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专题九 形容词性从句和名词性从句


高一英语

专题九

形容词性从句和名词性从句

内容解读 1.形容性从句(定语从句) ; 2.名词性从句(主语从句、宾语从句、同位语从句、表语从句) . 能力解读 1.掌握各种从句的基本知识; 2.能够区别两种性质不同的从句:形容词性从句和名词性从句; 3.能够掌握定语从句中各关系词、关系副词的习惯用法; 4.能够区别

定语从句与同位语从句; 5.掌握名词性关系从句与其它名词性从句的差异. 命题趋势 复合句是英语言中重要的句子结构之一,高考将继续重视对复合句的考查,试题的立意 将注重对形容词性从句和名词性从句中相关基础知识的考查.

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高一英语

例题剖析 例 1 Do you still remember the chicken farm we visited three months ago? A. where B. when C. that D. what 例 2 You are saying that everyone should be equal, and this is I disagree. A. why B. where C. what D. how 例3 is reported in the newspapers, talk between the two countries are making progress. A. It B. As C. That D. What 例 4 A modern city has been set up in was a wasteland ten years ago. A. what B. which C. that D. where 例 5 A fast food restaurant is the place , just as the name suggests, eating is performed quickly. A. which B. where C. there D. what 例 6 It is pretty well understood controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today. A. that B. when C. what D. how 例 7 There is a new problem involved in the popularity of private cars road conditions need . A. that; to be improvedB. which; to be improvedC. where; improving D. when; improving 好题精练 1. I read about it in some book or other, does it matter it was. A. where B. what C. how D. which 2. A computer can only do you have instructed it to do. A. how B. after C. what D. when 3. Information has been put forward more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. while D. why 4. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation he is likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. while D. why 5. What the doctors really doubt is my mother will recover form the serous disease soon. A. when B. how C. whether D. why 6. Have you seen the film “Titanic”, leading actor is world-famous? A. its B. it’s C. whose D. which 7. Little Tommy was reluctant to tell the schoolmaster he had done the day before. A. that B. how C. where D. what 8. —I think it’s going to be a big problem.—Yes, it could be. —I wonder we can do about it. A. if B. how C. what D. that 9. she couldn’t understand was fewer and fewer students showed interest in her lessons. A. What; why B. That; what C. What; because D. Why; that 10. There’s feeling in me we’ll never know what a UFO is-not ever. A. that B. which C. of which D. what 11. Perseverance is a kind of quality—and that’s it takes to do anything well. A. what B. that C. which D. why 12. We will be shown around the city: school, museums, and some other places, other visitors seldom go. A. what B. which C. where D. when 13. Is this the reason at the meeting for his carelessness in his work? A. he explained B. what he explained C. how he explained D. why he explained 14. When you answer questions in a job interview, please remember the golden rule: Always give the monkey exactly he wants. A. what B. which C. when D. that 15. He is the only one of the students who a winner of scholarship for three years. A. is B. are C. have been D. has been 16. —Are you still thinking about yesterday’s game?—Oh, that’s . A. what makes me feel excited B. whatever I feel excited about C. how I feel about it D. when I feel excited 17. We are living in an age many things are done on computer. A. which B. that C. whose D. when
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高一英语

18. People have heard what the President has said; they are waiting to see he will do. A. how B. what C. when D. that 19. York, last year, is a nice old city. A. that i visited B. which i visited C. where i visited D. in which i visited 20. I can think of may cases students obviously knew a lot of English words and expressions but couldn’t write a good essay. A. why B. which C. as D. where 21. The film brought the hours back to me I was taken good care of in that faraway village.A. until B. that C. when D. where 22. The other day, my brother drove his car down the street at I brought was a dangerous speed.A. as B. which C. what D. whether 23. Along with the letter was his promise he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether 24. Luckily, we’d brought a road map without we would have lost our way. A. it B. that C. this D. which 25. American women usually identify their best friend as someone they can talk frequently.A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom 26. After yang Liwei Succeeded in circling the earth, our astronauts desire to do is walk in space.A. where B. what C. that D. how 27. A story goes Elizabeth I of England liked nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. A. when B. where C. what D. that 28. Anyway, that evening, I’ll tell you more about later, ended up staying at Rachel’s place.A. when B. where C. what D. that 29. I work in a business almost everyone is waiting for a great chance. A. how B. which C. where D. that 30. I think Father would like to know I’ve bee up to so far, so I decide to send him a quick note.A. which B. why C. what D. how 31. What surprised me was not what he said but he said it. A. the way B. in the way that C. in the way D. the way which 32. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year, 80% are sold abroad. A. of which B. which of C. of them D. of that 33. is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. A. Which B. When C. What D. As 34. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine months, the sailing time was 226 days. A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which 35. There were dirty marks on her trousers she had wiped her hands. A. where B. which C. when D. That 2003 年全国模拟探究性专项测试·形容词从句和名词性从句
1. Do you thin the reason he gave is believable?

A. for which B. which C. why D. what 2. Whether I met her, was fairly often, I liked her sweet and hopeful smile. A. what B. which C. when D. that 3. There are hundreds of islands the coast Fujian, the biggest of is not far form the main land.A. on; which B. off; them C. when D. that 4. Such things you described are rare now. A. as B. who C. that D. which 5. —Do you think is right, others say, —Yes, I . A. as; what; do B. as; whatever; will C. what; what; can D. what; whatever; will 6. People have lots of problems living in the Central Australian desert, getting water is the most serious.A. of which B. which C. for which D. where 7. —What are you worrying about? — you can return the book to me in time. A. If B. Whether C. When D. Where 8. has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising. A. Who B. The one C. Anyone D. Whoever 9. is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high schools is increasing.A. As B. It C. That D. What 10. a terrible storm would take place in Hainan.
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高一英语

