无家可归者。 2) transform vt. 使改变;使变形 Water can transform a desert into a garden. 水能使沙漠变为花园。 3) invite vt. 邀请,招待; 引起,招致 She invited me to spend two weeks in Germany. 她邀请我到德国待两周。 Leaving your car unlocked is just inviting trouble! 汽车不上锁存粹是自找麻烦。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 that you are.修饰先行词 the powerful creator; that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,具体用 法参见第 72 句。 89. I would like to learn more about things that are going on in the city as I feel that it is important to know about the city we live in. 【句式翻译】 我想更多的了解这个城市发生的事情因为我觉得了解我们所在
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的城市是很重要的。 【句式分析】 本句包含两个定语从句, that are…修饰先行词 things; we live in 修 饰先行词 the city。 【词语点拨】go on 发生,进行;继续下去 What is going on here? 这里发生什么事了? In spite of the rain, they went on playing tennis. 尽管下雨了,他们还是继续打网球。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句,that are…修饰先行词 things; we live in 修饰先 行词 the city; that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾 语或表语, 具体用法参见第 72 句; 定语从句 we live in 中, 因关系代词 which/ that 指物作宾语可以省略,故省略了关系代词 that / which,具体用法参见第 85 句。 90. Many people blamed the pressure that they put on themselves to lose weight too quickly for the weight gain, which leaves them with a bigger appetite than normal. 【句式翻译】许多人把体重的增加归于想迅速减肥的压力,这使得他们有了比 平时更大的胃口。 【句式分析】 本句包含两个定语从句, that they put on…修饰先行词 the pressure; which leaves them…修饰前面整个句子。 【词语点拨】1) blame sb / sth for (sth) 责备,把……归咎于 They can hardly blame me for the failure, because it is largely their own fault. 他们把失败归咎于我,因为大部分都是他们自己的过错。 2) put pressure on sb/ sth 给……施压 I know studying is very important, but my parents put too much pressure on me. 我知道学习很重要,但父母给我施加了太多的压力。 3) appetite n.食欲,胃口;要求,欲望 It’s said that boys usually have excellent appetites. 据说男孩一般胃口都很好。 Though lacking in money, he still had an appetite for reading. 尽管缺钱,他仍然很想读书。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句,that they put on…修饰先行词 the pressure; which leaves them…修饰前面整个句子;that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在 从句中作主语、宾语或表语,具体用法参见第 72 句; which 作为关系代词引导 定语从句指物或指整个主句的内容,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语, 具体用法
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参见第 71 句。 91. At that time, people believed more in religion than in facts and people like Galilei, who proved scientific ideas such as “the Earth is not the centre of the universe”, were often punished by the church with no one coming to their defence. 【句式翻译】 那时,人们更多的相信宗教,而不是实事。像伽利略这样证明 了例如“地球不是宇宙的中心”等科学观点的人常常被教会惩罚。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,who proved scientific ideas…修饰先行词 Galilei。 【词语点拨】1) believe in 相信,信仰 Our teacher always tell us to believe in what we do and who we are if we want to succeed. 老师总是告诉我们要想成功,就要相信我们所能做的事情并相信我们自己。 Do you believe in God? 你信仰上帝吗? 2) punish vt.惩罚,处罚 The students are punished for cheating on the exam. 这些学生因为考试作弊而受惩罚。 【语法点拨】 1) 本句中定语从句, who proved scientific ideas … 修饰先行词 Galilei; who 作为关系代词引导非限制性定语从句指人,在从句中作主语或宾 语,不能与 that 互换。如: Although his teachers predicted a career in acting, Rowan was not convinced himself, until he met a group of talented people at university, who were involved in theatre, and he realized this could a career for him. 虽然他的老师预言他将来从事表演事业,但是罗恩自己并没有信服,直到在大 学遇到一群从事剧院工作的天才人物,他才意识到表演可能是他的事业。 2) with + n/pron+doing/ done/ to/ adj/ adv/ prep 是 with 的复合结构, 通常作状语。 With prices going up so fast, we can’t afford luxuries. 由于物价猛涨,我们买不起高档商品。 They sat together around the table, with the door shut. 他们关着门围桌而坐。 With you to help us, we’ll surely succeed. 有你来帮忙,我们一定会成功。 He fell asleep with the window open. 开着窗户他就睡着了。
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He left the room with the light on. 灯亮着他就离开了房间。 With tears of joy in her eyes, she saw her daughter married. 她眼里噙着泪水,看着女儿结婚。 92. So much of our knowledge and understanding of the world today is due to people like Bacon and Galilei, who were brave enough to step out from the shadows of conventional thought in order to find the kingdom of knowledge that today’s civilization is built upon . 【句式翻译】我们今天对世界拥有这么多的知识和理解,是因为有培根和伽利 略这样的人,为了发现建造今天文明的知识王国,他们勇敢的从传统思想的阴 影中走出。 【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句, who were brave enough …修饰先行词 Bacon and Galilei ; that today’s civilization … 修 饰 先 行 词 the kingdom of knowledge。 【词语点拨】1) due to 由于 I think I would be a good journalist due to my language skills. 由于我的语言技能, 我想我可以成为一名出色的记者。 2) enough adj. 足够的,充足的;adv. 足够地,充分地, (用于动词、形容词、副 词之后) There is enough food for ten people. 有足够的 10 个人吃的食物。 Don’t you think this arm is strong enough to carry a shopping basket? 难道你就不觉得我的胳膊足够强壮能提动购物篮吗? 【语法点拨】in order to 为了,以便;相当于 so as to, 但 so as to 一般不用于 句首。如: In order to find a better job, he decided to study a second foreign language. 为了找个更好的工作,他决定再学一门外语。 We’ll have to save as much as possible in order to / so as to pay for the new house. 为了买新房子,我们不得不尽量节约。 93. Others blamed colleagues, who tuck into fatty lunches and snackes unaware of the effect that it has on the dieter, while mothers who polish off their children’s leftovers was another common cause of weight gain. 【句式翻译】其他人责备同事,他们狼吞虎咽的吃含脂肪高的食物和零食,不 知道这对节食者的影响,而妈妈们常会迅速吃光孩子们的剩饭被认为是另一个
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导致体重增加的普遍原因。 【句式分析】本句包含三个定语从句,who tuck into fatty lunches…修饰先行词 colleagues; that it has …修饰先行词 the effect; who polish off … 修饰先行词 mothers。 【词语点拨】1) tuck into sth 痛快地吃某物 He tucked into the ham hungrily regardless of our feelings. 他不顾我们的感受狼吞虎咽地大吃火腿。 2) be unaware of sth/ that 不知道,未觉察 Lost in thought, he was unaware of my presence/ that I was present. 陷入沉思, 他没有觉察到我在场。 3) have (an) effect on / upon 对……起作用, 对……产生影响 Early people had very little effect on the environment. 早期人类对环境没有多少影响。 4) polish sth off 迅速做完某事 He was so hungry that he polished off a big plateful of food. 他如此饥饿以致于迅速吃光了一大盘的食物。 【语法点拨】 本句中定语从句, who tuck into fatty lunches … 修饰先行词 colleagues; that it has …修饰先行词 the effect; who polish off … 修饰先行词 mothers。that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或 表语,具体用法参见第 72 句;who 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人并在从句 中作主语或宾语,具体用法参见第 70 句和第 85 句。 94. Although his teachers predicted a career in acting, Rowan was not convinced himself, until he met a group of talented people at university, who were involved in theatre, and he realized this could a career for him. 【句式翻译】虽然他的老师预言他将来从事表演事业,但是罗恩自己并没有信 服,直到在大学遇到一群从事剧院工作的天才人物,他才意识到表演可能是他 的事业。 【句式分析】 本句包含一个定语从句, who were involved in…修饰先行词 a group of talented people。 【词语点拨】1) predict vt. 预言,预计 Population experts predict that most people will live in cities in the near future. 人口专家预言,在不久的将来大多数人都会住到城市里。 It has been predicted that mobile phones will provide English learning programs by 2030.
