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2013高考英语一轮复习 阅读理解之词义猜测题


阅读理解之词义猜测题

阅读中有生词是难免的,而利用文章所提供的语境去 推测生词的意义是阅读的必备技能之一。词义猜测题是高考

必考的题型,一般占阅读理解总题量的10%左右。所猜词汇
可以是生词,也可以是熟词新义,还可以是人称代词的指代 内容。

常见的命题方式:

The phrase “...” could be replaced by ________.
The word “...” in the paragraph refers to ________. What is the meaning of the underlined word in the paragraph?/What does the underlined word mean? Which of the following is the closest in meaning to the

phrase “...”?
Which of the following words can take the place of the word “...”?

词义猜测题主要考查考生根据上下文推测词义和语义 的能力,突出考查对语境的分析和把握能力。常见的猜词 法有: (1)利用上下文语境。猜测任何词义都离不开上下文,所

以要借助上下文对需要猜测的词或短语进行合乎逻辑
的推测。 (2)利用定义或解释性的线索。阅读文章中的有些生词往

往在其后会有对该词进行解释说明的短语或句子,利
用它们猜词义较容易。

(3)利用文章的逻辑关系答题。如并列、对比、因果、转 折关系等。这些逻辑关系往往通过一些相应的词或短 语表达出来,如but, or, however, so, because等。 (4)利用构词法知识答题。熟记一些前缀、后缀所表达的

意思,不仅可以扩大词汇量,而且帮助我们猜测词义。

(2011· 浙江高考,A篇)One evening in February 2007,
a student named Paula Ceely brought her car to a stop on a remote road in Wales. She got out to open a metal gate that blocked her path. That's when she heard the whistle sounded by the driver of a train. Her Renault Clio was parked across a railway line. Seconds later, she watched the train drag her car almost a kilometre down the railway tracks.

Ceely's near miss made the news because she blamed it on her GPS device (导航仪). She had never driven the route

before. It was dark and raining heavily. Ceely was relying on
her GPS, but it made no mention of the crossing. “I put my complete trust in the device and it led me right into the path of a speeding train,” she told the BBC.

Who is to blame here? Rick Stevenson, who tells
Ceely's story in his book When Machines Fail Us, points the finger at the limitations of technology. We put our faith in digital devices, he says, but our digital helpers are too often not up to the job. They are filled with small problems.

And it's not just GPS devices: Stevenson takes us on a tour
of digital disasters involving everything from mobile phones to wireless keyboards.

The problem with his argument in the book is that it's not clear why he only focuses on digital technology, while there may be a number of other possible causes. A mapmaker might have left the crossing off a paper map. Maybe we should blame Ceely for not paying attention. Perhaps the railway authorities are at fault for poor

signalling system. Or maybe someone has studied the
relative dangers and worked out that there really is something specific wrong with the GPS equipment. But

Stevenson doesn't say.

It's a problem that runs through the book. In a section

on cars, Stevenson gives an account of the advanced
techniques that criminals use to defeat computerbased locking systems for cars. He offers two independent sets of figures on car theft; both show a small rise in some parts of the country. He says that once again not all new locks have

proved reliable. Perhaps, but maybe it's also due to the
shortage of policemen on the streets. Or changing social circumstances. Or some combination of these factors.

The game between humans and their smart devices is amusing and complex. It is shaped by economics and psychology and the cultures we live in. Somewhere in the mix of those forces there may be a way for a wiser use of

technology.
If there is such a way, it should involve more than just an awareness of the shortcomings of our machines. After all, we have lived with them for thousands of years. They have probably been fooling us for just as long.

语篇解读:随着时代的发展,科技越来越先进,人类也越 来越依赖科技,但有时候科技也会给人们带来麻烦,文章 中作者将会告诉我们什么呢?让我们去了解一下吧!

41.What did Paula Ceely think was the cause of her accident? A.She was not familiar with the road. B.It was dark and raining heavily then. ( )

C.The railway workers failed to give the signal.
D.Her GPS device didn't tell her about the crossing. 提示:推理判断题。利用要诀3跳读查找法与要诀5中的排 除法相结合。

解析:从文章第二段she blamed it on her GPS device; Ceely was relying on her GPS, but it made no mention of

the crossing. “I ... train,” she told the BBC.可以看出,
Ceely怪罪的是这个导航仪没有给她提示出这个铁路道口 的存在。 答案: D

42.The phrase “near miss” (Paragraph 2) can best be
replaced by ________. A.close hit C.narrow escape B.heavy loss D.big mistake

提示:词义猜测题。利用要诀8中的上下文暗示法。 解析:由上下文暗示可知,near miss是对第一段撞车事故 的概括,相当于narrow escape,表示“幸免于难”的意思。 答案: C

43.Which of the following would Rick Stevenson most probably agree with? ( )

A.Modern technology is what we can't live without. B.Digital technology often falls short of our expectation.

C.Digital devices are more reliable than they used to be.
D.GPS error is not the only cause for Ceely's accident. 提示:细节理解题。利用要诀5正选法与排除法。 解析:从文章第三段可以看出,Rick Stevenson表明“技术 是有局限性的”,数字技术不一定能满足人们的所有愿望。 答案:B

44.In the writer's opinion, Stevenson's argument
is________. A.onesided C.puzzling B.reasonable D.wellbased

提示:细节理解题。利用要诀7情感词汇推断法。

解析:从第四段“The problem with his argument in the
book is that it's not clear why he only focuses on digital technology, while there may be a number of other possible causes.”可以看出,作者指出Rick Stevenson的观 点是片面的。 答案:A

45.What is the real concern of the writer of this article? ( )

A.The major causes of traffic accidents and car thefts.
B.The relationship between humans and technology. C.The shortcomings of digital devices we use. D.The human unawareness of technical problems.

提示:主旨大意题。利用要诀6演绎推理法和归纳推理法。

解析:从第六段“The game between humans and their

smart devices is amusing and complex. It is shaped by
economics and psychology and the cultures we live in. Somewhere in the mix of those forces there may be a way for a wiser use of technology.”可以推断出,作者最 关心的是科技与人类的关系,故B项正确。 答案:B


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