A. Word came which B. Word came that C. Word that came D. Words came that 11. this text can be used for listening has not been decided yet. A. Which B. If C. Whether D. As 12. It would be a good idea to use a plastic bottle, cut off, as a container to grow young plants in.A. of which the topB. the top is C. the top of which D. with its top 13. Only those knows well could be let in. A. who B. he C. that D. what 14. I shall never forget those days I lived in the army with the soldiers, has a great effect on my life. A. that; which B. when; which C. when; that D. which; that 15. —I’ve got I am by hard work. —No, you didn’t. You got with your father’s money. A. there; where B. where; there C. there; there D. where; where 16. Before I went downstairs I had prepared myself very carefully I must say. A. with which B. for what C. with what D. for which 17. was lying. A. Those who told you that B. Anyone told you that C. Whoever told you that D. Who told you that 18. The people, had been damaged by the flood, were given help by the Red Cross. A. all of their homes B. all their homes C. whose all homes D. all of whose homes 19. He’s bought a cottage in the country for he retires, with the money he’s saved over half of his life.A. when B. where C. what D. which 20. The Chinese government has decided to develop the west of China, , I dare say, will benefit the people there, especially those who are still leading a poor life. A. whether B. when C. that D. once 21. A decision was made those who once lied to the factory in order to get a job would not be allowed to stay.A. whether B. when C. that D. once 22. Those who were left alone in the cave knew better than the others sounds bats in the dark made.A. what frightenedB. how frightened C. what frightening D. how frightening 23. We found some precious jars and vases in an ancient tomb, , you know, are valuable. A. even the pieces of which B. which even pieces C. even the pieces of it D. whose even pieces 24. People were perhaps more honest a long time honest when life was very different from it is today. . which B. that C. what D. if 25. All finished, we sat down to enjoy we though the most delicious dinner. A. that B. which C. what D. if 26. He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from it had been in the morning.A. that B. what C. where D. which 27. —I want to choose a university to study here. Would you give me some advice? —Of course. I think you should look at the support the university that you’re interested in as an overseas student. A. what can offer you B. can offer you what C. can offer you D. what you can offer 28. Actually, girls can be they want to be just like boys, whether it is a pilot, a nurse, or a general manager. A. who B. which C. whatever D. no matter what 29. After five hours’ drive, they reached they thought was the place they’d been dreaming of. A. that B. which C. whether D. what 30. It’s no longer a question now man can land on the moon. A. that B. where C. which D. what 31. Nowadays more an more students are working directly on the Internet different types of course are supplied. A. that B. which C. where D. whose 32. The hard-working peasants and their happy life we saw in the countryside made a wonderful impression(印象) on us. A. 不填 B. who C. which D. whom 33. In that supermarket on sale is a new type of computer, makes it attractive to the students from poor family. A. which B. whose cheap price C. what D. the low price of which 34. Now children like to go to the fast food restaurant, as the name says, eating doesn’t take much time.
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高一英语

A. which B. that C. what D. where 35. Asian-Americans, population is increasing rapidly, will become an important minority(少数民族)in the USA. A. whose B. who C. its D. their 36. —The basketball team is in the playoffs. I’ll watch it on TV. Do you want to come over? —Actually I have a ticket, but I’m not feeling well. You can have it for it cost me. A. that B. which C. how D. what 37. I’ll write a letter to people are on the list. A. any B. all C. whoever D. whichever 2004 年全国模拟探究性专项测试·形容词从句和名词性从句 1. —What about your history test? —I’ve answered all the questions, but I’m not sure I’ve got them all right. A. what B. how C. that D. why 2. The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point he can walk correctly and safely. A. when B. where C . which D. whose 3. the Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is known. A. 不填 B. Whenever C. What D. When 4. The humans are destroying nature day by day, of course, will cause severe punishment form it sooner or later. A. who B. when C. on which D. which 5. —Would you tell me you want your tea, with sugar or milk? —Sugar, please. A. whether B. when C. what D. how 6. At last the soldiers reached the locals called the Golden Triangle. A. that B. where C. when D. what 7. A war is so cruel that it always causes great losses, has happened in Iraq and other countries. A. what B. which C. as D. one 8. —It seems that he has succeeded at last in the USA. —Yeah, but you can never imagine . A. what a hard life he has experienced B. what he has experienced a hard life C. he has experienced what a hard life D. what a hard life has he experienced 9. There is a common belief among them rubbish can and should be put to good use. A. which B. if C. whether D. that 10. Earth is a rocky planet liquid water, which is necessary for life, can exist. A. as B. which C. where D. when 11. is Britain now used to be three different countries and over many years the three countries became one. A. It B. What C. Where D. As 12. —Go and ask her come. —OK. A. what time would she like to B. at what time she’d like to C. when would she like to D. when she likes to 13. The time is not far away modern communications will become widespread in China’s vast countryside. A. as B. when C. until D. before 14. Human beings are different form animals they can use language as a tool to communicate. A. in that B. for that C. in which D. for which 15. Next winter, you will spend in Harbin, I’m sure, will be another exciting holiday. A. which B. when C. in which D. what 16. David says sounds right to Helen. That’s why she has made up her mind to leave him happens. A. Whatever; whatever B. No matter what; whatever C. No matter what; no matter what D. Whatever; however 17. I have never dined with you, sir; and I see no reason . A. how can I know B. how I ought to know C. why shall I know D. why I should know 18. Mrs. Black took the police back to place she witnessed the robbery.
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高一英语