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预计到 2030 年手机将能提供英语学习程序。 2) convinced adj. 确信的,坚信的 Sam nodded but he didn’t look convinced. 山姆点了点头,但似乎半信半疑。 3) be /get involved in/ with 参加,加入 Children can get a lot out of being involved in volunteer work. 孩子们通过参加志愿者工作会学到很多东西。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句,who were involved in…修饰先行词 a group of talented people ; who 作为关系代词引导非限制性定语从句指人,在从句中作主 语或宾语,不能与 that 互换,具体用法参见第 91 句。 95. After many years of studying and then listening to feedback from people who have read and used the information in his books, George discovered that there are three basic things that people need in order to make eating healthy foods their regular way of eating. 【句式翻译】经过多年的研究,并且倾听了那些读过和使用过他书内信息的人 的意见反馈后,乔治发现要使食用健康食物成为人们日常饮食生活方式,人们 需要三项基本的东西。 【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句,who have read and used…修饰先行词 people; that people need 修饰先行词 three basic things。 【词语点拨】1) discover vt. 发现,找到 Scientists around the world are working to discover a cure for Aids. 2) regular adj. 规则的,有规律的;频繁的,经常做的; 惯常的,通常的 There is a regular bus service to the airport. 有班车定时发往机场。 He is a regular visitor to her house. 他是她家的常客。 It’s important to follow the regular procedure 按照惯常的程序行事很重要。 【语法点拨】 本句中定语从句, who have read and used…修饰先行词 people; that people need 修饰先行词 three basic things; who 作为关系代词引导非限制性定语 从句指人,在从句中作主语或宾语,不能与 that 互换,具体用法参见第 85 句; that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,具 体用法参见第 72 句。
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96. The real reason why I ask students to leave technology at the door is that I think there are very few places in which we can have deep conversations and truly engage in complex ideas. 【句式翻译】我让学生远离科技的真正原因是我认为很少有我们能进行深入谈 话和真正探讨复杂想法的场所。 【句式分析】 本句包含两个定语从句, why I ask students to…修饰先行词 the real reason; in which we can …修饰先行词 few places。 【词语点拨】1) engage (sb) in /on (使某人)参加,参与(活动) The program aims to encourage students to engage themselves in making a difference in society. 这个项目旨在鼓励学生投入社会,发挥自己的作用。 2) complex adj. 复杂的,复合的 The link between money and happiness is complex. 金钱与幸福之间关系复杂。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 why I ask students to…修饰先行词 the real reason; in which we can…修饰先行词 few places; why 作为关系副词引导定语从句在从 句中作原因状语,具体用法参见第 74 句;in which…引导的定语从句属于介词+ 关系代词,在此结构中指物只能用 which。具体用法参见第 68 句。 97. It is a network of offices, some of which provide food and houses for the homeless population, and some of which fight for the passing of laws that would give every American the fight to a place to call home. 【句式翻译】该组织是办公联网,一些旨在为无家可归的人提供食物和住处, 一些是要为每个美国人争取获得房屋的权利。 【句式分析】本句包含三个定语从句,两个并列的定语从句 some of which provide food…与 some of which fight for…共同修饰先行词 a network of offices; that would give …修饰先行词 laws。 【词语点拨】1) provide vt. 提供;供应, 具体用法参见第 60 句。 【语法点拨】本句中两个并列的定语从句 some of which provide food…与 some of which fight for…共同修饰先行词 a network of offices; that would give …修饰 先行词 laws; some of which …引导的定语从句属于介词+关系代词, 在此结构中 指物只能用 which. 具体用法参见句 68; that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或 物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,具体用法参见第 72 句。 98. Given that this is the case, why aren't students taught to manage conflict the way they are taught to solve math problems, drive cars, or stay physically fit?
