高中英语阅读表达技巧及练习题阅读表达题是自 2007 年开始山 东省高考试题中增加的一种新的测试题型，要求考生在阅读所给短 文，然后按照题目要求回答文后的五个问题，每个问题 3 分，总分 15 分。该题型的测试目的是从多方位多角度考查考生通过阅读获取 信息、处理信息并进行书面表达的能力。比传统的阅读理解题型更具 综合性和主观性，更能体现对考生的综合语言
运用能力的考查。 阅读表达题的解题方法与技巧 1、主旨概括：主要考查考生对文章内容的整体把握能力。要想答 好该题，考生必须有很强的概括能力或归纳能力，要善于寻找能够概 括全文的主题段落或者主题句， 剔除文中的细节事实或者作者所用的 论据，即要分清主旨和细节，概括出来的中心意思一定要能够覆盖全 文或整个段落，绝对不可太笼统离题太远或者以偏概全；文中标题格 式可以是完整的句子，简洁的短语，也可以用问题的形式，同时要注 意字数要求。具体的表达可以先根据文章内容找出关键词，再在此基 础上确定文章标题或者文章的 main idea。 2、同义句替换：只有准确理解所给句子的意义，才能准确快速地 找出原文中意义相同的句子。 3、填空：回答此类问题时，一定首先注意弄清楚上下文的逻辑关 系，如递进、转折、并列、对比、因果等等；然后根据上下文的含义 搞清楚空白处该填句子还是短语或者单词，再读上下文，最后确定答 案。 4、翻译句子：在该类题目中要求翻译的句子往往是结果较为复杂 或者包括一些特定习语的句子。 因此再翻译之前一定要先分析句子结 构，并结合文章中心思想以及上下文弄清句子所在的语境，同时还要 注意英、汉两种语言及其问题特征的差异，最后在忠实于原文的基础 上，把画线部分的句子翻译成符合汉语表达习惯的句子。 5、封闭性问题：封闭性问题是指答案是固定或唯一的问题，一般 可在文章中找到明确的答案或依据，包括常见的 wh-questions。 6、开放性问题：开放性问题是阅读表达中主观性最强的试题，要 求考生结合个人的观点、经验来回答相关问题。 7、其他类型：该题是结合文章的不同题材和体裁给出的除以上 6 种类型以外的类型的题。比如设计图表题，推理判断题等。 下面通过 2007 山东卷的阅读表达实例对各种类型问题的答题技巧一 一说明。 An American friend of mine who was high up in a big corporation had worked out a way of handling a flood of e-mails before most of us had
even heard of the concept. If any information he was sent was vital enough, his lack of response would ensure the sender rang him up, if the sender asn’t important enough to have his private number, the communication couldn’t be that important, my friend is now even more senior in the same company so the strategy must work. Almost every week now there seems to be a report suggesting that we are all being driven crazy by the bother of e-mail. If this is the case, it’s only because we haven’t developed an appropriate discrimination in dealing with it. _________. Firstly, you junk nothing with an exclamation mark or a string of capital letters, or from any address you don’t recognize or feel confident about. Secondly, e-mails don’t all have to be answered. Because e-mailing is so easy, there’s a tendency for correspondence to carry on for ever, but it is permissible to stop an endless discussion or to accept a point of information sent by a colleague without acknowledging it. Thirdly, a reply e-mail doesn’ t have to be the same length as the original. We all have e-mail pals who send long,chatty e-mail, which are nice to receive, but who then expect an equally long reply. The charm of e-mail can consist in the simple, incomplete sentence, totally regardless of the format of the letter sent by post. You are perfectly within the bounds of politeness in responding to a marathon e-mail with a better reply. 76．Which sentence in the passage is the closest in meaning to the following one? The possible existence of annoyance results from our inability to sort out e-mails ___________________________________________________________ 77．Fill in the blank in Paragraph 3 with a proper sentence.(within 10 words ) ___________________________________________________________ 78．What advice is given in the last paragraph? (within 10 words) ___________________________________________________________ 79．For what purpose does the author mention his American friend in Paragraph 1 ?(within 10 words)
___________________________________________________________ 80．Translate the underlined sentence in the last paragraph into Chinese. ___________________________________________________________ 答案与解析： 76. 答案：If this is the case, it’s only because we haven’t developed an appropriate discrimination in dealing with it. 解析：该题为同意句替换题，细读所给句子，不难得出其意义“这些 令人恼火的情况之所以存在， 是因为我们没有对电子邮件进行分类的 能力” 。然后对照原文，就很容易找到其同意句了。 77. 案：E-mail(s) canbe handled in the following ways. / Here are the waysto deal with e-mail(s). / handling e-mail(s) is an art. 解析：该题为填空题。做该类题目首先要根据上下文搞清楚所填内容 是句子还是短语或单词。 从该题要求来看我们可以知道此处要填入合 适的句子。 联系上下文可知， 下文所列三条都是处理电子邮件的方法， 那就不难知道，此处所填句子内容应该是一个概括性较强的 topic sentence，这样我们就不难知道该填什么内容了。 78. 答案：You may reply to a long e-mail briefly./ You don’t have to write a long reply e-mail. 解析：该题为封闭性问题，要求答出最后一段所给的建议。做这种类 型的题目时，首先要读懂该段要告诉读者的是什么信息，然后根据要 求进行总结，因为有字数限制，所以答题时要特别注意如何用词和如 何组织语言。 从最后一段的第一句我们就可以知道这条建议是告诉读 者“在回复 e-mail 时，不必和对方来信的长度一样” 。其实这句话就 是该问题的答案，但是由于有字数限定，我们就必须改变一下说法， 使答案的字数控制在 10 个单词以内， 这样就可以避免学生照抄原文， 从而达到考察学生灵活运用语言能力的目的。 79. 答案：To show a way of handling e-mail(s) with an example. / To introduce the topic of the text. 解析：该题属于其他类型的题目，要求考生写出作者在第一段中提 到他美国朋友的写作意图。