A. the same; as B. the same; where C. the same; that D. as the same; as 19. sometimes keeps her awake at night Tom is getting more and more quiet at home. A. That; which B. It; that C. Whether; what D. What; that 20. In some countries, are called “public schools” are not owned by the public. A. which B. as C. that D. what 21. —Don’t you believe me? — I will believe you say. A. No; whatever B. Yes; no matter what C. No; no matter what D. Yes; whatever 22. Some pictures of the river brought the days back to the old they swam in it. A. when B. that C. who D. where 23. —I rang you at about nine, but there was no reply. —Oh, that was probably I was seeing the doctor. A. why B. when C. what D. that 24. Carol was always speaking highly of his role in the competition, , of course made others unhappy. A. who B. this C. which D. what 25. Word comes a group of New Zealand guests will come to visit our school next Tuesday. A. that B. which C. 不填 D. about which 26. Dave lost his job and was short of money, so his flat and move in with his brother. A. that he did was to sell B. what he did sell C. what he did sold D. what he did was to sell 2005 年全国模拟探究性专项测试·形容词从句和名词性从句 1. They are teachers and don’t realize to start and run a company. A. what if takes B. what takes it C. what they take D. what takes them 2. In order to encourage the students to study hard, the school decides to give the scholarship to wins the first in the exam. A. who B. whom C. whomever D. whoever 3. On stepping into his room he was astonished to find the floor covered with looked like tiny insects. A. that B. something C. what D. anything 4. Not far from the club, there was a garden, owner seated in the garden, playing chess with some friends. A. whose B. its C. his D. which 5. He is a strict but kind-hearted teacher, his students respects but are afraid of. A. on whom B. for whom C. which D. that 6. What is it has made my mother that ? A. one whom B. for whom C. which D. that 7. What is it has made my mother that ? A. that; angry B. which; angry C. that; anger D. which; anger 8. Action, not talk, was she graded her students on. A. that B. how C. what D. which 9. When you call on a Frenchman, you may chat for an hour or so, not even a coffee or water is offered. A. during this time B. by this time C. during which time D. by which time 10. Kate’s mother kept telling him not to play computer games too much, , in fact, didn’t help at all. A. which B. she C. it D. while 11. Can you doubt he will win? A. that B. whether C. if D. what 12. is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high schools is increasing. A. It B. As C. That D. Which 13. Will you see to the luggage is brought back? A. that whether B. it that C. this if D. that whether 14. is the pressure their kids bear in dealing with monthly exams in key middle schools. A. That parents worry B. The thing worries parents
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高一英语

C. What parents worry D. What worries parents 15. The operation tuned out to be very successful, was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 16. IT is no longer a question man is learning more and more about space. A. whether B. that C. if D. how 17. When she was awake, she found that she was standing on seemed to be a piece of stone. A. that B. which C. what D. it 18. we first heard of the man referred to as a computer specialist in stone. A. It was Hilary that B. That it was from Hilary C. It was from Hilary whom D. It was from Hilary that 19. On my birthday I got a watch from my uncle, was made in Japan. A. who B. that C. which D. what 20. This painting is splendid, but we actually need it is a different matter. A. that B. what C. whether D. how 21. In a word, the hours the children sped in their own-way relationship with television people undoubtedly affect their relationships with real-life people. A. in which B. on which C. when D. that 22. About Chinese football, it may be the pressure from both the clubs and fans finally makes the UFA carry out reform of the Chinese Premier League. A. what B. who C. which D. that 语法填空 Enough sleep is important to health. The amount of sleep needed 1__________ on the age of the person and the conditions in 2__________ sleep takes place. The young may need more sleep than 3__________ old, but usually eight hours are enough for the health of grown-ups. Some can do with 4__________ than this amount, but others may need more. Every person knows his own need. 5__________ is then a matter of good judgment to satisfy his need. Sleep 6__________ always be enough to make one bring back his 7__________ (strong) and get ready for a day’s work. Fresh air is necessary to sound sleep. So it is not 8___________ reason for some people to think that it is practicable to sleep in the open air. A bath at bedtime, 9__________ hot nor cool but of body temperature, may be helpful to sleep. Sleepproducing drug(帮助睡眠的药物) should never be taken except when 10__________ (suggest) by a doctor. A few years ago, SARS 1_________ out in the mainland of China, causing some people 2_________ (kill). And some nearly got close to death. The situation was so severe that there was3_________ time to debate who is to blame. The most important thing for the government to do is to find out the 4__________ of this deadly disease. They invited all the most 5___________ (experience) experts in this field to discuss and quite a few suggestions were put forward. Some of the top experts then tested them to see 6_________ they were available. Doctor Zhong Nanshan chose one patient who was seriously ill and had little hope 7_________ picking up and had the new medicine tested on him. 8__________ his great joy, this patient recovered! He made his way to his office and telephoned the top official, 9_________ (tell) him this exciting news. For convenience, he moved to live in his office. His method did make sense. Not soon after that, the 10_________ hospitals also controlled this terrible disease and kicked it out finally.

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高一英语

命题规律 1.高考考题中复合句出现的频率从高到低依次是:定语从句(其中限制性定语从句为主) 、 宾语从句、主语从句、表语从句、同位语从句. 2.试题既注重引导词之间的语法功能的差异,又注重语义的差异,题干句的情景及结构都 越来越复杂. 突破方法 1.定语从句和名词性从句是英语法学习中的一大难关.从某种意义上来说,这些从句的学 习是整个英语学习过程中的一个瓶颈. 能否突破这个瓶颈是否继续深入学习、 研究的关键. 所 以,笔者这里建议,You can’t pay too much attention to the adjective clause and noun clause. 2.从句的学习并非一日之功,平时应加强对从句语法特征和语义特征的思考,形成纯正的 英语思维能力.如果不能形成这种思维能力,而公凭汉语思维去解决英语问题,大量失误是 在所难免的.因此,笔者建议,在平日的阅读过程中,碰到从句的时候,要停下来,想一想 它的功能和意义. 3.加强对非限制性定语从句和名词性关系从句的学习.平日的学习过程中,经过认真思考 之后,将典型的从句分门别类、整理建档,以备考前复习巩固. 4.解题思路:①通读全句,首先考虑是不是某种句型,如强调句型;②题干句若是疑问句, 首先把它恢复为正常语序;③观察设空的前前后后,确定相关从句的性质;④确定从句性质 从句后,回忆相关从句的用法特点,从而作出取舍;⑤注意标点符号和并列连词(and, but)的 作用;⑥将选项代入句子,看前后是否语意贯通.
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高一英语

知识清单 考点知识清单一 定语从句 一、关系代词的作用和分类 1.关系代词的作用有三个: ①连接作用:关系代词引导从句,把它和主句连接起来; ②替代作用:关系代词在从句中代替在它前面的先行词; ③成分作用:关系代词在从句总是充当一个句子成分. 2.关系代词用法分类
关 代 格 从 句