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【句式翻译】鉴于事实情况确实如此,那么我们为什么不像教学生算数学、开 车或者保持健康那样来教育学生应对同学间的冲突和摩擦呢? 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,they are taught …修饰先行词 the way。 【词语点拨】1) given prep. 考虑到 adj. 特定的 Given their inexperience, they’ve done a good job. 考虑到他们缺乏经验,他们已经做得不错。 Given that he can get another chance, he will surely succeed. 如果他能再次得到机会的话,他肯定会成功的。 They were to meet at a given time and place. 他们要在规定的时间和地点会晤。 2) solve vt. 解决,解答 I’m trying to solve this problem, but I can’t find the right solution. 我正试图解决这个问题,可是找不到正确的方法。 【语法点拨】 本句中定语从句 they are taught …修饰先行词 the way; the way 作 先行词,若在从句中作状语,通常由 that、in which 引导,也可省略。如: The way (that/ in which ) you answer the questions was admirable. 你回答这些问题的方式令人羡慕。 What surprised me was not what he said but the way (that/in which) he said it. 最让我吃惊的不是他说的话,而是他说活的方式。 99. We even have different word for some foods, meat in particular, depending on whether it is still out in the fields or at home ready to be cooked, which shows the fact that the Saxon peasants were doing the farming. while the upper-class Normans were doing most of the eating. 【句式翻译】我们甚至对某些食物有不同的单词,特别是肉类,取决于它是长 在田野里,还是在家里准备煮着吃,这就表明一个事实,即萨克森农民在农田 干活,而上层阶级的诺曼人在大吃大喝。 【句式分析】 本句包含一个定语从句, which shows the fact…修饰前面整个句子。 【词语点拨】1) in particular 特别,尤其;具体用法参见第 37 句。 2)depend on 依靠,依赖;具体用法参见第 37 句。 【语法点拨】本句中定语从句 which shows the fact…修饰前面整个句子;which 作为关系代词引导定语从句指物或指整个主句的内容,在从句中作主语、宾语 或表语, 具体用法参见第 71 句。 100. One bright hour with this friend is worh more to me than the lifetime services of a psychologist(心理学家), who will only fill up the healing (愈合的) silence
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necessary to those darkest moments in which I would rather be my own best friend. 【句式翻译】与这样的朋友在一起一个小时对我而言胜过心理学家一生的帮 助,心理学家仅能填补将要愈合的沉默,这在最黑暗的时刻是必要的,而我宁 愿在这个时候独处。 【句式分析】本句包含两个定语从句,who will only fill up the healing…修饰 a psychologist,在该句中 in which I would rather be my own best friend 是定语从句 修饰先行词 moments。 【词语点拨】1) worth n.价值,用处 adj.有某种价值;值得(做某事) The old stamp is worth about 5,000 yuan. 这张旧邮票值大概 5000 元。 An hour in the morning is worth two in the evening. 一日之季在于晨。 Tickets for a good concert are worth waiting for. 经典音乐会的门票值得等。 2) fill up 充满,填满 Shall I fill the car up (with petrol)? 要不要我给车加满汽油? 3)would rather 宁愿,宁可 She would rather die than give in. 她宁死不屈。 I would rather that you told me the truth. 我真希望你能告诉我真相。 【语法点拨】本句中 who will only fill up the healing…修饰 a psychologist,在该 句中 in which I would rather be my own best friend 是定语从句修饰先行词 moments;who 作为关系代词引导非限制性定语从句指人,在从句中作主语或 宾语,不能与 that 互换,具体用法参见第 85 句; in which I would rather…引导 的定语从句属于介词+关系代词, 在此结构中指物只能用 which。具体用法参 见第 68 句。 101. Reading fiction allows me to travel across the high seas and along the Silk Road, all from the comfort of my own armchair, to experience, though secondhand, exciting experiences that I wouldn’t necessarily be able to have in my lifetime. 【句式翻译】阅读小说使得我享受着坐在扶手椅上的舒适就能在深海和丝绸之 路进行旅游,这种让人兴奋的体验尽管是间接的却又是我一生所必然体验不到 的。
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【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句,that I wouldn’t necessarily…修饰先行词 experiences。 【词语点拨】1) comfort n.舒适;安逸;令人感到安慰的人或物 vt.安慰 Take a small step out of your comfort zone and try to make someone’s day a little brighter. 从你的舒适地带迈出一小步,为他人带去一点阳光吧。 A hot cup of milk on a cold night is a real comfort. 在寒冷的夜晚喝杯热牛奶真舒服。 The little boy fell down and his mother comforted him. 小男孩摔倒了,于是他的妈妈哄了哄他。 2) experience vt.体验;经历,遭受 n.「U」经验; 「C」经历,体验 We learn from the past, experience the present and hope for success in the future. 我们从过去中学习,体验现在,展望未来。 Having experienced earthquakes before, I wasn’t frightened. 由于过去经历过地震,所以我不害怕。 If you wish to succeed, you should use persistence as your good friend, experience as your reference. 如果你希望成功,当以恒心为良友,经验为参谋。 He had many interesting experiences while traveling in Africa. 他在非洲旅行时,有许多有趣的经历。 【语法点拨】本句中 that I wouldn’t necessarily…修饰先行词 experiences;that 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人或物,在从句中作主语、宾语或表语,具体用 法参见第 72 句。 102. The danger of what lay ahead of them, the chances of them ever turning to find us, the fear that we might never know their fate and possible delays, at first made us feel low and discouraged. 【句式翻译】起初,他们将面临的危险、回来寻找我们的机会、以及害怕再也 无从知晓他们的命运和可能的耽搁,都使我们情绪低落、沮丧不已。 【句式分析】本句包含一个介词宾语从句和一个同位语从句,what lay ahead of them 作介词 of 的宾语;that we might never…作 the fear 的同位语。 【词语点拨】1) ahead of 在…前面 The time here is 9 hours ahead of London. 这里的时间比伦敦早 9 个小时。 2) discourage vt.使泄气,使沮丧 discouraged adj.泄气的,失去信心的
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We discouraged you from smoking except in specific areas. 除特定的区域外,我们禁止吸烟。 The news that he had failed the exam made him discouraged. 他考试失败的消息让他很泄气。 【语法点拨】本句中 what lay ahead of them 作介词 of 的宾语;that we might never…作 the fear 的同位语;连接代词 what 引导介词宾语从句, 在从句中可作 主语或宾语;连词 that 引导同位语从句没有词义,不作成分,不能省略。如: After what seemed a very long time, I opened my eyes and found myself in bed. 在很长时间后,我睁开眼睛发现自己躺在床上。 There is a feeling in me that we’ll never know what a UFO is -- not ever. 我有一种感觉,我们将永远不会知道不明飞行物是什么—永远都不会。 103. A recent study showed that almost two thirds of parents believed that schools should do more to teach pupils about financial matters, and almost half said that their children had asked them what was going on, although a minority of parents felt that they didn’t understand it themselves well enough to explain. 【句式翻译】最近一份研究表明尽管少数的父母觉得他们自己也不明白来解释 财政方面的事情,但几乎三分之二的父母认为学校应该更多的教学生一些关于 财政方面的事情, 并且将近一半的父母说他们的孩子问过他们发生什么事情了。 【句式分析】本句包含一个宾语从句,that almost two thirds…well enough to explain 是宾语从句,作 show 的宾语;在该句中 that schools should do more to teach pupils about financial matters 作 believed 的宾语, that their children had asked them what was going on 作 said 的宾语,that they didn’t understand it themselves well enough to explain 作 felt 的宾语。 【词语点拨】a minority of 少数 Only a minority of British households don’t have a car. 英国只有少数家庭没有汽车。 【语法点拨】本句中 that almost two thirds…well enough to explain 是宾语从句, 作 show 的宾语;在该句中 that schools should do more to teach pupils about financial matters 作 believed 的宾语,that their children had asked them what was going on 作 said 的宾语,that they didn’t understand it themselves well enough to explain 作 felt 的宾语;连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通常可以 能省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语, 即使省略了第一个 that, 也 不可省略第二个 that。如: Do you know (that) he has joined the army?
