Unit 2 English Around the World
Part One: Teaching Design (第一部分：教学设计) Period 1: A sample lesson plan for reading (THE ROAD TO MODERN ENGLISH)
To talk about varieties of En
glish To read about the history of English language
I. Warming up 1. Warming up by answering a questionnaire 1). Tell the students they are going to answer a questionnaire about why they are learning English. 2). Write the words: Reasons for learning a foreign language on the center of the board: 3). Ask the students to suggest as many reasons as they can think of, for example, for work, as a hobby, to learn about other people, to travel, to read literature in the original, to read research papers, to meet foreigners, to surf the Internet, to pass exams, etc. Write their suggestions on the board as they make them. 4). Divide the class into pairs. 5). Give out each student one questionnaire paper. 6). Explain the task. The students must question each other about their language learning needs (or motivations). Tell them that you are going to take in the
questionnaires at the end, and that you?d like them to make clear notes. It works better if the two partners swap tasks (questions and answers) after each section of the questionnaire. If they wait till the end to swap, one student may use up all the time available. 7). When the task is finished, ask a couple of students to summarize their partners? answers. (This may develop into a class discussion about language needs). 8). The students write five sentences on their feeling about learning English. 9). Collect the questionnaires.
Needs Analysis Questionnaire Interviewer_______________ Interviewee_______________ Present use: situations and skills Reading (faxes, letters & reports) Listening & speaking (telephoning, meetings, negotiations, public speaking, socializing) Writing (faxes, letters & reports) Future use: expectations & ambitions 2. Further applying To get the students thinking about the topic of the reading passage. 1). Have a student list on the board all the English-speaking countries in the world that they can think of. 2). Give the students hints about the places they haven?t mentioned. 3). Provide the students with an opportunity to think about the reasons for the spread of English around the world. ★ English is one of the official languages of the Olympic Games and the United Nations.
★ English dominates international websites and provides nearly all of the new computer terminology. ★ Tourism and trade from Western Europe and North America has contributed to the spread of English. ★ Satellite TV, radio programs like Joy FM, CDs and, of course, Hollywood films all broadcast English into China. Also, a number of Chinese films include English subtitles. II. Reading 1. Skimming Read quickly to get the main idea of the text. Let the students find out key sentence of each paragraph or ask them to summarize the main point for each paragraph in their own words. Paragraph 1: The spread of the English language in the world Paragraph 2: Native speaker can understand each other but they may not be able to understand everything. Paragraph 3: All languages change when cultures communicate with one another. Paragraph 4: English is spoken as a foreign language or second language in Africa and Asia. 2. Scanning Read to locate particular information and complete the comprehending Exercise One.
3. Following up Work in groups. Discuss the two questions and then ask two groups to report their answers to the class. 1). Do you think it matters what kind of English you learn? Why? Possible answer: I don?t think so. Here are the reasons: ★ Native speakers from different parts of the world have no difficulty in
understanding each other despite the fact that they speak a bit differently. ★ It is necessary for us to learn the narrow difference between different kinds of English if we hope to communicate fluently with native speakers of English from all over the world. ★ Different kinds of English have the same language core. If you have got a good command of one kind, you will almost have no difficulty understanding another kind of English. (Any persuasive and supporting reason the students give can be accepted.) 1) Why do you think people all over the world want to learn English? Possible answer: The reasons why people all over the world want to learn English: ★ With economy globalization, English has become the best bridge to serve the purpose of people all over the world communicating with one another. ★ However, like all major languages in the world, English is always changing. In order to adjust to native speakers from different parts of the world, it is a must for people all over the world to learn English, whether in English speaking countries or in non-English speaking countries. ★ Also, people from different parts of the world speak English with various accent and dialects, and people have to learn about the difference between different kinds of English in order to avoid misunderstanding while communicating. (All persuasive reasons can be accepted.) 4. Language focus: 1) even if=even though: in spite of the fact; no matter whether: He likes to help us even if he is very busy. 2) communicate with: exchange information or conversation with other people: He learnt to use body language to communicate with deaf customers. 3) actually=in fact: used when you are adding new information to what you have just said: We?ve known for years. Actually, since we were babies. 4) be based on…:
5) make use of: use sth. available 6) Only time will tell: to say that something can only be known in the future: Will China?s national football team enter for the next finals of the World Cup? Only time will tell. Language Chunks from Unit 2 English around the world be different from, pay a role(part) in, because of, either …or…, in/on a team, the number of/a number of, than ever before, even if, comp up to, over time, communicate with, be based on, make use of, have one?s own identit y, such as, Only time can tell, native speaker, as well as, solve a problem, believe it or not, no such a…, all over the world, at the top(bottom) of, pen friends, to this day, sum up, Pardon?, beg your pardon, go abroad, be used for, more of a …, encourage sb. to do sth., work on, feel like sth., from time to time,
English-speaking countries, from one…to another, do business, on the air, would like sb. to do, make notes, fight against, keep…a secret, even though, save time(money), a form of…
Period 2: A sample lesson plan for Learning about Language (Indirect Speech (II) requests & commands)
To discover useful words and expressions To discover useful structures
I. Direct and Indirect Speech
Direct Speech simple present He said, “I go to school every day.”
Indirect Speech simple past He said (that) he went to school every day.
simple past past perfect He said, “I went to school every He said (that) he had gone to school every day.” day. present perfect past perfect He said, “I have gone to school every He said (that) he had gone to school every day.” day. present progressive past progressive He said, “I am going to school every He said (that) he was going to school every day.” day. past progressive perfect progressive He said, “I was going to school every He said (that) he had been going to school day.” every day, future (will) would + verb name He said, “I will go to school every He said (that) he would go to school every day.” day. future (going to) present progressive He said, “I am going to school every He said (that) he is going to school every day. day.” past progressive He said (that) he was going to school every day Direct Speech Indirect Speech
auxiliary + verb name simple past He said, “Do you go to school every He asked me if I went to school every day.* day?” He asked me where I went to school. He said, “Where do you go to school?” imperative He said, “Go to school every day.” infinitive He said to go to school every day.
Direct Speech simple present + simple present He says, “I go to school every day.”
Indirect Speech simple present + simple present He says (that) he goes to school every day.
present perfect + simple present present perfect + simple present He has said, “I go to school every He has said (that) he goes to school every day.” day. past progressive + simple past past progressive + simple past He was saying, “I went to school He was saying (that) he went to school every every day.” day. past progressive + past perfect He was saying (that) he had gone to school every day.
can could He said, “I can go to school every He said (that) he could go to school every day.” day. may might He said, “I may go to school every He said (that) he might go to school every day.” day. might He said, “I might go to school every day.” must had to He said, “I must go to school every He said (that) he had to go to school every
day.” have to He said, “I have to go to school every day.”
should should He said, “I should go to school every He said (that) he should go to school every day.” day. ought to ought to He said, “I ought to go to school every He said (that) he ought to go to school day.” every day. II. Discovering useful words and expressions 1. Work in pairs. Do exercises 1, 2, 3 and 4. Then check the answer you?re your classmates. The teacher helps the students discover the difference in prepositions. 2. Play the tape for the students to listen and ask them to mark the sentence stress and intonation. Then practice reading in pairs. (The teacher brings the students? attention to the British and American words that are different but have the same meaning.) III. Discovering useful structures (Making commands and requests using indirect speech) 1. In groups of four, think of at least three commands your teachers and parents usually give. You may follow these steps. 1) Choose one who is to give the first command. 2) Ask another person in your group to tell somebody what you said. 3) The third person will change the request or command from direct into indirect speech. 4) Change role so that each person gets the chance to give commands and turn them into indirect speech. Example: T: Please don?t talk in class.