用于限制性和非限制性定语从句

只用于限制性从句

主格词 宾格词 属格词

Who Who(m)

which whose

That Whose of which

关系代词的用法与分类有三点依据: ①根据所引导的从句的限制性和非限制性; ②根据所替代的先行词是指人还是指物; ③根据它在从句中所充当的成分—主语、宾语或定语. 二、限制性与非限制性定语从句 1.非限制性定语从句中关系代词和关系副词的用法: ①在任何情况下都不能省略; ②who(主语) ,whom(宾语) ,which(主语,宾语)不能用 that 代替,也不能互相替 换;③介词+which/whom+从句结构中,介词不能移到从句的后面; ④when,where 可用于非限制性定语从句. 2.两类定语从句的区别 限制性定语从句不能用逗号与主句分开,它限制所修饰的先行词的意义;非限制性定语 从句前面须用逗号与主句分开,它只是先行词的附加说明,省去后不会影响主句意思.如: My brother who lives in New York has six children. 我住在纽约的那个兄弟有六个孩子. 可 ( 能还在其他兄弟) My brother, who lives in New York, has children.我兄弟有六个孩子,他住在纽约. (只有这 一个兄弟) 由以上例子可见:非限制性定语从句表达的意义含“唯一性” ,翻译时通常译成一个并列 句,其形式往往可用 “and?”替换.如: I met a boatman, who then took me across the river.=I met a boatman, and then he took me across the rive They will fly to Kunming, where(=and there) they will stay for two or three day. 三、当先行词指物时,许多情况下既可以用关系代词 which,也可以用关系代词 that, 但在下 列情况中,只能使用关系代词 that, 而不用 which 特殊情况 例句 Do you have anything that you want to say for 当 先 行 词 是 不 定 代 词 all, much, little, something, everything, anything, nothing, none, yourself?
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高一英语

Your should hand in all that you have. the one 时 当先行词前面有 only, any, few, little, no, all, This is the very book that I’m looking for. The only thing that we can do is to give you very 等词修饰时 some money. 当先行词是形容词最高级时或它的前面有形 This is the best that has been used against pollution. 容词最高级时 This is the most interesting film that I’ve ever seen. This train is the last that will go to Suzhou. 当先行词是序数词或它前面有一个序数词时 What is the first American film that you have seen? Do you know the things and persons that they 当先行词既有人又有物时 are talking about? Which is the bike that you lost? 当主句的主语是疑问词 who 或 which 时 Who is the boy that won the gold medal? 有两个定语从句时,其中一个关系代词已用 They secretly built up a small factory which produced things that could cause pollution. which,另外一个宜用 that 当先行词在主句中作表语, 而关系代词也在从 Shanghai is no longer the city that it used to be. 句中作表语时 四、 “介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句 “介词+关系代词”引导定语从句时,介词的宾语只能用 which(指物)和 whom(指人) , 即:介词+which/whom. 1.当介词放在关系代词的前面时,介词宾语只用 which 或 whom,关系代词不能省略.如: This is the hero of whom we are proud.(whom 不能省略,不能用 who 代替) This is the pen with which I wrote the letter.(which 不能省略,不能用 that 代替) 2.当介词位于定语从句的末尾时,可用 that/which(指物),that/whom/who(指人)作介词 的宾语,而且作介词宾语的关系代词往往省略.如: that This is the hero who we are proud of. whom (可省略) that This is the hero which I wrote the letter with. (可省略) 3. “复合介词短词+关系代词 which”引导的定语从句,这种结构引导从句常与先行词用逗 号分开,定语从句常用倒装语序.如: He lived in a big house, in front of which stood a big tall tree. 注意:在一些固定搭配的动词短语中,由于动词和介词不可分割,因此不能把介词置于 关系代词之前.如: This is the pen which I’m looking for.不可说:This is the pen for which I’m looking. 4.关系代词前面的介词使用情况: ①根据与前面名词的搭配关系选择.如: I’ll never forget the day on which I first met him.(表示具体的某一天,介词用 on) Can you find a proper situation in which the expression can be used? 在??场合, ( 用介词 in) ②根据定语从句后面动词和介词的搭配关系选择.如: The man to whom you spoke just now is a relative of my aunt’s. (speak to 意为“对?说话”)
10

高一英语

The two things of which they felt proud were Jim’s gold watch and Della’s hair.(be/feel proud of 为固定短语,意为“以??为自豪” .) ③有时须同时考虑动词和介词的搭配关系及介词和名词的搭配关系.如: The clever boy made hole in the wall, through which he could see what was happening inside the house. 五、关系代词和关系副词 引导定语从句的关系代词及关系副词除了起连接先行词和从句的作用外,它们还有一个 最重要的作用,那就是它们分别在定语从句中担当部分.具体地说,关系代词在定语从句中 作主语或宾语,而关系副词的定语从句中作状语.因此,在选择引导词时,最重要的是分析 一下定语从句中的成分,若从句中缺主语或宾语,那么一定用关系代词;若从句中不缺主语 或宾语,那么一定用关副词. 试比较下面的句子: ①Do you still remember the days that/which we spent in Qingdao? ②Do you still remember the days when we spent the summer holidays in Qingdao? 在句①中,定语从句缺定语,因此用关系代词 that/which 来引导从句,而在句②中,定 语从句中不缺主语,也不缺宾语,因此须用关系副词 when 来引导从句. 在非正式场合,that 可代替 where, when, why; 常见的情况是:此时的先行词通常是 the place, the time, the reason, 而且 that 常可省略.如: This is the place(that) he works.(=where) That was the time(that) he arrive. (=when) This is the reason (that) he came. (=why) 六、关系代词 as 引导的定语从句 关系代词 as 既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句,as 在从句中作 主语、宾语、表语. 1.引导限制性定语从句: as 引导限制性定语从句,常用于下列句式: such+名词+as…像……一样的,像……之类 ① the same+名词+as…和……同亲的 其中关系代词 as 在从句中担当主语、宾语和表语.如: We have found such materials as are used in their factory.(as 作主语) 我们已找到了像他们 工厂里用的那种材料. Such people as you describe are thought to be fools nowadays.(as 作宾语) 像你描绘的这种 人现在被看作是傻瓜. He is not the same man as he was. (as 作表语) 他和过去不同的. ②?such as? such 为代词,意为“这样的人或物” ,as 在从句中担当成分,修饰先行词 such.如: This book is not such as I expect.(as 作宾语) 这不是一本我所希望的书. 2.as 引导的非限制性定语从句,既可在主句前,又可主句后,有时还可插入主句中,而 which 引导的非限制性定语从句只能置于主句之后.相同的是两者都可代指主句的整个内容, 而不是主句中的某一个词.如: He turned out to be very successful, which was more than we could expect.他竟然成功了,这 一点我们没有预料到.