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你知道他参军了吗? I believe (that) you have done your best and that things will improve. 我相信你已经尽了力,我也相信一切会好起来的。 104. Two thirds of customers say that environmental considerations affect their purchases to the same degrees as they did a year ago, while more than a quarter say that they are now even better aware of the environmental effect on what they buy. 【句式翻译】三分之二的顾客说正如一年前一样,对环境的考虑会影响到他们 所购买的东西,而超过四分之一的人说他们现在比以前能更好地意识到环保对 他们所购物品的影响。 【句式分析】本句包含两个宾语从句,that environmental considerations affect… 作 say 的宾语; that they are now even better…作 say 的宾语, 在该句中 what they buy 又作介词 on 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1)affect vt.影响;感动;具体用法参见第 7 句。 2) effect n. 影响, 作用;固定短语:have (an) effect on = affect Early people had very little effect on the environment. 早期人类对环境没有多少影响。 3) aware adj.意识到,觉察到 People around the world should be aware of the real situation of water shortage. 全世界人民都应该意识到水资源短缺的真实情况。 People are now aware that helping others is helping themselves. 现在人们意识到帮助别人就是帮助自己。 【语法点拨】 本句中 that environmental considerations affect…作 say 的宾语; that they are now even better…作 say 的宾语, 在该句中 what they buy 又作介词 on 的 宾语;连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通常可以能省略,但是句中 若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语,即使省略了第一个 that, 也不可省略第二个 that, 具体用法参见第 103 句。 105. Nancy and her colleagues at that university found in their study that kids who experienced the greatest increase in greenness as a result of a family move made the most gain on a standard test of attention. 【句式翻译】南希和她在大学的同事在他们的研究中发现,因家庭搬迁而经历 了最大程度的绿色的孩子在标准的注意力测试中取得的成绩最好。 【句式分析】本句包含一个宾语从句,that kids who experienced …作 found 的 宾语,在该句中 who experienced the greatest…a family move 是定语从句,修 饰先行词 that kids。
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【词语点拨】as a result (of ) 作为(……的)结果 Alice overslept this morning. As a result, se was late for work. 爱丽丝今天早上睡过头了,结果上班迟到了。 About 21 million people died during the 1990s as a result of smoking. 20 世纪 90 年代约有 2100 万人死于吸烟。 【语法点拨】本句中 that kids who experienced …作 found 的宾语,在该句中 who experienced the greatest…a family move 是定语从句,修饰先行词 that kids。 连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义, 不作成分, 通常可以能省略,但是句中若有两 个并列的 that 从句作宾语, 即使省略了第一个 that, 也不可省略第二个 that, 具 体用法参见第 103 句;who 作为关系代词引导定语从句指人并在从句中作主语 或宾语,具体用法参见第 70 句。 106. Tanner and his team found that students in classrooms with unblocked views of at least 50 feet outside the window had higher scores on tests of vocabulary, language arts and maths than did students whose classrooms primarily overlooked roads and parking lots. 【句式翻译】泰纳和他的工作组发现,在窗外至少 50 英尺视野都没有受遮挡 的教室里学习的学生,比那些在可以俯瞰街道和停车场的教室里学习的学生在 词汇测试、语言艺术和数学方面测试的分数要高。 【句式分析】本句包含一个宾语从句,that students in classrooms with…作 found 的宾语;在该句中又包含一个定语从句,whose classrooms primarily…修饰先行 词 students。 【词语点拨】1) view n. 视野,视线;风景,景色; 看法,见解 The lake came into view as we turned the corner. 我们转过弯就看见那个湖了。 While climbing the mountain, we enjoyed the warm sunshine and a beautiful view. 爬山时,我们享受着温暖的阳光,欣赏着美丽的风景。 In my view, playing computer games is a waste of time. 在我看来,玩电脑游戏浪费时间。 2) at least 至少,起码 I need at least five days to complete the task. 我至少需要 5 天时间完成这项任务。 3) overlook vt. 俯瞰,眺望;忽略,未注意到 Many of them went to the cemetery and memorial which overlooks Omaha Beach. 他们中有很多人去了解俯瞰奥马哈海滩的公墓和纪念碑。
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It is easy to overlook a small detail like that. 那样的小细节和容易被忽略。 【语法点拨】本句中 that students in classrooms with…作 found 的宾语;在该句 包含一个定语从句, whose classrooms primarily…修饰先行词 students; 连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义, 不作成分, 通常可以能省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语,即使省略了第一个 that, 也不可省略第二个 that, 具体用法参 见第 103 句; 关系代词 whose 作定语, 可以指人或物。如: This is the scientists whose achievements are well known. 这就是那位成就卓著的科学家。 We had a meeting whose purpose was completely unclear. 我们举行了一次会议,其目的完全不明确。 107. I agree with the decision of the courts and medical institutions in the United States, that in the case of long-term coma states, close family members should be allowed to take their loved one off life support machines. 【句式翻译】我赞成美国法院和医疗机构的决定,就长期昏迷状态而言,近亲 家属应该获准让他们挚爱的人脱离生命供养机。 【句式分析】本句包含一个同位语从句,that in the case of…作 the decision 的 同位语。 【词语点拨】1) agree with 同意,赞同;与…相符,与…一致; (气候、食物等) 适合 I quite agree with him on sports. 我非常同意他在运动方面的观点。 His words don’t agree with his actions. 他言行不一致。 You look well. The air and the sea foods in Sanya must agree with you, I suppose. 你看起来气色不错。我想三亚的空气和海上食品一定适合你。 2)in the case of / in sb’s case 就某人的情况来说 In her case, she failed the exam because she wasn’t well. 就她的情况来看,她是因为生病而没考及格。 【语法点拨】本句中 that in the case of …作 the decision 的同位语;连词 that 引 导同位语从句没有词义,不作成分,不能省略,具体用法参见第 102 句。 108. As studies continue to prove Traditional Chinese Medicine’s worth, especially in helping patients with cancer and AIDS, it becomes more and more obvious that Western Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine complement each other.