S1: What did our teacher tell us? / What did our teacher say? S2: He told/asked us not to talk in class. / She said not to talk in class. 2. Get the students thinking about the difference between the request and command. Then read the replies and decide whether they are in answer to a request or a command. Write the sentence down. ★ A: _______________________________________ B: I?ll go and collect some wood right now, master. ★ A: _______________________________________ B: Of course I?ll be happy to collect your shopping for you. ★ A:__________________________________________ B: Yes. I?ll shut the door at once, Mr. Zhang. ★ A:_________________________________________ B: No, I won?t get your coat if you talk to me like that. ★ A:_________________________________________ B: Sorry. I?ll get that book for you right now.
Period 3: A sample lesson plan for Using Language (STANDARD ENGLISH AND DIALECTS)
To read out and talk about STANDARD ENGLISH AND DIALECTS To write about learning English by brainstorming
I. Warming up
1. Introduction: In China there?re so many dialects that the government encourages the whole nation to speak Putonghua, which is regarded as standard Chinese. 2. Role-play: Get students to work in pairs. Let one student be a Chinese and the other a foreigner. Role-play a conversation about the Chinese language to have them discuss why Putonghua has to be used in China. II. Reading 1. Get the students thinking about the topic of the text to predict what it says. 2. Skimming: Read quickly to find the topic sentence for each paragraph. Para. 1: There is no such a thing as Standard English. Para. 2: American English has many dialects whose words and expressions are different from “standard English”. Para. 3: Geography plays a part in making dialects. 3. Scanning: Work in pairs. Read the text to locate particular information. 1). Do you know what Standard English is from the text? 2). What is a dialect? Why does American English have so many dialects? 4. Language focus: 1) believe it or not: used when you are going to say something that is true but surprising: Believe it or not, John cheated in the exam. 2). there is no such a …as: used to say that a particular person or thing does not exist: These days there is no such a thing as a job for life. 3). standard English: the form of English that most people in Britain use, and that is not limited to one area or group of people 4). dialect: a variety of a language spoken only in one area, in which words, or grammar are slightly different from other forms of the same language 5). play a part/role in: be one of the causes that make something happen: Besides dieting, exercising plays an important part in losing weight. III. Listening To introduce the students to a dialect and a form of standard “English”.
- 10 -
You may follow these steps: 1). Set the context for the students by describing the situation; 2). Tell the class: you are going to listen to a boy named Buford. He speaks a Southern dialect of AmE with an East, Texas accent. Remember: pronunciation is determined by accent. On the other hand, Buford?s teacher, Jane, speaks standard BrE. (i.e. what is heard on the BBC.) 3). Play the tape for the students to listen. 4). Encourage the students to give the standard equivalents for the dialectic words from Buford?s story, using the context. Dialectic words Standard English from Buford’s story equivalents hey hello y?all everyone ain?t aren?t yer your ya you pup child swimmin? swimming jumpin? jumping feelin? feeling ?bout about ?nough enough shoulda seen should have seen got outta got out of 6). Play the tape again and let the students answer the questions in pairs after listening. 7). Check the answers. (Variant: you may also ask the students to retell Buford?s story in Standard English in pairs.) IV. Speaking
- 11 -
1. Make sure the students know that the word used for directions often vary depending on what kind of English the speaker uses. Present the list to the students: Amy (American) subway left keep going straight two blocks right Lady (British) underground left-hand side go straight on two streets right-hand side
2. Prepare their role-play in pairs: Be sure that one plays a speaker of British English and the other a speaker of American English. Ask students to select actual streets and location in their hometown for giving directions. 3. Performance: Ask two pairs to perform their dialogue in class. Sample version: S1: Excuse me, sir. But I can?t find the drugstore? S2: Pardon? S1: I said I couldn?t find the chemist?s shop. S2: Well, go round the corner on your right-hand side, straight on and cross the flyover. You will find it ahead. S1: Thank you very much. S3: What did he say? S1: He told us to go round the corner on the right, go straight on and then cross the overpass. The drugstore will be ahead. Self-assessment criteria: Did you cooperate well with your partner(s) while practicing? Can you ask for directions and give directions clearly? Can you express your ideas fluently? If not, what?s your main problem? Did you go naturally between American English and British English while talking to each other. V. Writing
- 12 -
1. Making a poster First ask the students to make educated guesses about how English can help some aspect of Chinese life, in particular its economy. Then, in pairs students work on their poster. Finally, ask several pairs to present their poster in class for assessment. A Sample poster CHINA?S FUTURE LIES WITH LEARNING ENGLISH Reasons for learning English: ※ ※ ※ ※ World trade is done in English; International organization (such as the UN) use English; We need contact with the developed Western world to build our country; The developed world uses English in its dealings.