11

高一英语

As is known to all, Edison invented the electric lamp.=Edison invented the electric lamp, as is known to all. =Edison, as is known to all, invented the electric lamps.众所周知,爱迪生发明了电 灯. 另外,as 多用于这些习惯用语中:as anybody can see 正如人人都能看到的那样;as is well-known=as is known to all 众所周知;as we had expected 正如我们所预料的那样;as often happens 正如经常发生的那样;as has been said before 如上所述;as is mentioned above 正如下 面提到的. 七、定语从名句中的谓语与先行词保持一致 当引导定语从句的关系代词在从句中作主语时, 那么定语从句中的谓语动词的数的形式应 与先行词保持一致. 1.one of+复数名词+关系代词+复数动词 The Great Wall is one of the world-famous buildings that draw lots of visitors. 长城是吸引大 批游客的伟大建筑之一. Titanic is one of the most wonderful movies that have been produced in Hollywood.《泰坦尼 克号》是好莱坞生产的最精彩的电影之一. 2.the (only) one of+复数名词+关系代词+单数动词 The Great Wall is the (only) one of the buildings on the earth that is seen from the moon.长城 是地球上唯一一个从月球上看到的建筑物. Titanic is the (only) one of the wonderful movies that has been produced in Hollywood.在这些 精彩的电影中, 《泰坦尼克号》是唯一由好莱坞制作的电影. 注意:not the only one of?=only one of?如: Tom isn’t the only one of the boys who have passed the exam.=Tom is only one of the boys who have passed the exam.通过考试的男孩,汤姆并非唯一.=汤姆只是通过考试的男孩中的一 个. 3.当关系代词 as 与 which 引导非限制性定语从句,修饰主句内容时,若 as 与 which 作主 语,则从句的谓语动词用单数形式.如: Grate changes have taken place in China, as is known to all. He has passed the college entrance examination, which makes his parents quite happy. 4.其他情况 I, who am your teacher, will try my best to help you. To own a colour TV set in each family, which we thought was impossible twenty years ago, now becomes true. Have you heard of the persons and things that are being talked about? 八、注意 way 和 time 后接定语从句的情况 1.当先行词是 way 意为“方式、方法”时,引导定语从句的的关系词有下列三种形式: in which I don’t understand the way that they worked out the problem. 不填 注意下面两个句子中关系词的不同,试比较: that which he explained to us was quite simple 他向我们解释的那种方法很简单 The way 不填 (作宾语)

12

高一英语

that he explained the sentence to us was not difficult to understand. in which The way 不填 他向我们解释句子的那种方式并不难理解 (作状语) 2.先行词是 time 时,若 time 表示“次数”讲时,应用关系代词 that 引导定语从句,that 可省略;若 time 表示“一段时间”讲时,应用关系副词 when 或介词 at/during+which 引导定 语从句. This is the second time(that) the President has visited the country. I could hardly remember how many times(that) I’ve failed. This was at a time when/during which there were no radios, no telephones or TV sets. 考点知识清单二 名词性从句 一、名词性从句的结构和功能 名词性从句是一种具有名词功能的非独立分句.名词性从句有三种从句结构来表示:① 以 that 引导的从句;②以 wh-疑问词引导的 wh-疑问从句;③以 what 或 wh-ever 等关系代词 引导的名词性关系从句. 下面表格中用√号标出这三种能充当的句子成分: 宾语从句 补语从句 主语从句 同位语从句 直宾 间宾 主补 宾补 形补 That 从句 √ √ √ √ √ Wh-疑问从句 √ √ √ √ √ 名词性关系从句 √ √ √ √ √ √ 二、that 从句 1.that 从句作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,常见的句型有: ①It+be+形容词(obvious, true, natural, surprising, good, wonderful, funny, possible, likely, certain, probable, etc.)+that 从句.如: It is certain that she will do well in her exam. It is probable that he told her everything. ②It+be+名词词组(no wonder, an honor, a good thing, a pity, no surprise, etc.)+that 从句. 如: It’s a pity that we can’t go. It’s no surprise that our team should have won the game. ③It+be+过去分词(said, reported, thought, expected, decided, announced, arranged, ect)+that 从句.如: It is said that Mr Green has arrived in Beijing. It is decided that the meeting has been put off till next Monday. 注意: 在口语和非正式文件中, 常可省略. that 在非常短的句子中, 总是不必要的. that 如: 但 that 从句位于名首时,连词 that 是绝对不能省略的.如:That we are invited to a concert this evening is good news to us.我们被邀请去参加今夜的的音乐会,这对我们来说是个好消息. 2.作直接宾语 ①常见的可以接 that 从句作宾语的动词有 see, say, know, imagine, discover, believer, tell, show, think, consider 等.在可以接复合宾语的动词之后,如 think, make, consider 等,可以用 it 作形式宾语.如: We think it highly probable that he is dead.我们想他已经死了,这是非常可能的. We consider it necessary that he should improve his pronunciation.他应当改进他的发音,我 们认为是这是必要的.
13