纵观全文不难知道，该短文的主旨是向读 者介绍处理电子邮件的方法。 而作者在第一段引用他美国朋友处理邮 件的方法做为例子，目的正是为了揭示文章主题。 80. 答案：用简短的话回复冗长的邮件完全不失礼节。/ 用简短的话 回复马拉松式的电子邮件也是礼貌的。 解析：该题为句子翻译题。做该题时应先分析句子成分，搞清每个意 群的含义，然后结合上下文以及文章的中心思想，调整成符合汉语表 达习惯的通顺的汉语句子。 翻译该句， 关键是搞清处两个短语的含义，
一个是 within the bound of (在?范围内),另一个是 in responding to (作 答，回复)。 本人教学中搜集并整理了 300 多篇山东高考题型的阅读表达题, 现挑 选出 10 篇供大家欣赏 01 If you are worried about things and are under a lot of stress at work or school, then you are probably not sleeping well. Worry can keep you awake, tossing and turning in bed until the early hours of the morning when you eventually fall asleep. When you wake up, you don’t feel refreshed, but tired and worn out and unable to face a new day. Dr. Henry Winkle, in a recent newspaper article entitled Stress and Sleep, indicates that . Dr. Winkle says, ―The more we worry, t he less we sleep, the more we are unable to deal with stress. If we can find a way to get a good night’s sleep,‖ he adds, ―we can often find the energy to deal with what’s worrying us.‖ So, what is a good night’s sleep? Research shows that the amount of sleep which people need in order to keep healthy varies a lot. Seven hours in about the average amount, though strangely enough, sleeping longer often gives you a headache instead of making you feel more refreshed. Dr. Winkle believes that preparing for sleeping is important. People who work late should try to give themselves a short break and do something restful before going to bed. This could be watching TV or listening to music. Doing some exercise earlier in the day should help you to feel physically as well as mentally tired.A bedtime drink can also help, but coffee or tea should be avoided as they contain caffeine and will keep you awake. ―When you put the light out,‖ Dr. Winkle says, ―concentrate on relaxing your muscles, working slowly up from yo ur feet, and you’ll be asleep beforeyou know it.‖ 1. What is the best title of the passage? (Please answer within 10 words) 2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? People shouldn’t go to sleep immediately but should take a break after working late in the night . 3. Please fill in the blank in the second paragraph with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 10 words) 4. Someone says that the longer you sleep, the better you feel. Try to find some arguments from the passage against the idea. (Please answer within 30 words)
5. Translate the underlined sentence in the first paragraph into Chinese. 02 You might be reading this article and saying, ―Hey, that sounds just like me!‖If so, we’re gladyou recognize that this happens to you. Now you can start taking stepsto lessen your test anxiety. Here are some ways to do that: Ask for help. Talk to your mom or dad, your teacher, or your school guidance counselor. Just talking to someone about test anxietycan make you feel better .Describe what happensto youwhen you’re taking a test and these people can help you figure out some solutions. For instance, learning study skills can boost your test –day confidence. Be prepared. Pay attention in class. Do your homework. Study for the test. On test day, you’re more likely to feel like you know the material. Block bad thoughts. Watch out for any negative messages you might be sendingyourself about the test (―I’m no good at taking tests‖ or ―I’m going to freak our if I get a bad grade‖) .These thoughts can make anxiety worse and make it harder for you to do well on the test. .Everyone makes mistakes .Be more forgiving of your own mistakes, especially if you prepared for the test and are set to do your best. Breathe better. OK, so you already know how to breathe .But did you know that breathing exercises can help calm you down? (Just try not to take in too much air because it might make you feel dizzy.) Here’s how to do it: Inhale (breathe in) slowly and deeply through your nose, and then exhale (breathe out ) slowly through your mouth. Do this two to four times and you just might breathe easier the next time you’re taking a test! 1. What is the best title of the passage ? (Please answer within 10 words) 2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? Having too many negative messages in mind leads to worse test anxiety, which may stop you doing well on the test. 3. Please fill in the blank in the last but one paragraph with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 10 words) 4. Which of the tips do you think is the most useful? (Please answer within 30 words) 5. Translate the underlined sentence in the 6th paragraph into Chinese. 03