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【句式翻译】随着研究继续证明传统中医药学的价值,尤其是在帮助病人治疗 癌症和艾滋病方面,越来越明显的是西医和中医可以互补。 【句式分析】本句包含一个主语从句,that Western Medicine…是主语从句,其 中 it 作形式主语。 【词语点拨】1) continue v. 继续,持续 I hope that this kind of activity will continue in the future. 我希望这种活动今后能继续办下去。 Excited by the find, Broad asked his students to continue his research. 这个发现大大鼓舞了布罗德,于是他让自己的学生继续他的研究工作。 How can you continue to work with all that noise going on? 吵闹声不绝于耳,你怎么还能工作得下去呢? 2) complement vt.与(某事物)结合(相辅相成)n.补充物 His business skill complements her flair for design. 他的经营技巧和她的设计才能相辅相成。 【语法点拨】本句中 that Western Medicine…是主语从句,其中 it 作形式主语; 连词 that 引导的从句作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,常见的句型有: 1) It + be + 形容词(obvious, true, natural, surprising, good, wonderful, funny, possible, likely, probable, certain, etc.)+ that 从句。如: It is certain that she will do well in her exam. 可以肯定她会考得很好。 2) It+be+名词词组(no wonder, an honor, a good thing, a pity, no surprise, etc.)+ that 从句。如: It is no surprise that our team has won the game. 我们队赢了比赛并不惊奇。 3) It+be+过去分词 (said, reported, thought, expected, decided, announced, arranged, ect.)+ that 从句。如: It is decided that the meeting has been put off till next Monday. 已经定下来,会议推迟到了下周一。 109. I asked her how she had achieved success and she told me that being curious, working hard, and believing in what was true made her the success she is today. 【句式翻译】我问她是怎样获得成功的,她告诉我是好奇心、努力工作和忠于 事实的原则使她成为今日的成功者。 【句式分析】本句包含两宾语从句,how she had achieved success 作 asked 的宾 语;that being curious, working hard, and believing in what…作 told 的宾语,在该
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句中 what was true 作 believe in 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) achieve vt.取得,实现 vi.获得成功 No one can achieve anything without effort. 没有人能够不努力就有所成就。 He is an excellent lawyer with a good brain and a determination to achieve. 他是位优秀的律师,有着一副好脑筋和必胜的决心。 2) curious adj.好奇的 For forty years scientists have been curious about that fish. 40 年来,科学家一直对那种鱼感到好奇。 We are curious to know where she’s gone. 我们很想知道她去哪儿了。 【语法点拨】本句中 how she had achieved success 作 asked 的宾语;that being curious, working hard, and believing in what…作 told 的宾语,在该句中 what was true 又作 believe in 的宾语,具体用法参见第 102 句; 连词 that 引导宾语从 句没有词义,不作成分,通常可以省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作 宾语,即使省略了第一个 that,也不可省略第二个 that,具体用法参见第 103 句。连接副词 how 可以引导宾语从句。如: As a new diplomat, he often considers how he can react more appropriately on such occations. 作为一名新的外交官, 他经常思考在这样的场合他怎样才能更恰当的作出反应。 110. The numbers of Galapagos tortoises are said to have begun their decline when it was realized that they could supply excellent fresh meat for passenger ships, because they were known to be able to survive for six months without food and water. 【句式翻译】据说当人们意识到加拉帕格斯海龟能够给过往的船只提供鲜美的 肉食时,他们的数量就开始下降了,因为人们知道这些海龟能够不吃不喝生存 六个月之久。 【句式分析】本句包含一个主语从句,that they could supply…是主语从句,其 中 it 作形式主语。 【词语点拨】1) number n.数字,数目; a number of 许多; 后接复数名词, 作主 语时,谓语动词用复数; the number of…的数目,后接复数名词,作主语时,谓 语动词用单数。 A number of researchers were invited to attend the meeting, but the number of researchers present was only 50.
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许多研究者被邀请参加这个会议, 但是出席的人的数目仅有 50 个。 2) decline vi.减少, 下降 vt.谢绝, 拒绝 According to scientists, our mental abilities begin to decline from the age of 27 reaching the highest level at 22. 在科学家看来,我们的智力能力在 22 岁到达最高水平后从 27 岁开始下降。 In spite of many inviations, he would always decline to visit Oxford. 尽管多次受到邀请,他还是拒绝去牛津。 3) supply vt.供应, 供给 n.供应; Those children are not well supplied with books for studying. 提供给那些孩子的学习用书不够充足。 The media supplies lots of information to us every day. 媒体每天提供给我们很多信息。 Clean water supply and hand washing are practical means of preventing disease. 干净的水供应和洗手是预防疾病的切实有效的方法。 4) survive vi.幸存,还生 vt.经历…幸存,比…活得长 To survive in the forest, animals must climb from tree to tree. 要想在森林里生存下来,动物必须有爬树的本领。 She survived her husband by ten years. 她比她的丈夫多活了 10 年。 【语法点拨】本句中 that they could supply…是主语从句,其中 it 作形式主语; 连词 that 引导的从句作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,具体用法参见第 108 句。 111. Two out of three people think that it is important to buy from environmentally responsible companies, with about one in seven saying that they had even decided to take their custom elsewhere if they felt a company’s environmental reputation was not good enough. 【句式翻译】三分之二的人认为买那些对环境负责人的公司的产品是重要的, 七分之一的人认为如果他们感觉这个公司在环保方面的名声不够好,他们会决 定去其他地方买东西 。 【句式分析】本句包含两个宾语从句,that it is important to…作 think 的宾语; that they had even decided to…作 saying 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) responsible adj.有责任的,尽责的 All pilots should be responsible for their passengers’ safety. 所有的飞机驾驶员均应该对乘客的安全负责。 2) custom n.习俗,风俗,惯例 n.经常向某商人、商店等购物
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It is difficult to get used to another country’s customs. 要适应另一个国家的风俗习惯很难。 I shall withdraw my custom from that shop. 我不再去那家商店买东西了。 3) reputation n.名声,声誉 The doctor is skilled at treating heart trouble and never accepts any gift from his patients, so he has a very good reputation. 这名医生擅长治疗心脏疾病并且从不接收病人的任何礼品, 因此他有个好名声。 【语法点拨】本句中 that it is important to…作 think 的宾语;that they had even decided to…作 saying 的宾语;连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通 常可以能省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语,即使省略了第一个 that,也不可省略第二个 that,具体用法参见第 103 句。 112. They believe (that) their dance with each sacred (神圣的) moment of life is a gift and that storms are a natural part of life which can bring the rain needed for emotional and spiritual growth. 【句式翻译】他们相信他们与每一个神圣的时刻的舞蹈是生命的一个礼物,风 暴是生活中很自然的一部分,它为情感和心灵的成长带来雨水的滋润。 【句式分析】 本句包含两个并列的宾语从句和一个定语从句, their dance with… 与 that storms are…两个并列的宾语从句,作 believe 的宾语;which can bring… 引导定语从句,修饰先行词 storms。 【词语点拨】gift n. 礼物,赠品才 n.天赋,天资, 才能 One of my wonderful memories is about a Christmas gift. 我最美好的记忆之一是关于圣诞礼物的。 I’ve always been able to learn languages easily, beacaue I have a gift for it. 我学习语言一向是轻而易举,因为这是天赋。 【语法点拨】 本句中 their dance with…与 that storms are…两个并列的宾语从句, 作 believe 的宾语;连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通常可以省 略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语, 即使省略了第一个 that, 也不可 省略第二个 that,故 their dance with…前省略了连词 that,具体用法参见第 103 句;which 作为关系代词引导定语从句指物或指整个主句的内容, 在从句中作主 语、宾语或表语, 具体用法参见第 71 句。 113. In a more recent study, Berninger looked at what role spelling plays in a student’s writing skills and found that how well children spell is tied to how well they can write.
