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高中英语语法专题一:基本句型


高中语法专题一:基本句型 一、主谓结构 此结构是由主语加不及物的谓语动词构成, 常用来表示主语的动作。 如, The sun rises. 主语可有修饰语---定语。如,The red sun rises. 谓语可有修饰语---状语。如,The red sun rises in the east. 1. 你应当努力学习。 2. 她昨天回家很晚。

3. 那天早

上我们谈了很多。 4. 会议将持续两个小时。 5. 在过去的十年里,我的家乡已经发生了巨大的变化。

二、主谓宾结构(一) 此结构是由主语+谓语+宾语构成。其中的谓语动词须是及物的动词: I wrote a letter last night. 或及物的动词词组: I want to talk with you this afternoon.。宾语须是名词或 相当于名词的成分。 1. 这本书他读过多次了。 2. 他们成功地完成了计划。 3. 你们必须在两周内看完这些书。 4. 那位先生能流利地说三种语言。 5. 我收到了笔友从澳大利亚寄来的信。

三.主谓宾结构(二) 此结构中的谓语动词常常是动词词组,分两种情况: 1.及物动词+副词 2.不及物动词+介词。 1. 我不信任那个人。 I don’t believe in(介) that man.
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2. 他指出了我的作文中的错误。 He pointed out the mistakes in my composition. 1. 圣诞节我们将去看望外籍教师。 2. 你们必须在课后把练习本交上来。 3. 五分钟内我们是不可能解出这道题来的。 4. 这位护士会好好照顾你父亲的。

5.你在工作中可依靠他。

四、双宾语结构 此结构由主语+及物谓语动词+间接宾语(人)+直接宾语(事物)组成。如, He brings me cookies every day. She made me a beautiful dress. 但若要先说出直接宾语 (事物) , 后说间接宾语 (人) , 则要借助于介词 to 或 for, 如, He brings cookies to me every day. She made a beautiful dress for me. 用 to 侧重指动作的方向,表示朝着,向着,对着某人。 用 for 侧重指动作的受益者,表示为了某人,替某人。 1. Johnson 先生去年教我们德语。 2. 奶奶昨晚给我讲了一个有趣的故事。 3. Mary 把钱包交给校长了。 4. 请把那本字典递给我好吗? 5. 他把车票给列车员看。 6. 这个学期我已经给父母写过三封信了。 7. 我父亲已经给我买了一辆新自行车。

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五、复合宾语结构 此结构由主语+及物的谓语动词+宾语+宾语补足语构成。宾语与宾语补足 语有逻辑的主谓关系,若无宾语补足语,则句意不完整。可以用做宾补的有, 名词,形容词,副词,介词短语,动词不定式,分词。如, The sun keeps us warm. I heard him singing. You must get your hair cut. 注意特殊结构: keep sb. doing sth. / have sb. doing 让某人一直做… have sth, done / get sth.done 使某事被做 六:形式宾语句型 用 it 做形式宾语,而将真正的宾语放到宾语补足语的后面,是英语常用句型。 即 主语 + 谓语(find, consider, suppose, think…) + it + 宾补 + to do … I found it very pleasant to be with your family. 1. 我们大家都认为他是诚实的。 2. 他们把门推开了。 3. 我们要使学校变得更美丽。 4. 我们不会让她在晚上外出的。 5 我要请人把我的录音机修理一下。

七、There be 句型 它其实是倒装的一种情况, 主语位于谓语动词 be 之后, there 仅为引导词, 并无实际语。Be 与其后的主语在人称和数量上一致,有时态和情态变化。如, 现在有 there is/are … 过去有 there was/were… 将来有 there will be…/there is /are going to be... 现在已经有 there has/have been… 可能有 there might be... 肯定有 there must be …/there must have been... 过去一直有 there used to be … 似乎有 there seems/seem/seemed to be … 碰巧有 there happen/happens/happened to be …
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注意: 此句型有时不用 be 动词,而用 live, stand, come, go, lie, remain, exist, arrive,等。 1). 从前山顶上有座庙, 庙里住了个老和尚, 庙前站着 18 个小和尚, 庙外 躺着几个穷乞丐. There used to be a temple on the top of the mountain, and there lived an old monk in it, and there stood 18 little monks in front of it, and there lay several poor beggars outside it. 2). 注意特殊结构: There be sb. doing sth. There be sth. done 有 10 个学生在运动场打蓝球. There are ten students playing basketball on the playground. 有三个窗户被打破了。 There are three windows broken. 1. 今晚将没有会。 2. 这个村子过去只有一口井。 3. 这个学校有一名音乐老师和一名美术老师。 4. 客人当中有两名美国人和两名法国人。 5. 天气预报说下午有大风。

八:形式主语句型:It + be + adj. for sb. to do … it 作形式主语,或形式宾语的句型,以及 there be 句型,也是英语有中文无的 语言现象,我们不习惯。但在书面表达中,它们非常有用。 1. 和你在一起真好。 It's nice to be with you. 2. 骑车能去吗? Is it possible to go there by bike? 1. 你去与不去都没关系。 2 再怎么解释也没用,我不感兴趣。
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3 她发现与他相处很难。 4 该吃午饭了。 5 今天天气晴朗。 6 走到那儿要用半小时。 7 我认为这样做是我的职责。