These days a green building means more than just the color of the paint. Green building can also refer to environmentally friendly houses, factories, and offices. Green building means ―reducing the impact (影响) of the building on the land ‖ , Taryn Holowka of the U.S. Green Building Council in Washington, D.C., said . According to Holowaka, building account for 65 percent of total U.S. electricity use. But green building can reduce energy and water use. Also, the buildings are often located near public transportation such as buses and subways, ________________. That could be good for the environment, because cars use lots of gas and give off pollution. Green buildings are often built on developed land, so that the buildings don’t destroy forests . Mary Dettling is project manger for a building that put these ideas into action. The Solaire has been called the country’s first green high -rise building. According to Dettling, ―We’re reduced our energy use by one-third and our water by 50 percent,‖. The Solaire also has lights that automatically turn off when people leave the room. In addition, the building has lots of windows, allowing people to use the sun for light during the day. The Solaire cuts water reusing it . Not everyone is eager to move into a green building, however. Some people think that things like solar panels cost more money than more traditional energy sources. Anyhow, Holowaka said,―It’s going to be big.‖ 1. What is the best title of the passage ? (please answer within 10 words) ___________________________________________________________ 2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one ? Green building will become popular in future . . ___________________________________________________________ 3. Please fill in the blank in the fourth paragraph with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence .( Please answer within in 10 words .) ___________________________________________________________ 4. Do you think a green building is better than a common building ? Why? (Please answer within 30 words .)
__________________________________________________________ ___________________________________________________________ 5.Translate the underline sentence in the fourth paragraph into Chinese. ___________________________________________________________ 04 For most Americans, a clean glass of water is just a matter of turning on a faucet（水龙头. But for many of the world’s poorest, it’s hard to get . On Wednesday, the United Nations(UN)marked World Water Day by trying to cut the number of people without good drinking water-one billion human beings worldwide-in half. In the next ten years ,the UN will work with governments around the world to reduce the shortage. Without clean water nearby, many people use water In India, many people bathe and wash their clothes in rivers that are polluted by human waste. According to the UN, not having enough clean water and sanitation causes more than three million deaths a year. ―The links between water and human heath are powerful,‖ said Dr Lee Jong Wook, director-general of the World HealthOrganization(WHO). ―We cannot live without clean water.‖ In fact, the International Federation of the Red Cross said that quick reaction after last year’s Asian tsunami(海啸)had stopped disease. The agency provided clean water to nearly 500,000 people in Indonesia and Sri Lanka after the tsunami. World Water Day was first celebrated in 1993. Since then, it is celebrated each year on March 22. 1. What is the best title of the passage? ___________________________ 2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by this one? The quality of the water is closely connected with human health. ___________________________ ___________________________ 3. What did the International Federation of the Red Cross do after the tsunami? And why? ___________________________ 4. Please fill in the blank in the third paragraph with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence. 5. Translate the first paragraph into Chinese.
