Ⅰ. 含义与构成 1. 被动语态表示句中的主语接受谓语动作，也就是说，主语是谓语动作的承受者。谓 语动词用作被动语态的句子叫做被动句。 2. 构成：be + 过去分词（be 有时可用 become 或 get 代替） Be 随着主语的人称、数、时态和语气的不同而变化。 3. 被动语态的各种时态形式有： ★ 一般时态：be + 过去分词 现
在 is/ am/ are done 过去 was/ were done 将来 will/ shall be done 过去将来 would/ done English is spoken in many countries. Romeo and Juliet was written by Shakespeare. Many believe that one day the earth will be destroyed if people do not learn to live in peace. ★ 进行时态：be + being + 过去分词 现在 is/ am/ are being done 过去 was/ were being done 将来 will/ shall be being done 过去将来 would/ should be should be
His plan is being carried out successfully. The new curtains were being hung when the visitors showed up. The car will be being cleaned by my brother. ★ 完成时态：have + been + 过去分词 现在 have/ has been done I’ve been robbed. 过去 had been done 将来 will/ shall have 过去将来 would/ should have been done
The outcome of the election was announced before all of the votes had been counted. Everything will have been done by the end of this month. 【练一练】 1. (2010 湖南) This coastal area _________ a national wildlife reserve last year. A. was named B. named C. is named D. names
2. (2010 全国 1) The discovery of gold in Australia led thousands to believe that a fortune _________. A. is made made 3. (2010 上海) The church tower which _________ will be open to tourists soon. The work is almost finished. A. has restored C. is restoring B. has been restored D. is being restored B. would make C. was to be made D. had
4. (2010 北京) In the spoken English of some areas in the US, the “r” sounds at the end of the words _________. A. are dropped dropped 5. (2010 陕西) It is reported that many a new house _________ at present in the disaster area. A. are being built C. was being built B. were being built D. is being built B. drop C. are being dropped D. have
6. (2010 福建) Every year a flood of farmers arrive in Shenzhen for the money –making jobs they _________ before they leaving their hometowns. A. promised C. have promised B. were promised D. have been promised
7. (2010 天津) Traditional folk arts of Tianjin like paper cutting _________ at the culture show of the 2010 Shanghai World Expo. A. are exhibiting C. are being exhibiting B. is exhibiting D. is being exhibiting
8. (2010 四川) You’ve failed to do what you _________ to and I’m afraid the teacher will blame you.
A. will expect expected
B. will be expected
Ⅱ. 用法 1. 要用到被动语态的情况 1） 强调动作的承受者： Frank was hit by a car. A new idea has been suggested. 2） 说话者不知道动作的执行者，或者认为没有必要指出： This bridge was built in 1700. The house is being repaired. 3） 说话者希望所说的内容显得更加客观，避免就一些自己不太肯定的事表态： 此类通常为表示\"据说\"或\"相信\" 的词组，基本上由 believe, consider, declare, expect, feel , report, say, see, suppose, think, understand 等组成， It is said that… 如： 据说；It is reported that… 据报道；It is believed that… that… 大家希望； It is well known that… 众所周知 大家相信；It is hoped
It is said that Japan’s industrial progress after the war was very remarkable. 4） 在文章标题、广告、新闻中 Waitress wanted. Millions of pounds’ worth of damage has been caused by a storm which swept across the north of England last night.