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【句式翻译】在最近的一个研究中,贝尔宁格了解了拼写在一个学生的写作技 巧中扮演什么角色,发现孩子拼写的好坏与写作的好坏是有联系的。 【句式分析】 本句包含两个宾语从句,what role spelling plays…作 looked at 的宾 语;that how well children spell…作 found 的宾语,在本句中 how well children spell 又作该宾语从句的主语,how well they can write 作 is tied to 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1)play a role in 在……中起作用,扮演……角色 Farming plays an important role in the country’s economy. 农业对该国经济起着重要作用。 He played a role in the play, which made his mother happy. 他在剧中扮演了一个角色,这让他的妈妈很开心。 2) tie n.领带,联系 vt.(用带、绳、线等)系,栓 The firm has close ties with an American corporation. 这家商行与一家美国公司关系密切。 It took him a long time to tie the horse to the tree. 他花费了很长时间才把马拴在了树上。 【语法点拨】 本句中 what role spelling plays…作 looked at 的宾语; that how well children spell…作 found 的宾语, 在本句中 how well children spell 又作该宾语从 句的主语,how well they can write 作 is tied to 的宾语;连接代词 what 引导宾 语从句,有时可以作前臵定语,如 what help, what funny stories 等;连接副词 how 可以引导宾语从句,具体用法参见第 109 句。如: We still don’t know what side effect the medicine will bring about, although about two thousand patients have taken it. 尽管有 2000 名病人已服用了这种药,但我们仍然不知道它会带来什么副作用。 114. The January 12 Haiti earthquake and its aftershocks(余震)killed or injured hundreds of thousands of people in the Baribbean island nation, mostly as a result of what engineers call structural failure—buildings collapsing, roofs falling in, that sort of thing. 【句式翻译】1 月 12 日海地地震和余震造成加勒比岛国数万人死伤,大部分是 由于工程师们所说的结构故障,比如建筑物倒塌,屋顶坠落这种事情。 【句式分析】本句包含一个介词宾语从句,what engineers call…作介词 of 的 宾语。 【词语点拨】failure n.「U」失败; 「C」失败的人/事; 具体用法参见第 87 句。 【语法点拨】本句中 what engineers call…作介词 of 的宾语;连接代词 what 引 导介词宾语从句,在从句中可作主语或宾语,具体用法参见第 102 句。
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115. Media reports said that the House would meet and discuss a surveyor ’s report which culd recommend lawmakers move out for repairs costing up to one billion pounds, while the Daily Telegraph said that another proposal might be to sell to Russian or Chinese developers for about 500 million pounds. 【句式翻译】媒体报道说议院将会开会讨论一份检测官的报告,这份报告建议 立法者搬出去以花费 10 亿英镑对大本钟的钟楼进行维修,而《每日电讯报》则 称另一个建议是以 5 亿英镑的价格卖给俄罗斯或中国的开发者。 【句式分析】 本句包含两个宾语从句, that the House would meet and discuss…one billion poundsaid 的宾语;that another proposal might be…作 the Daily Telegraph said 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) recommend vt. 推荐, 介绍;劝告,建议 I recommend this book to anyone with an interest in art. 我把这本书推荐给对艺术感兴趣的人。 They have recommended that the site (should) be closed and repaired. 他们已经提出关闭这个遗址并进行维修的建议。 2) up to 达到;直到;轮到,该由;从事于,忙于 I can take up to four people in my car. 我的车最多能坐 4 个人。 Up to now, I’ve understand everything the teacher ’s said. 到现在,我已经理解了老师所讲的全部内容。 It’s up to you to find out what your goals really are. 你真正的目标是什么只能由你来决定。 What are you up to this weekend? 这周末你打算做什么? 3) proposal n.建议,提议 He made a proposal that the meeting (should) be postponed. 他提议会议延期。 【语法点拨】本句中 that the House would meet and discuss…one billion pounds 作 said 的宾语;that another proposal might be…作 the Daily Telegraph said 的宾 语;连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通常可以能省略,但是句中若 有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语, 即使省略了第一个 that, 也不可省略第二个 that, 具体用法参见第 103 句。 116. He also dismissd concern in the media that parliament was slipping into the Thames, while the commission’s spokesman denied that the walls around the palace
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were suffering from a particularly bad sinking problem causing Big Ben to lean. 【句式翻译】他还摒除了媒体对议会会滑落到泰晤士河的顾虑,而委员会的发 言人则否认是宫殿周围的墙受到严重的下沉,使得大本钟倾斜。 【句式分析】本句包含一个同位语从句和一个宾语从句, that parliament was slipping into the Thames 作 concern 的同位语;that the walls around the palace were suffering from…作 denied 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) concern n.担心,忧虑 vt.与…有关,涉及,影响;使担心 Issues like food safety do concern me. 食品安全这类问题确实让我很担心。 On the whole the warming of the earth is a phenomenon that causes great concern. 总的说来,地球变暖现象引起了极大的忧虑。 This chapter concerns itself with the historical background. 本章是关于历史背景的。 They meet every summer to discuss major problems that concern the whole world. 每年夏天他们都这类问题确实让我担心。 2)deny vt.否认,否定 He denied taking money but we were sceptical. 他否认收受了贿赂,但我们很怀疑。 I never deny that you’re a great intellect. 我从不否认你很有才智。 3) suffer from v.经历,遭受 He is suffering from the loss of his old friend. 他正遭受失去朋友的痛苦。 【语法点拨】 本句中 that parliament was slipping into the Thames 作 concern 的同 位语;that the walls around the palace were suffering from…作 denied 的宾语;连 词 that 引导同位语从句没有词义,不作成分,不能省略,具体用法参见第 102 句;连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通常可以能省略,但是句中若 有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语, 即使省略了第一个 that, 也不可省略第二个 that, 具体用法参见第 103 句。 117. Most music critics also say that her music often sounds a bit like the work of other artists, and she herself is quite open about the fact that singers such as Madonna have been a big influence on her. 【句式翻译】大多数音乐评论家还说她的音乐经常听起来有点象其他艺术家的 作品,而她本人对此很坦率一些歌手象麦当娜对她有很大影响。