高一英语

He has made it clear that he will not give in.他不会屈服的,这一点他已明确表示了. ②that 从句一般不能充当介词宾语,偶尔可作 except, in 的宾语的.如: He is a good student except that he is careless. He differed form his classmates in that he devoted his spare time to reading.他和他的同学不 同的地方在于他把业余时间用在读书上. 其它介词后面需要用 that 从句作宾语,必须用 it 作形式宾语.如: You may depend on it that I shall always help you. 3.作主语补语(表语) ,如: The problem is that they can’t get here early enough. 4.作形容词补语 某些形容词或过去分词后常接宾语从句,这类形容词或过去分词有 sure, glad, certain, pleased, happy, afraid, surprised, satisfied 等,连词 that 可省略.如: I’m afraid you don’t understand what I said. I’m surprised that I didn’t see all that before. Mother was very pleased her daughter had passed the exams. 5.作同位语 that 引导的同位语从句与关系代词 that 引导的定语从句的区别: 连词 that 引导同位语从句时,应在某些抽象名词之后.如:fact, hope, desire, though, suggestion, idea, news, problem, possibility 等,对前面的名词起补充说明的作用,连词 that 只 起引导同位语从句的作用,在从句中不担当任何成分,不能省略. 关系代词 that 引导定语从句时,关系代词 that 一方面起引导定语从句的作用,但另一方 面,that 在定语从句担当主语或宾语.若作宾语,还可以省略.但是,引导同位语从句的 that 一般不能省力.如: The news that our football team won the match was encouraging. (同位语从句) The news(that) we heard on the radio was not true. (定语从句) 三、wh-疑问从句 1.作主语,常用 it 作形式主语.如: It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not. It makes no difference where we shall have the meeting.我们中哪儿开会都无所谓. It has not been decided yet who will preside at the meeting. 由谁来主持会议,还没有确定. It is doubtful whether/if he will come. 注意:whether 从句可在句首,if 句不能.可以说:Whether he will come is doubtful. 2.作直接宾语 能跟 wh-疑问从句作直接宾语的动词很多,常见的有 see, tell, ask, answer, know, find out, imagine, suggest, doubt, wonder, show, discuss, understand, inform, advise 等.如: I can’t imagine how he did it. They couldn’t understand why I refused. I don’t care if he doesn’t come.他不来我不在乎 注意比较 I don’t’ care whether he comes.他来不来我不在乎. ×I don’t care whether he doesn’t come.(whether 从句不能直接有否定式) √I don’t care whether he comes or not. √I don’t care whether or not he comes. √I don’t care if he comes or not.

14

高一英语

×I don’t care if or not he comes 3.作介词宾语 It all depends(on) how we solve the problem. 这完全要看我们如何解决问题. We are worrying about what we should do next. 我们正在为下一步该怎么办而烦恼. 从 (if 句不能作介词宾语) 4.作主语补语(表语) The problem is where we should stay. 5.作形容词补语 I wasn’t sure who was going to speak. You must be careful what you do. 6.作同位语 My question how I shall get in touch with him has not been answered. 我如何能和他联系的 问题没有得到答复. 四、名词性关系从句 名词性关系从句实际上是先行词与在其后的定语从句的结合.what 是最常用来引导名词 性关系从句的关系代词,有时 what=the thing(s) which, 有时 what 可以用作前置定语,如 what help, what funny stories 等. 其 它 , whoever=anyone who; whichever=anyone/anything that(whichever 也 可 指 人 ) ; whatever=anything that(whichever 和 whatever 也可作定语).有时 where=the place where 和 when=the time when 也可用来引导名词关系从句. 1.作主语 What they need is a good text-book. Whichever he likes will be given him. Whichever book he bought would be paid for.无论他买了哪一本书都要(替他)付款. Whoever did this job must be rewarded.无论谁干了这件工作一定要得到酬谢. 2.作直接宾语 I’ll show you whatever you want to see. I’ll give you however much money you need.他需要多少钱都可以给你. We shall not forget when the meeting will open.=we shall not forget the time when the meeting will open. 我们不会忘记开会的时间. 3.作间接宾语 She will give whoever needs helps a warm support. 凡需要帮助的人, 她都会予热情的支持. 4.作介词宾语 She walked up to where he stood. 她走到他站着的地方. I can judge by what I know of him. 我可以根据我对他的了解来判断. You can write about whatever topic you prefer. 你可以写你喜欢写的任何题目. I’ll wait till when we meet again. 我等待着再次见面. 5.作主语补语(表语) This is where our problem lies.这就是我们的问题所在. Tomorrow is when it would be most convenient.明天是最方便的时候. 6.作宾语补语 We’ll make him whatever he is fit for.他适合干什么,我们就培养他干这一行. I’ll call the baby whatever name you like.你喜欢哪一个名字,这就叫娃娃这个名字.
15

高一英语

He has made the company what it is today.他把公司办成了今天这个样子. 7.作同位语 I gave the girl a big doll, that is to say, exactly what she longed to have. 我给了这女孩一个大 洋娃,也就是说,那正是她渴望要有的东西. 五、名词性从句的几个难点 1.that 通常不可省略的情况: 定语从句中作主语;主语从句,that 从句置于名首时;当一个句子有两个或多个并列的 宾语从句时,引导第二和以下几个从句的 that 不可省略;由 it 作形式宾语时,that 引导的宾 语从句中,that 也不可省略. 2.wh-ever 与 no matter wh-的用法区别 wh-ever 既可引导名词性关系从句,又可引导让步状语从句;而 no matter wh-只能引导让 步状语从句.如: Whatever I said, he wouldn’t listen to me.(让步状语从句). =No matter what I said, he wouldn’t listen to me.无论我说什么,他都不会听我的. He would believe whatever I said. (宾语从句) 我说啥他都信. 另外, whoever, whatever, whenever wherever 中, ever 起强调作用, “究竟、 在 意为 到底”. 如: Wherever have you been? 你究竟去了哪里? 3.as if/as though, because, why 也可引导表语从句.如: It looked as if it was going to rain. That’s because he didn’t work hard enough. That was why I asked for three days’ leave. 注意:because 引导的表语从句,主语不能是 reason 或 cause,而且 since, as 不能引导表 语从句. 易混知识清单 形容词性从句和名词性从句易错点回顾 定语从句 一、知识记忆重点 1.关系代词使用 that 而不用 which 的情况; 2.as 在非限性定语从句中的 which 的区别; 3.as 在 such…as?和 the same?as?句型中作为定语从句时,与 such+名词,the same+名 词结构; 4.介词+which whom 的用法; 5.定语从句中的主谓一致:如果关系代词在从句中作主语,动词与先行词一致(区分 one of+复数名词和 the only one of+复数名词) ; 6.定语从句与 it 引导的强调句的区别:强调句去掉 it, be that 后能形成一个完整的句子. 二、解题技巧 1.首先确定先行词; 2.确定先行词在从句中所充当的成分; 3.确定关系代词或关系副词. 名词性从句 一、知识记忆重点 1.that 在名词性从句中不充当成分没有含义.在主语从句和同位语从句中不可省略. 2.whether 和 if 用法的区别.