Why the Chinese language will not do? ※ ※ ※ Very few people in the West speak Chinese; Chinese is a difficult language to learn; Most businessmen do not have time to learn new languages every time they
enter a new international market. SO CHINA?S FUTURE LIES WITH LEARNING ENGLISH 2.Writing Assessment 1) Can you give persuasive reasons for the topic on your poster? 2) Can you verbalize your ideas fluently? 3) Can you put your own English learning experiences into a broader perspective? 4) Can you organize your ideas in a logical way? 5) Have you made a brainstorming map before you set out to design your poster? Do you think it helps your writing? 6) What kind of mistakes have you made in your writing? What can you do to avoid such mistakes? Further Applying The teacher may also guide the students to do the writhing task in the Workbook on
- 13 -
page 53. You may take the following steps: Step 1: Students divided into groups of four share their own learning experiences and ideas about English learning. Step 2: Students make a list as follows: My problems Ideas for improvement Why I like English My future with English
Step 3: Make notes about the paragraphs for the writing. Step 4: The teacher helps develop ideas in a positive and encouraging way. Step 5: Students write about the topic after class as homework. Sample version: My experience of learning English Many people all over the world speak English as their second language. It is not too much to say that it has become an international language. Studying English can make life fun. It enables you to watch American movies, read English books and listen to English songs. Moreover, as English is an international language, you will be able to communicate with foreigners when you are on a trip abroad. Traveling will be more interesting that way. It is a good idea to make friends with foreigners. In my opinion, it is the best way to improve your English. In addition, it will be fun and it will expand your view of the world. If you make friends with a native speaker, you can practice your spoken English more often and then you can communicate with people around the world. You can also become familiar with the customs and habits of different cultures. There are some people who are afraid to make friends with foreigners because they are not confident of their English. However, many foreigners do not care about grammar. They will get your key words in the sentence and figure out the whole
- 14 -
meanings. Therefore, it is unnecessary to be afraid to make friends with them; just go head! Learning English helps us meet different people and learn more about their culture, thus facilitating mutual understanding and harmony. Briefly said, English is so useful to us that we should all learn it.
Part Two: Teaching resources（第二部分：教学资源）
Section 1: Approaches to process writing 程序写作教学法
I. Pre-writing 1. Brainstorming Getting started can be difficult, so students divided into groups quickly produce words and ideas about the writing. 2. Planning Students make a plan of the writing before they start. These plans can be compared and discussed in groups before writing takes place. 3. Generating ideas Discovery tasks such as cubing (Students write quickly about the subject in six different ways. 1. describe it 2. compare it 3. associate it 4. analyse it 5. apply it 6. argue for or against it.)