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【句式分析】本句包含一个宾语从句和一个同位语从句, that her music often sounds…作 say 的宾语;that singers such as Madonna have been…作 the fact 的同 位语。 【词语点拨】influnce n. 影响; vt. 影响; 具体用法参见第 83 句。 【语法点拨】 本句中 that her music often sounds…作 say 的宾语; that singers such as Madonna have been…作 the fact 的同位语; 连词 that 引导同位语从句没有词 义,不作成分,不能省略,具体用法参见第 102 句;连词 that 引导宾语从句没 有词义,不作成分,通常可以能省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾 语,即使省略了第一个 that, 也不可省略第二个 that, 具体用法参见第 103 句。 118. It doesn’t matter what the topic is -- polictics, the laws of physics, or the proper way to break an egg -- the point of these arguments is to prove that you are right and the other person is wrong, for both wish to be considered an authority -- someone who actually knows something and therefore to command respect. 【句式翻译】主题是什么并不要紧—政治、物理法则、或打鸡蛋的恰当方法— 争论的要点是要证明你是对的,另一个人是错的,因为双方都希望被证明是了 解某事的权威以博得尊敬。 【句式分析】 本句包含一个主语从句和一个宾语从句,what the topic is 是主语从 句,that you are right and the other person is wrong 是宾语从句作 prove 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) point n.分数;观点,要点 vt.指出,指向 I’d like to make one point before I stop. 结束前我想提出最后一个看法。 It is rude to point your finger at others. 对人指指点点是不礼貌的。 2) command n.命令,指挥;vt.命令,指挥 The fire officer took command, ordering everyone to leave the building. 消防员开始指挥大家离开大楼。 The teacher commanded that he (should) go out of the classroom. 老师命令他离开教室。 4) respect n.尊敬,尊重 vt.尊敬,尊重 We should show our respect for old people, our parents and our teachers. 我们应该尊敬老人、父母和老师。 The media should respect famous people’s privacy. 媒体应当尊重名人的隐私。 【语法点拨】 本句中 what the topic is 是主语从句, 其中 it 作形式主语; that you
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are right and the other person is wrong 是宾语从句作 prove 的宾语;连词 that 引 导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通常可以省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语,即使省略了第一个 that,也不可省略第二个 that,具体用法参见第 103 句。 119. It so happened that in this village there were many shoemakers who were spending a lot of money to buy tacks for their shoes and even at times when they paid high prices they were not always able to get what they wanted, because in that part of the country there was a high demand for soldiers’ shoes. 【句式翻译】碰巧在这个村庄有很多的鞋匠花很多钱去买鞋钉,并且甚至有时 他们花高价也并不总能够买到他们想要的东西, 因为在那个国家急需士兵的鞋。 【句式分析】本句包含一个主语从句,that in this village there were many…是主 语从句,常用 it 作形式主语; 在该主语从句中 who were spending a lot of money… 是定语从句修饰先行词 shoemakers;when they paid high prices 是定语从句修饰 先行词 times; what they wanted 作动词 get 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) It (so) happens that…碰巧,偶然 happen to do sth 碰巧 It so happened that I had no money with me. 不巧我身上没带钱。 Do you happen to know what’s on after the news? 你知道新闻之后是什么节目吗? 2) demand n.需要,需求 vt. (强烈)要求 The demand for natural resources is becoming an increasingly serious problem for the future of mankind. 对于未来的人类,对自然资源的需求正成为一个日益严峻的问题。 When your child demands that you (should) buy something, explain why you really don’t want to buy it. 当孩子要求你买东西时,要向他解释为什么你不想买。 【语法点拨】 本句中, that in this village there were many…是主语从句,常用 it 作 形式主语;在该主语从句中 who were spending a lot of money…是定语从句修饰 先行词 shoemakers; when they paid high prices 是定语从句修饰先行词 times; what they wanted 作动词 get 的宾语;连词 that 引导的从句作主语时,常用 it 作形 式主语,具体用法参见第 108 句。 120. Consider another fact that bottled water is surprisingly expensive, especially when compared with the alternative, which is almost free, and it is astonishing that America’s desire for bottled water seems impossible to satisfy, reaching nearly 30
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billion bottles a year. 【句式翻译】考虑另外一个事实:瓶装水出乎意料地贵,尤其是和另一种几乎 是免费的选择相比,美国人对瓶装谁的需求似乎是不可能满足的,每年几乎达 到 300 亿瓶,这是令人吃惊的。 【句式分析】本句包含一个同位语从句和一个主语从句,that bottled water is… 作 fact 的同位语;that America’s desire for bottled water…是主语从句,it 是形式 主语。 【词语点拨】1) compare vt. 对比,比较 固定短语:compare A to/with B 把 A 同 B 作比较;compare A to B 把 A 比喻 作 B;compared to/ with 与…比较起来。 Compare this to/ with that and you will see which is better. 把这个跟那个作对比,你就能看出哪一个更好。 Young people are often comapred to the rising sun. 年轻人常被比喻作冉冉升起的太阳。 Compared with/to you, we still have a long way to go. 和你们比起来我们还有很大的差距。 2) alternative n.选择,供选择的东西 adj.供替代的,二者择一的 Minibuses with seats for 12 passengers offer an alternative to expensive taxis and crowded public transport. 相对于昂贵的出租车和拥挤的公共交通, 12 座的小公共汽车提供了另一种选 择。 As there is less and less coal and oil, scientists are exploring new ways of making use of alternative energy, such as sunlight, wind and water for power and fuel. 随着煤和油变得越来越少, 科学家正在开拓新的使用可替代能源的方法, 比如 阳光、风和水作燃料。 3) desire n.愿望,欲望,渴望 vt.渴望,希望 The program is aimed at inspiring a strong desire for discovery on the part of the students. 这个项目旨在激起学生强烈的探索欲望。 A home of her own was something she had always desired. 她一直渴望有个自己的家。 【语法点拨】 本句中 that bottled water is…作 fact 的同位语; that America’s desire for bottled water…是主语从句,it 是形式主语;连词 that 引导同位语从句没有词 义,不作成分,不能省略,具体用法参见第 102 句;连词 that 引导的从句作主
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语时,常用 it 作形式主语,具体用法参见第 108 句。 121. On the other hand, there are those, like scientist George Hambley, who believe that we should not worry about high levels of carbon dioxide in the air and that some scientists’ concerns about global warming are just speculation. 【句式翻译】另一方面,还有些人,像科学家乔治 汉布利,他们认为我们不 必担心空气中会有高含量的二氧化碳, 一些科学家对全球变暖的担心只是推测。 【句式分析】本句包含一个定语从句和两个并列的宾语从句,who believe that we should…are just speculation 是定语从句,修饰先行词 George Hambley; 在该 定语从句中 that we should not worry about…与 and that some scientists’ concerns about…是并列的宾语从句,作 believe 的宾语。 【词语点拨】on (the) one hand…on the other hand 一方面……另一方面…… On (the) one hand,computers improve the working efficiency; on the other hand, they also bring about some new problems. 一方面,计算机提高了人们的工作效率,另一方面,也引起了新问题。 【语法点拨】本句中 who believe that we should…are just speculation 是定语从 句,修饰先行词 George Hambley; 在该定语从句中 that we should not worry about…与 and that some scientists’ concerns about…是并列的宾语从句, 作 believe 的宾语;who 作为关系代词引导非限制性定语从句指人,在从句中作主语或宾 语,不能与 that 互换,具体用法参见第 85 句;连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词 义,不作成分,通常可以省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语,即 使省略了第一个 that,也不可省略第二个 that,具体用法参见第 103 句。 122. The researchers said that among the problems with some earlier studies is that they often failed to take into account that those people most at risk for skin cancer -- people with fair skin and freckles (雀斑), for example -- are more likely to use sunscreen. 【句式翻译】研究人员说早期的研究有一些问题,其中一个是他们没能考虑到 有皮肤癌危险的人—皮肤白皙且有雀斑的人—更可能使用防晒霜。 【句式分析】 本句包含一个宾语从句和一个表语从句, that among the problems… 作 said 的宾语;that they often failed to…是表语从句,在该句中又含有一个宾 语从句,that those people most at risk…作 take into account 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) take sth into account / take account of sth 考虑到,把……考虑进 去 One must take the audience into account when making speeches. 演讲时要考虑听众。