16

高一英语

3.it 作形式主语的常见句型: 用 it 作形式主语的结构 ①it+is+名词+从句 It is a fact that?事实是?? It is an honor that?非常荣幸 It is common knowledge that??是常识 ②it+is+形容词+从句 It is natural that?很自然?? It is strange that?奇怪的是?? ③it+不及物动词+从句 It seems that?似乎?? It happened that?碰巧?? ④it+be+过去分词+从句 It is reported that?据报道?? It has been proved that?已证实?? 4.若主句谓语动词为 think, consider, suppose, believe, expect, fancy, guess, imagine 等,其后 的宾语从句若含有否定意义,一般要把否定词转移到主句谓语上,从句谓语用肯定式. 二、解题技巧 1.分析句子含义,选择合适的连接词; 2.分清从句成分是否完整,考虑 that 和 if,whether; 3.正确理解 what, where, when, why 引导的表语从句的含义: what??的东西 where??的地方
why??的原因 when??的时候

2003 年全国模拟探究性专项测试·形容词从句和名词性从句
1. Do you thin the reason he gave is believable?

A. for which

B. which

C. why
17

D. what

高一英语

2. Whether I met her, was fairly often, I liked her sweet and hopeful smile. A. what B. which C. when D. that 3. There are hundreds of islands the coast Fujian, the biggest of is not far form the main land. A. on; which B. off; them C. when D. that 4. Such things you described are rare now. A. as B. who C. that D. which 5. —Do you think is right, others say, —Yes, I . A. as; what; do B. as; whatever; will C. what; what; can D. what; whatever; will 6. People have lots of problems living in the Central Australian desert, getting water is the most serious. A. of which B. which C. for which D. where 7. —What are you worrying about? — you can return the book to me in time. A. If B. Whether C. When D. Where 8. has helped to save the drowning girl is worth praising. A. Who B. The one C. Anyone D. Whoever 9. is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high schools is increasing. A. As B. It C. That D. What 10. a terrible storm would take place in Hainan. A. Word came which B. Word came that C. Word that came D. Words came that 11. this text can be used for listening has not been decided yet. A. Which B. If C. Whether D. As 12. It would be a good idea to use a plastic bottle, cut off, as a container to grow young plants in. A. of which the top B. the top is C. the top of which D. with its top 13. Only those knows well could be let in. A. who B. he C. that D. what 14. I shall never forget those days I lived in the army with the soldiers, has a great effect on my life. A. that; which B. when; which C. when; that D. which; that 15. —I’ve got I am by hard work. —No, you didn’t. You got with your father’s money. A. there; where B. where; there C. there; there D. where; where 16. Before I went downstairs I had prepared myself very carefully I must say. A. with which B. for what C. with what D. for which 17. was lying. A. Those who told you that B. Anyone told you that C. Whoever told you that D. Who told you that 18. The people, had been damaged by the flood, were given help by the Red Cross. A. all of their homes B. all their homes C. whose all homes D. all of whose homes 19. He’s bought a cottage in the country for he retires, with the money he’s saved over
18

高一英语

half of his life. A. when B. where C. what D. which 20. The Chinese government has decided to develop the west of China, , I dare say, will benefit the people there, especially those who are still leading a poor life. A. whether B. when C. that D. once 21. A decision was made those who once lied to the factory in order to get a job would not be allowed to stay. A. whether B. when C. that D. once 22. Those who were left alone in the cave knew better than the others sounds bats in the dark made. A. what frightened B. how frightened C. what frightening D. how frightening 23. We found some precious jars and vases in an ancient tomb, , you know, are valuable. A. even the pieces of which B. which even pieces C. even the pieces of it D. whose even pieces 24. People were perhaps more honest a long time honest when life was very different from it is today. A. which B. that C. what D. if 25. All finished, we sat down to enjoy we though the most delicious dinner. A. that B. which C. what D. if 26. He noticed that the straight part of the dance was different in the afternoon from it had been in the morning. A. that B. what C. where D. which 27. —I want to choose a university to study here. Would you give me some advice? —Of course. I think you should look at the support the university that you’re interested in as an overseas student. A. what can offer you B. can offer you what C. can offer you D. what you can offer 28. Actually, girls can be they want to be just like boys, whether it is a pilot, a nurse, or a general manager. A. who B. which C. whatever D. no matter what 29. After five hours’ drive, they reached they thought was the place they’d been dreaming of. A. that B. which C. whether D. what 30. It’s no longer a question now man can land on the moon. A. that B. where C. which D. what 31. Nowadays more an more students are working directly on the Internet different types of course are supplied. A. that B. which C. where D. whose 32. The hard-working peasants and their happy life we saw in the countryside made a wonderful impression(印象) on us. A. 不填 B. who C. which D. whom 33. In that supermarket on sale is a new type of computer, makes it attractive to the students from poor family. A. which B. whose cheap price C. what D. the low price of which 34. Now children like to go to the fast food restaurant, as the name says, eating doesn’t
19