一、it 及 there 句型完成句子练习: 1. (据报道)a lot of people lost their jobs in the city last month.(report) 2. (据报道), a lot of people lost their jobs in the city last month.(report) 3. (毫无疑问) he will be admitted to the key university.(doubt) 4. He has made some great movies. (这一点是毫无疑 问的).(doubt) 5. (没必要)for you to get up early tomorrow.(need) 6. (碰巧)I had been away when he called.(happen) 7. (看来)nobody knows what has happened.(seem) 8. (看起来似乎)it's going to rain.(look) 9. (很可能) the thieves don’t know how much it is worth.(likely) 10. (我也许可以)to leave a message for her.(possible) 11. It’s no use (为打翻的牛奶而哭泣).(cry) 12. (抱怨是毫无用处的), they never listen.(use) 13. (难怪)you’ve achieved so much success.(wonder) 14. (很明确)most of the farmers have brought in more money by all means.(certain) 15. (据说)the professor has already succeeded in carrying out this experiment.(say) 16. The professor is said (已成功) in carrying out this experiment.(succeed)(比较句型 15) 17. (感到遗憾)I haven’t been to the get-together.(pity) 18 (使之成为一种惯例) that I get up at six every day in the morning.(rule) 19. I (认为有必要)to take plenty of hot water every day.(think)
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20. It’s high time that we (采取措施)to stop pollution.(take) 21. (要花费她很长时间)to recover from the illness.(take) 22. This/It is the third time that I (看那部电影).(see) 23. It was the first time that she (到长城).(be) 24. It is / has been two years (自从他出国).(go) 25. (对你没什么差别)whether I like it or not,because you never listen to me.(make) 26. (用不了多久)before we know the result of the experiment. (be) 27. Measures have been taken to solve the problem,but (可能要 过段时间)before the situation improves.(some) 28. (没关系)the weather was bad.(matter) 29. (是否要紧)whether we go together or separately?(matter) 30. (我突然想起)that he might have forgotten our date.(occur) 31. (可能性不大)he will change his mind.(chance) 32. (很可能)we will go to Beijing.(chance) 33. (似乎有)hundreds of people in the field;it was quite full. (seem) 34. (曾经有)a church at the corner of the street.(be) 35. She (阐明清楚) she had nothing to do with the decision. (make) 36. I (确定)everything is ready.(see) 37. What a pity my new computer doesn’t work. (一定有什么 问题)with it.(wrong) 38. (结果)she was a friend of my sister.(turn) 39. Come and see me when (你方便的时候).(convenient) 40. (没多大意义)complaining . It doesn’t make difference. (point)

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句子翻译答案: 一. 主谓结构 1 You should study hard. 2 She returned home late yesterday. 3 We talked a lot that morning. 4 The meeting will last two hours. 5 In the past decade / ten years, great changes have taken place in my hometown. 二、主谓宾结构(一) 1 He has read the book many times. 2 They finished the plan successfully. 3 You must finish reading all the books within two weeks. 4The man can speak three foreign languages fluently. 5 I received a letter from my pen-pal in Australia. 三.主谓宾结构(二) 1 We will pay a visit to our foreign teacher on Christmas. 2 You must hand in the exercise book after class. 3 It is impossible for us to work out the problem in five minutes. 4. The nurse will look after your father well. 5 You can rely on / depend on him in work. 四、双宾语结构 1 Johnson taught us German last year. 2 Grandma told us an interesting story yesterday evening. 3 May handed the wallet to the headmaster. 4 Would you please pass the dictionary to me? 5 He showed the ticket to the conductor. 6 I have written three letters to my parents in this term. 7 My father has bought a new bike for me. 五、复合宾语结构 1 We all consider him honest. 2 They push the door open. 3 We should make our school more beautiful. 4 We don’t allow her to go out at night. 5 I have got to have my radio repaired. 七、There be 句型
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1 There won’t be any meetings tonight. 2 There used to be only a wall in the village. 3 There is a music teacher and an art teacher in the school. 4 There are two Americans and two Frenchmen among the guests. 5.The weather forecasts say there will be big wind this afternoon. 八:形式主语句型:It + be + adj. for sb. to do … 1. It doesn’t matter whether you go or not. 2 It is no use explaining any more, I ‘m not interested at all.. 3 She found it hard to get on with him. 4 It is time to have lunch. 5 It is a fine day today. 6 It takes half an hour to walk there. 7I consider it my duty to do this. 完成句子答案: 一、it 及 there 句型 1. It’s reported that 2. As is reported 3. There is no doubt that 4. There is no doubt about it 5. There is no need 6. It happened that 7. It seems that 8. It looks as if 9. It ’s likely that 10.It’s possible for me 11. crying over spilt milk 12. It’s/There is no use complaining 13. It’s no wonder that 14. It’s certain that 15. It’s said that 16. to have succeeded 17. I feel it a pity that 18. I have made it a rule 19. think it (is) necessary 20. took/should take measures 21. It will take her a long time 22. have seen the film 23. had been to the Great wall 24. since he went abroad 25. It makes no difference to you 26. It won’t be long 27. it may be some time 28. It didn’t matter that 29. Does it matter 30. It occurred to me 31.There is little chance that 32. There is a good/high chance that/There are chances that/Chances are that 33. There seemed to be
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34. There used to be 35. made it clear that 36. will see (to it) that 37. There must be something wrong 38. It turned out that 39. it’s convenient to/for you 40. There is not much point (in)

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