05 In the United States, train transportation is unpopular compared with cars and airplanes. Most people like traveling by car or by air. Officials of the United States Department of Transportation made a study in 2001. The study is about how many miles Americans traveled by different means of transportation. They only studied trips longer than 50 miles. The study showed that fifty-six percent of all miles were traveled in personal vehicle. Forty-one percent were traveled in an airplane. Two percent were traveled in a bus. And less than one percent of miles were traveled in a train. Amtrak is the national provider of train transportation in the United States. In the past ten years, the number of its passengers has increased by eighteen percent. Although the number of passengers has increased, it is still very small now. In countries such as France, Germany, or Japan, more people use trains. There are several reasons why many people ____________________________________________________. Firstly, Americans love to drive their own cars. On highways, cars can travel as fast as trains. These highways connect all major cities in America． Secondly, many travelers like to be independent. When they use their own cars they can decide when to travel. Thirdly, many buses travel between major cities. Bus travel is less costly than train travel. In a huge country like the United States, cities are far away from each other. In some cases, travel from one city to another by train may take more than a day. Airplanes can carry passengers over long distances much faster. People who do not want to spend long time traveling by train decide to fly. For these people saving time is the most important thing. 1. What is the best title of the passage? (Please answer within 10 words.) 2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one ? It’s convenient for people to decide the start-off time when they travel i n their own cars. ________________________________________ 3. Please fill in the blank in the fourth paragraph with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence.( Please answer within 10 words.) ____________________________________________________. 4. What means of transportation do you like best when traveling, trains, cars, or planes? Why? ( Please answer within 30 words) ____________________________________________________.
5. Translate the underlined sentences in the last paragraph into Chinese. 06 We often feel trapped within the routines of our everyday lives. In order to achieve a true state of relaxation, we must make time for uninterrupted leisure. Set aside an hour a day, or even a day a week if you can, for your chosen leisure pursuit. Take all the necessary steps to make sure that you will not be called away or interrupted, and leave the telephone off the hook—then, set your spirit free. Accept Change Sometimes it seems safer to stay where we are than to risk going into the unknown or to accept change. But in reality, true relaxation comes not from trying to control life’s natural flow, but from allowing ourselves to be carried along by that flow without fear of the future, or nostalgia （留 恋）for the past. Believe in Yourself Each of us has unlimited potential to achieve our goals —even those that seem the most far-reaching. Mark out realistic stepping stones toward your aims, and try each day to work toward reaching another stone. Most importantly, do not feel disappointed if, on one day, you make only half your intended progress, or even at all—the act of thinking about your goals will help to bring you closer to them. Value Your blessings We are all gifted with spiritual blessings, among them happiness, health, truth, and inner stillness. Spend today bringing happiness to yourself and your friends and family. Tomorrow, eat especially healthily. The next day, be true to yourself—if something makes you unhappy, try something else. The day after, spend time in quiet thinking. The reward for being rich in these blessings is a fulfilled and peaceful life. 1. What is the best title of the passage? （Please answer within 10 words.） ____________________________________________________. 2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? All the wishes will bring you a quiet and meaningful life. ____________________________________________________. 3. Please fill in the blank in the third paragraph with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence.（Please answer within 10 words.） ____________________________________________________. 4. Which of the suggestions do you think is helpful to you? Why?（Please
answer within 30 words.） 5. Translate the underlined sentence in the second paragraph into Chinese. 07 Exchange a glance with someone, and then look away. Do you realize that you have made a statement? Hold the glance for a second longer and you have made _____________. Hold it for 3 seconds, and the meaning has changed again. For every social situation, there is a permissible time that you can hold a person’s gaze without being intimate, rude, or aggressive. If you are on an elevator, what gaze-time are you permitted? To answer this question, consider what you typically do. You may likely give other passengers a quick glance to size them up and to assure them that you mean no threat. Since being close to another person signals the possibility of interaction, you need to send out a signal telling others you want to be left alone. So you cut off eye contacts what sociologist Erving Goffiman （1963） calls ―a dimming of the lights‖. You look down at the floor, at the indicator lights, anywhere but into another passenger’s eyes. Should you break the rule against staring at a stranger on an elevator, you will make the other person extremely uncomfortable, and you are likely to feel a bit strange yourself. If you hold eye contacts for more than 3 seconds, what are you telling another person? Much depends on the person and the situation. For instance, a man and a woman communicate interest in this manner. They typically gaze at each other for about 3 seconds at a time, and then drop their eyes down for 3 seconds, before letting their eyes meet again. But if one man gives another man a 3-second-plus stare, he signals, ―I know you‖. ―I am interested in you.‖ or ―You look peculiar and I am curious about you.‖ This type of stare often produces hostile feelings. 1. What can be inferred from the first paragraph?(within 10 words). ____________________________________________________. 2. Please translate the underlined part into Chinese. 3. Fill in the blank with proper words(within 10 words). 4. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following? You might have a glimpse of the others to let them make sure that you are not a danger. 5. What does the passage mainly talks about?(within 15 words). ____________________________________________________ 08 Comic book superhero Spider – Man uses tiny hairs on his fingertips