4. Questioning In groups, the idea is to generate lots of questions about the topic. This helps students focus upon audience as they consider what the reader needs to know. The answers to these questions will form the basis to the composition. 5. Discussing and debating
- 15 -
The teacher helps students with topics, helping them develop ideas in a positive and encouraging way. II. Focusing ideas 1. Fast writing The students write quickly on a topic for five to ten minutes without worrying about correct language or punctuation. Writing as quickly as possible, if they cannot think of a word they leave a space or write it in their own language. The important thing is to keep writing. Later this text is revised. 2. Group compositions Working together in groups, sharing ideas. This collaborative writing is especially valuable as it involves other skills (speaking in particular). 3. Changing viewpoints A good writing activity to follow a role-play or storytelling activity. Different students choose different points of view and think about /discuss what this character would write in a diary, witness statement, etc. 4. Varying form Similar to the activity above, but instead of different viewpoints, different text types are selected. How would the text be different if it were written as a letter, or a newspaper article, etc. III. Evaluating, structuring and editing 1.Ordering Students take the notes written in one of the pre-writing activities above and organize them. What would come first? Why? Here it is good to tell them to start with information known to the reader before moving onto what the reader does not know. 2. Self-editing A good writer must learn how to evaluate their own language ─ to improve through checking their own text, looking for errors, structure. This way students will become better writers. 3. Peer Editing and proofreading Here, the texts are interchanged and the evaluation is done by other students. In the
- 16 -
real world, it is common for writers to ask friends and colleagues to check texts for spelling, etc. You could also ask the students to reduce the texts, to edit them, concentrating on the most important information. 4. The importance of feedback It takes a lot of time and effort to write, and so it is only fair that student writing is responded to suitably. Positive comments can help build student confidence and create good feeling for the next writing class. It also helps if the reader is more than just the teacher. Class magazines, swapping letters with other classes, etc. can provide an easy solution to providing a real audience. 5. Writing as communication Process writing is a move away from students writing to test their language towards the communication of ideas, feelings and experiences. It requires that more classroom time is spent on writing, but as the previously outlined activities show, there is more than just writing happening during a session dedicated to process writing. 6. Potential problems Writing is a complex process and can lead to learner frustration. As with speaking, it is necessary to provide a supportive environment for the students and be patient. This approach needs that more time be spent on writing in class, but as you have seen, not all classroom time is spent actually writing. Students may also react negatively to reworking the same material, but as long as the activities are varied and the objectives clear, then they will usually accept doing so. In the long term, you and your students will start to recognise the value of a process writing approach as their written work improves.
Section 2: Background information on English Around the World
I. British English, American English and Chinese Cars and Driving
- 17 -
British English car park driving license flyover four way hire car motorway
American English parking lot driver's license overpass crossroads rental car freeway(Western U.S.) expressway (Eastern U.S.)
Chinese 停车场 驾照 天桥 十字路口 租用车 高速公路
petrol tyre windscreen
gasoline(gas) tire windshield Food
汽油 轮胎 挡风玻璃
British English biscuit chips crisps jacket potato jam mince porridge pudding sweet tin
American English cookie French fries potato chips baked potato jelly hamburger oatmeal dessert dessert can Others
Chinese 饼干 炸土豆片 油炸土豆片 带皮烤的马铃薯 酱 碎牛肉；牛肉饼 稀饭 布丁；甜点 餐后甜点 罐头
British English autumn bill bin liner
American English fall check trash bag
Chinese 秋天 清单 垃圾袋
- 18 -
botanic garden braces charity chemist?s cinema coach DIY dustbin
engaged (as in telephone)
botanical garden suspenders non-profit organization pharmacy/drug store movie theater, theater bus do it yourself trash can busy tuition equip, fit out apartment soccer toll-free dress (noun) men?s room principal rent (rent a car) vacation sick in the future in the hospital get on the train sweater license elevator truck math zero
- 19 -
植物园 吊裤带；吊杆 慈善机构 药店 电影院 长途汽车 自己动手做 垃圾箱 （电话）占线 学费 安装 单元住宅 足球 免费电话 外衣；服装 男厕 男厕 租借 假日 有病的 未来，将来 住院 上火车 毛线衫 执照 电梯 卡车 数学 零
fee (for schooling) fit (verb) flat football freephone toll-free gents headmaster hire (hire a car) holiday ill in future in hospital join the train jumper licence (noun) lift lorry maths nil
note on stream post queue railway return rise (noun - in salary) rubber rucksack shopping trolley “sorry” stand (for election) swear word subway subway tea towel telephone box toilet torch trainers transport (noun) trousers trolley tube underground vest waistcoat
bill on line mail line railroad round trip raise eraser backpack shopping car “excuse me”, “pardon me” run (for election) curse word underpass underpass dish towel telephone booth restroom flashlight sneakers transportation pants cart subway subway undershirt vest
纸币 在生产中 邮件 长队 铁路 返程 加薪 橡皮擦 背包 购物手推车 对不起 竞选 咒语 餐巾 地下道；地铁 餐巾 电话亭 厕所 火炬 运动鞋 运输 裤子 手推车 地铁 地铁 背心 马甲
II. Different English, different spellings
- 20 -
American English theater, center, liter color, honor, labor, favor, vapor traveler, woolen skillful, fulfill check program story realize, analyze, apologize defense, offense, license burned dreamed smelled spelled spoiled
British English theatre, center, litre colour, honour, labour, favour, vapour traveler, woolen skilful, fulfil cheque programme storey realise, analyse, apologise defence, offence, licence burnt/burned dreamt/dreamed smelt/smelled spelt/spelled spoilt/spoiled
III.Websites recommended to the students 推荐网站 www.e-l-e.net.cn www.esl.about.com www.effingpot.com www.bg-map.com www.english-zone.com www.topics-mag.com
Going to any of the websites may enable the students to learn more about the differences between American English and British English.