2. 感官动词主动语态的宾语补足语是不带 to 的不定式，变为被动语态时，该不定式前 要加"to"： The teacher made me go out of the classroom. --> I was made to go out of the classroom （by the teacher）. We saw him play football on the playground. --> He was seen to play football on the playground. 3. 情态动词的被动语态：情态动词+ be +过去分词， Coal can be used to produce electricity for agriculture and industry. 煤可以产生工农业
需要的电。 4. 短语动词的被动语态：短语动词是一个整体，不可丢掉后面的介词或副词。例如： My sister will be taken care of by Grandma. Such a thing has never been heard of before. 5. 主动形式表被动意义 1） 系动词 look. Sound, feel, smell, taste, appear, seem, go, prove, seem… + adj. / n. 构 成系表结构: The steel feels cold. His plan proved (to be) practical. 2） 表示开始、结束、运动的动词，如 begin, finish, start, open, close, stop, end, shut 等： Work began at 7o’clock this morning. The shop closes at 6 p.m. every day. 3） 表示主语的某种属性特征的动词，如 read, write, act, iron, cut, drive, sell, wash, clean 等。这类动词一般不单独使用，常有一个修饰语： This coat dries/ washes/ irons easily. The book sells well. This novel reads well. . 4） blame, let（出租）, remain, keep, rent, build 等: I was to blame for the accident. Much work remains. 5） 在 need, require, want, worth （形容词）, deserve + V-ing 表示被动： The door needs repairing. = The door needs to be repaired. This book is worth reading. 6） 介词 in, on, under…+ n. 构成介词短语表被动： Under control 受控制; under treatment 在治疗中; under repair 在修理中；under discussion 在讨论中；in print 在印刷中；on sale 出售；on show 展出 The rumor is beyond belief. (=can’t be believed) Today some treasures are on show (= are being shown) in the museum. 【练一练】翻译下列句子：
9. 这道菜尝起来很香。 10. 这门锁不上。 11. 这刀子很好用。 12. 你的头发该理了。 13. 这个问题正在讨论之中。 6. 不用被动语态的情况： 1） 不及物动词或不及物动词短语， appear, die disappear, end vi. 结束） fail, happen, 如 （ , last, lie, remain, sit, spread, stand, break out, come true, fall asleep, keep silence, lose heart, take place 等没有无被动语态。 After the fire, very little remained of my house. 【试比较】rise, fall, happen 是不及物动词；raise, seat 是及物动词。 （错） The price has been risen. （对） The price has risen. （错） The accident was happened last week. （对） The accident happened last week. （错） The price has raised. （对） The price has been raised. （错） Please seat. （对） Please be seated. 2） 不能用于被动语态的及物动词或动词短语，如 fit, have, hold, marry, own, wish, cost, notice, watch agree with, arrive at / in, shake hands with, succeed in, suffer from, happen to, take part in, walk into, belong to 等： 例：This key just fits the lock. 这把钥匙只配这把锁。 3） 系动词无被动语态，如 appear, be become, fall, feel, get, grow, keep, look, remain, seem, smell, sound, stay, taste, turn： 例：It sounds good. 听上去不错。
Ⅲ. Exercises 1. I should be very much like to have gone to the party, but I _________. A. am not invited B. am not being invited
C. shall not be invited 2. ----How are things going?
D. was not invited
---- The disabled _________ no relatives in Guangzhou _________ by the volunteers, who will graduate from Zhongshan University next year. A. with; are taking care of C. with; are being taken care of B. have; will be taken care of D. have; are being taken care of
3. The attackers were arrested and didn’t know where they _________. A. would take taken 4. People begin to know that most environmental problems exist because necessary measures for preventing them _________ in the past. A. are not taken wouldn’t be taken 5. ----My car _________ twice this month. ---- I’m sorry to hear that. A. has been broken in C. has been broken into B. was broken in D. was broken into B. were not taken C. hadn’t been taken D. B. are taken C. were being taken D. will be
6. Our game of basketball _________. We had been playing for about half an hour when it started to rain heavily. A. has interrupted been interrupted 7. The princess and the Frog is a fairy musical that _________ the days when Walt Disney was a person, not a brand. A. was dated back to C. has been dating from B. dates back to D. had dated from B. had interrupted C. was interrupted D. had
8. (2010 全国 2) Linda, make sure the tables _________ before the guests arrive. A. be set B. set C. are set D. are setting
9. (2009 北京) The way the guests _________ in the hotel influenced their evaluation of the service.. A. treated B. were treated C. would treat D. would be
treated 10. (2009 上海) During the period of recent terrorist activities, people _________ not to touch any unattended bag. A. had always been warned C. are always warning B. were always being warned D. always warned
11. (2009 福建) ----Why does the lake smell terrible? ----Because large quantities of water _________. A. have polluted C. has been polluted B. is being polluted D. have been polluted
12. (2009 江苏) ----Hi, Tory, can I use your computer for a while this afternoon? ----Sorry. _________. A. It’s repaired C. It’s being repaired B. It has been repaired D. It had been repaired
13. (2008 全国 1) The wet weather will continue tomorrow, when a cold front _________ to arrive. A. is expected expected 14. (2008 安徽) I like these English songs and they _________ many times on the radio. A. taught taught 15. (2007 北京) I got caught in the rain and my suit _________. A. has ruined ruined B. had ruined C. has been ruined D. had been B. have taught C. are taught D. have been B. is expecting C. expects D. will be
Ⅳ. Keys 【练一练】 1. A 2. C 3. D 4. A 5. D 6. D 7. C 8. D
9. The dish tastes delicious. 10. The door won’t lock. 11. Your hair wants/ needs cutting.
12. The knife cuts easily. 13. The problem is under discussion.
Exercises: 1-5 DCCBC 6-10 CBCBB 11-15. DCADC
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