to climb up walls. But he could have had another secret weapon to help him stick. Scientists have now found that some spiders can also make silk in their feet, which may sometimes help them get a firmer grip on a surface. Spiders are good at gripping walls with their legs. Thousands of little hairs on their feet make it possible. To test whether spiders also make these hairs wet to improve grip, scientists watched zebra tarantulas crawl up glass slides. When they tilted (使倾斜) a glass slide until it was almost vertical, the spider slipped a few millimeters before attaching itself again. The scientists were surprised to see little threads stretching from its feet to the slide. When they studied the spider’s feet under a special microscope, they found tiny silk – shooting spouts (吐出) among the hairs. This was a surprise because scientists had previously thought spiders only use special organs near their stomachs to make silk. It’s possible that, a long time ago, feet were the first body parts of spiders to produce silk. Only later in their evolutionary history did spiders develop spinnerets on their abdomens to produce silk for webs. If so, the researchers say, this could mean that the silk’s original purpose was to , rather than to build homes or trap prey (猎物). 1.What is the best title of the passage? (Please answer within 10 words.) ____________________________________________________ 2. Which sentence in the passage can be best replaced by the following one? It has been discovered that the silk spouted from the feet of the spiders can assist them to get attached on objects. 3. Fill in the blank with proper words or phrases. (Please answer within 10 words.) 4. Translate the underlined sentence into Chinese. 5. What can you learn from this discovery ? (Please answer within 20 words.) ____________________________________________________ 09 Scientists have revealed the 10 commandments（法则）for a long and happy life. And the rules even allow for sunbathing, drinking alcohol and eating chocolate. The first rule, as published in the New Scientist magazine, is to enjoy
yourself. Married Second on the list is remaining sociable, with a happy marriage and good family life being essential for health. Studies have shown that marriage can add as much as seven years to a man’s life and two years to a woman’s life. A Drink So called vices like wine, partying and chocolate provide the fourth rule, with countless studies showing that a little of what you fancy does you good rather than harm. Work Your Brain The fifth rule says that you should exercise your brain to stay active. Last month scientists at Cambridge University said puzzles could help prevent a range of conditions, from depression to schizophrenia（精神分 裂症）. Knitting, doing crosswords or just walking also help. See the Doctor It’s simple really. If you’re sick, get treatment fast . Eat Healthily As is well-known, you are what you eat. Scientists have recommended that the low-fat, high-fiber Mediterranean diet is a model for healthy eating and a long life. High in fruit and vegetables, the diet also uses beans ,breads and cereals. Small amounts of meat and moderate amounts of fish are also eaten. Take Risks Rule eight urges people to put more excitement into their lives. Intellectual challenges, traveling, or learning a new language can all. Embrace Technology Rule nine advises those seeking a long life to embrace new technologies. Be Happy Rule ten is that you should smile and feel happier in life. Research showed that older men with an optimistic attitude towards life were only half as likely to suffer from cardio-vascular disease（心血 管疾病）as those whose world view was more negative. 1. What’s the best title of the passage ?(Please answer within 10 words.) ____________________________________________________
2. Which sentence in the passage can be replaced by the following one? Everybody knows that good health depends on a good diet. ____________________________________________________ 3. Please fill in the blank in Rule 8 with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 10 words.) ____________________________________________________ 4. Which of the suggestions do you think is the best for you ?Why ?(Please answer within 30 words .) ____________________________________________________ 5.Translate the underlined sentence in the last paragraph into Chinese. 10 Many high schools and colleges with a football team in the United States usually have a homecoming day. This can be the most important event of the year next to graduation. Students plan homecoming day for many weeks. When the day arrives，they begin before dawn to decorate the schools. There are signs to wish luck to the team and many other signs to welcome back the graduates from other years. Many people still come to homecoming clubs build booths and sell lemonade， apples or sandwiches. Some clubs help to welcome visitors. During the day people like to look for teachers that they remember from long ago. Often they see old friends and they talk together about those happy years in school. Everyone soon comes to watch the football game. When the game is half over，the band comes onto the field and plays school songs. Another important moment is when the homecoming queen/king appears. All the students vote for another student who is popular. It is a great honor to become______________. Homecoming is a happy day. Even if the team loses，the students still enjoy homecoming. Some stay at the school to dance， and others go to a party. For everyone it is a day to remember for a long，long time. 1. What is the best title of the passage? (Please answer within 10 words.) ____________________________________________________ 2. Of all the events， what are the two things that all the students do on this day? (Please answer within 15words.) ____________________________________________________ 3. Please fill in the blank with proper words or phrases to complete the sentence. (Please answer within 10 words.) ____________________________________________________
4. Why do the students still enjoy homecoming even if the team loses? (Please answer within 15 words.) ____________________________________________________ 5. Translate the underlined sentence into Chinese. 答案等孩子做完后再放上，否则她就对着答案做题了。
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