高一英语

take much time. A. which B. that C. what D. where 35. Asian-Americans, population is increasing rapidly, will become an important minority(少数民族)in the USA. A. whose B. who C. its D. their 36. —The basketball team is in the playoffs. I’ll watch it on TV. Do you want to come over? —Actually I have a ticket, but I’m not feeling well. You can have it for it cost me. A. that B. which C. how D. what 37. I’ll write a letter to people are on the list. A. any B. all C. whoever D. whichever 2004 年全国模拟探究性专项测试·形容词从句和名词性从句 1. —What about your history test? —I’ve answered all the questions, but I’m not sure I’ve got them all right. A. what B. how C. that D. why 2. The treatment will continue until the patient reaches the point he can walk correctly and safely. A. when B. where C . which D. whose 3. the Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is known. A. 不填 B. Whenever C. What D. When 4. The humans are destroying nature day by day, of course, will cause severe punishment form it sooner or later. A. who B. when C. on which D. which 5. —Would you tell me you want your tea, with sugar or milk? —Sugar, please. A. whether B. when C. what D. how 6. At last the soldiers reached the locals called the Golden Triangle. A. that B. where C. when D. what 7. A war is so cruel that it always causes great losses, has happened in Iraq and other countries. A. what B. which C. as D. one 8. —It seems that he has succeeded at last in the USA. —Yeah, but you can never imagine . A. what a hard life he has experienced B. what he has experienced a hard life C. he has experienced what a hard life D. what a hard life has he experienced 9. There is a common belief among them rubbish can and should be put to good use. A. which B. if C. whether D. that 10. Earth is a rocky planet liquid water, which is necessary for life, can exist. A. as B. which C. where D. when 11. is Britain now used to be three different countries and over many years the three countries became one. A. It B. What C. Where D. As 12. —Go and ask her come. —OK. A. what time would she like to B. at what time she’d like to
20

高一英语

C. when would she like to D. when she likes to 13. The time is not far away modern communications will become widespread in China’s vast countryside. A. as B. when C. until D. before 14. Human beings are different form animals they can use language as a tool to communicate. A. in that B. for that C. in which D. for which 15. Next winter, you will spend in Harbin, I’m sure, will be another exciting holiday. A. which B. when C. in which D. what 16. David says sounds right to Helen. That’s why she has made up her mind to leave him happens. A. Whatever; whatever B. No matter what; whatever C. No matter what; no matter what D. Whatever; however 17. I have never dined with you, sir; and I see no reason . A. how can I know B. how I ought to know C. why shall I know D. why I should know 18. Mrs. Black took the police back to place she witnessed the robbery. A. the same; as B. the same; where C. the same; that D. as the same; as 19. sometimes keeps her awake at night Tom is getting more and more quiet at home. A. That; which B. It; that C. Whether; what D. What; that 20. In some countries, are called “public schools” are not owned by the public. A. which B. as C. that D. what 21. —Don’t you believe me? — I will believe you say. A. No; whatever B. Yes; no matter what C. No; no matter what D. Yes; whatever 22. Some pictures of the river brought the days back to the old they swam in it. A. when B. that C. who D. where 23. —I rang you at about nine, but there was no reply. —Oh, that was probably I was seeing the doctor. A. why B. when C. what D. that 24. Carol was always speaking highly of his role in the competition, , of course made others unhappy. A. who B. this C. which D. what 25. Word comes a group of New Zealand guests will come to visit our school next Tuesday. A. that B. which C. 不填 D. about which 26. Dave lost his job and was short of money, so his flat and move in with his brother. A. that he did was to sell B. what he did sell C. what he did sold D. what he did was to sell 2005 年全国模拟探究性专项测试·形容词从句和名词性从句 1. They are teachers and don’t realize to start and run a company. A. what if takes B. what takes it C. what they take D. what takes them
21

高一英语

2. In order to encourage the students to study hard, the school decides to give the scholarship to wins the first in the exam. A. who B. whom C. whomever D. whoever 3. On stepping into his room he was astonished to find the floor covered with looked like tiny insects. A. that B. something C. what D. anything 4. Not far from the club, there was a garden, owner seated in the garden, playing chess with some friends. A. whose B. its C. his D. which 5. He is a strict but kind-hearted teacher, his students respects but are afraid of. A. on whom B. for whom C. which D. that 6. What is it has made my mother that ? A. one whom B. for whom C. which D. that 7. What is it has made my mother that ? A. that; angry B. which; angry C. that; anger D. which; anger 8. Action, not talk, was she graded her students on. A. that B. how C. what D. which 9. When you call on a Frenchman, you may chat for an hour or so, not even a coffee or water is offered. A. during this time B. by this time C. during which time D. by which time 10. Kate’s mother kept telling him not to play computer games too much, , in fact, didn’t help at all. A. which B. she C. it D. while 11. Can you doubt he will win? A. that B. whether C. if D. what 12. is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high schools is increasing. A. It B. As C. That D. Which 13. Will you see to the luggage is brought back? A. that whether B. it that C. this if D. that whether 14. is the pressure their kids bear in dealing with monthly exams in key middle schools. A. That parents worry B. The thing worries parents C. What parents worry D. What worries parents 15. The operation tuned out to be very successful, was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it 16. IT is no longer a question man is learning more and more about space. A. whether B. that C. if D. how 17. When she was awake, she found that she was standing on seemed to be a piece of stone. A. that B. which C. what D. it 18. we first heard of the man referred to as a computer specialist in stone. A. It was Hilary that B. That it was from Hilary C. It was from Hilary whom D. It was from Hilary that
22

高一英语

19. On my birthday I got a watch from my uncle, was made in Japan. A. who B. that C. which D. what 20. This painting is splendid, but we actually need it is a different matter. A. that B. what C. whether D. how 21. In a word, the hours the children sped in their own-way relationship with television people undoubtedly affect their relationships with real-life people. A. in which B. on which C. when D. that 22. About Chinese football, it may be the pressure from both the clubs and fans finally makes the UFA carry out reform of the Chinese Premier League. A. what B. who C. which D. that

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