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The company takes account of environmental issues wherever possible. 只要有可能,这家公司都会考虑到环境问题。 2) at risk (from/ of )有危险 If we go to war, innocent lives will be put at risk. 如果我们发动战争,无辜的生命就会受到威胁。 The water level has risen so high in several places that many homes are at risk from flooding. 一些地方水位升高,很多房子都有被洪水淹没的危险。 【语法点拨】本句中 that among the problems…作 said 的宾语;that they often failed to…是表语从句,在该句中又含有一个宾语从句,that those people most at risk…作 take into account 的宾语; 连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义, 不作成分, 通常可以省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语,即使省略了第一个 that,也不可省略第二个 that,具体用法参见第 103 句;连词 that 引导表语从句 没有词义,不作成分,不能省略。如: My decision is that all of us are to start at 6 o’clock tomorrow morning. 我们的决定是我们所有的人明天早上 6 点出发。 123. A construction expert who worked on the leaning tower of Pisa in Italy and a multi-storey car park under the houses of parliament in central London, said that there was nothing to worry about, and that it would take 10,000years to reach an angle of concern. 【句式翻译】曾在意大利的比萨斜塔和伦敦中部议会下方的多层停车场工作过 的一名建筑专家说没有必要担心, 并且还需要一万年它才到达让人担心的角度。 【句式分析】 本句包含一个定语从句和两个并列的宾语从句, who worked on…in central London 是定语从句,修饰先行词 expert; that there was nothing to worry about 与 that it would take 10,000years to reach an angle of concern 并列作 said 的 宾语。 【词语点拨】It takes sb (sth) to do 做…需要某人…… It took me 20 minutes to find another space. 我花了 20 分钟才找到另一片空地。 It takes hard work to make dreams into reality. 实现梦想需要努力。 【语法点拨】本句中 who worked on…in central London 是定语从句,修饰先行 词 expert; that there was nothing to worry about 与 that it would take 10,000years to reach an angle of concern 并列作 said 的宾语;who 作为关系代词引导定语从句
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指人并在从句中作主语或宾语,具体用法参见第 70 句;连词 that 引导表语从 句没有词义,不作成分,不能省略;引导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通常 可以省略,但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语,即使省略了第一个 that, 也不可省略第二个 that,具体用法参见第 103 句。 124. The fact that it might be possible to raise EQs means that schools need to make sure that their students are receiving the education they really need, and know that their futures are not entirely determined by their IQs. 【句式翻译】情商是可以提高的这一事实意味着学校需要保证学生接受他们真 正需要的教育,并且知道他们的未来不全是由智商决定的. 【句式分析】本句包含一个同位语从句和一个宾语从句, that it might be possible…作 the fact 的同位语;that schools need to…作 mean 的宾语,在该宾 语从句中又含有两宾语从句, that their students are receiving…作 make sure 的宾 语,that their futures are not entirely…作 know 的宾语。 【词语点拨】1) it is possible (for sb) to do sth 做…是可能的 It is possible for him to accomplish the task. 他有可能完成这项任务。 2)mean vt.意味着;表示…的意思; 意思是;打算 Spending too much now will mean a shortage of cash next year. 现在花费太多就意味着明年现金短缺。 If you nod your head you usually mean yes. 如果你点头,通常表示你同意。 I have been meaning to ask you if you want to come for a meal next week. 我一直打算问你,下个星期你要不要来吃放。 3) make sure 确定,设法确保 We make sure that we take good care of students on campus. 我们确保在校园里照顾好学生。 4) determine vt.决定,确定 It is your efforts, not your intelligence, that determine your success. 决定你成功的是努力而非智力。 I am determined to make more efforts to improve my English. 我决心加倍努力提高英语水平。 【语法点拨】本句中 that it might be possible…作 the fact 的同位语;that schools need to…作 mean 的宾语, 在该宾语从句中又含有两宾语从句, that their students are receiving…作 make sure 的宾语,that their futures are not entirely…作 know
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的宾语; 连词 that 引导同位语从句没有词义,不作成分,不能省略,具体用法 参见第 102 句; 连词 that 引导宾语从句没有词义,不作成分,通常可以省略, 但是句中若有两个并列的 that 从句作宾语,即使省略了第一个 that,也不可省 略第二个 that,具体用法参见第 103 句。 125. It is a difficult fact to face, but environmental problems are causing what is called “global warming” or in other words, the rise in temperature of the earth’s atmosphere due to ecological changes. 【句式翻译】这是一个难于面对的事实,但是环境问题正在造成所谓的“全球 变暖”或者换句话说,由于生态的变化导致的地球气温的增加。 【句式分析】本句包含一个宾语从句, what is called “global warming”作 cause 的宾语。 【词语点拨】cause n. 理由,缘故;事业 vt.引起,导致;具体用法见第 59 句 【语法点拨】本句中 what is called “global warming”作 cause 的宾语;连接代词 what 引导宾语从句, 有时可以作前臵定语, 如 what help, what funny stories 等, 具体用法参见第 113 句。 126. Throughout the twentieth century, advertising agencies promoted consumerism (消费主义) as a way of life, spreading the belief that people could be happy only if they bought the “right” products. 【句式翻译】在 20 世纪,广告代理商把消费主义推广为一种生活方式,传播 只有买合适的产品人们才会快乐的看法。 【句式分析】 本句包含一个同位语从句, that people could be happy only if they… 作 the belief 的同位语。 【词语点拨】1) promote vt.促进,增进;提升,晋升 Good listening can always show respect, promote understanding and improve interpersonal relationship. 认真倾听可以表示尊重,增进理解,建立良好的人际关系。 He has been promoted to general manager. 他已经被提升为总经理。 2) spread vt. 伸开,打开 vi&vt. 传播, (使)蔓延, (使)流传 She spread her arms and the child ran towards her. 她张开双臂,孩子向她跑去。 Advertising spread quickly throughout the eighteenth century. 广告在 18 世纪迅速传播。 3) belief n.相信,信任;信念,看法,信仰
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I haven’t much belief in his honesty. 我不大相信他是诚实的。 Different from popular belief, most good leaders are made, not born. 与大众的看法相反,多数优秀领导是后天培养的而非天生的。 【语法点拨】本句中,that people could be happy only if they…作 the belief 的同 位语;连词 that 引导同位语从句没有词义,不作成分,不能省略,具体用法参 见第 103 句。 127. He suggests that we should change this situation by looking into ten thousand species that could b

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