Section 3: Words and expressions from Unit 2 English Around the World
Include 1. v. to be one of the parts; to make something or someone part of a larger group: Our tour party included several retired couples. The team is looking strong; especially now they have included Beckham. 2. including & included: Everyone has to go to the dentist?s, you included. There were twelve of us, including Tom and me.
- 21 -
role: n. 1. the character played by an actor in a play or film; the position that someone has in society or an organization: Matthews plays the role of a young doctor in the film. Women are often forced into a supportive role in the family. 2. play a leading/major/key role in=be important in making changes happen: Mandela played a leading role in ending apartheid in South Africa. because of=as the result of a particular thing or someone?s action: He had to retire because of ill health. c.f. She got the job because she was the best candidate. native: 1. adj. your native country or town is the place where you were born: They never saw their native land again. 2. native language/tongue: the language you spoke when you first learned to speak. 3. n. a person who was born in a particular place： Are you a native of New York? come up: 1. to be mentioned：A lot of new questions came up at the meeting. 2. to be about to happen soon：Don?t you have a birthday coming up soon? 3. to move near someone or something by walking: Come up to the front of the room so everyone can see you. Other verbal phrases of “come” come about=to happen in a way that seems impossible to control; come across= to meet or find something or someone by chance; come along=get along; to appear at a time you don?t expect; to encourage sb. to try harder; come by=to obtain something that is difficult to find; come up with=to think of an idea; (The small word “come” has many phrasal verbs. It is better to ask the students to refer to a good dictionary.) present: adj. 1. be present: a) to be in a particular place: How many people were present at the meeting yesterday?(opposite of “ absent”) b) to be remembered for a long time: The memory of the disaster last year is still present in her mind. 2. (only before noun) existing now: What?s your present address? c.f. What he said amused all the people present. such as: used to give an example of something; such…as/that: used to emphasize
- 22 -
that there is a small amount of something or that it is of good quality: The local economy still relies on traditional industries such as farming and mining. c.f. Such food as they gave us was warm and nutritious. Command: 1. vi & vt. to tell someone officially to do something, esp. if you are a military leader or a king to get something such as attention or respect: The general commanded that the regiment (should) attack at once. Or The General commanded the regiment to attack at once. Dr. Young commands a great deal of respect as a surgeon. 2. get/ have a good command of English=to get/have a good mastery of English. request: 1. vt. to ask for something politely or formally request that (should) + v/ request sb. to do sth.: The staff requested that he reconsider his decision. All club members are requested to attend the annual meeting. 2. n. a polite demand for something: They have made a urgent request for international aid. recognize: vt. 1. to know who someone is or what something is, because you have ever seen them or it before: Susan came home so thin and weak that her own children hardly recognized her. 2. to accept that an organization has legal or official authority: British medical qualifications are recognized in Canada. 3. be recognized as= to be thought of as being very good by a lot of people: Jules Verne?s novel was recognized as a work of genius.
- 23 -
copyright ©right 2010-2020。