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主语从句讲解加练习(1)


Unit4 Grammar
Noun clauses as the subject 名词性从句 主语

Find the subjects in the following sentences.
1. A tree has fallen across the road. 2. You are a student. 3. To find your way can be a problem. 4. Smoking is harmful to you. 5. What she said is not yet known. 6. That we shall be late is certain. 7. It’s certain that we shall be late.

主语从句
在句中充当主语的从句叫做主语从句。

Find the subject clauses in the following sentences, and translate them.

1That he will come is certain. 2Whether it will please them is not easy to say.

3What seems easy to some people seems difficult to others.
4Which side will win is not clear.

5Why he did it remains a mystery.

主语从句的引导词:
连词 that , whether 连接代词 who(ever), whom(ever),
which(ever), what(ever)

连接副词 where ,when ,why ,how

“ 缺 什 么 补 什 么 ” 原 则

缺主语,指人用 who ,指物用 what 缺宾语,指人用whom/who,指物用 what 缺时间状语用 when ; 地点状语用 where ; 原因状语用 why ;方式状语用 how ; 定语用what或which 什么都不缺用 that或whether(是否)。

Where he will go is unknown. What you said yesterday is right. That he knows Japanese is known to all. Whether he is coming doesn’t matter much.

1)从属连词:that, whether等. that 引导主语从句只起引导作用,本身无实 际意义,在主语从句中不充当任何成分,但 不能省略。
That he will win is certain.他肯定会赢。 Whether he’ll come here isn’t clear. 他 是否会来这里还不清楚。

注意: 由that 引导的主语从句有时为了使句
子结构平衡, 避免 “头重脚轻”, 常用 it 作形式

主语, 而把从句放在后面。 例如:
1. That he will refuse this piece of advice is impossible. It is impossible that he will refuse this piece _______________________________________ of advice. _______________________________________

*it为形式主语
2.That they should like each other is natural. It is natural that they should like each other. _____________________________________

这样就构成了下面一些常用句型: 1) It is + n. +从句 It is a pity/shame that... 遗憾的是…… It is a surprise that…令人惊奇的是… It is a fact that… …是事实 It is common knowledge that… …是常识 It is a pity that 很遗憾)we lost the match. *_______________(

It is a fact that 这是事实)he cheated in the *______________( exam.

2) It is + adj. +从句 It’s certain that… 肯定… It is possible that... 很可能…… It is unlikely that... 不可能…… It is obvious that… 很明显… It is necessary \important \natural\... that… +(should) +do… It is possible that 很可能)she will come *_________________( back tomorrow. It is obvious that 很明显)this measure is *_________________( effective.

3) It +不及物动词+从句 It happened that... 碰巧…… It occurred to me that…我突然想起… it seems that...
It happened that 刚好)I came into the office *________________( at that time. It occurred to me that 我突然想起)I forget to *____________________( sent the letter.

4) It + be +过去分词+从句
It is said that... 据说…… It is known to all that... 众所周知…… It is reported that... 据报道…… It is believed that...据信……;人们相信…… It is suggested that + (should)do... 建议…… It must be admitted that…必须承认…… It cannot be denied that… 不可否认…… It must be pointed out that…需指出的是……

It is reported that 据报道)20 people were *___________________( killed in the accident. It is suggested that 建议)we should eat *______________________( more vegetable and do more exercise.

5. It+doesn’t matter (makes no differenc e, etc.)+连接代词或连接副词引起的主语从句。 如: It doesn’t matter whether she will come or not.

2.连接代词who ,what ,which, whatever, whichever, whoever (Who, whom, which, what可
以和ever构成合成词,和what一样引导从句,ever起到 强调作用。此类主语从句不能用形式主语it引导,它们在 句子中担任成分,不能省略,语序为陈述语序)

What many scientists believe is that the earth is round … Who will take part in the meeting has not been decided.

Whoever breaks the law will be punished. Which student will win is uncertain. Whatever was said here must be kept secret. 这里说的话都应当保密。 Whoever makes mistakes must correct them. 凡犯了错误的人都必须改正。

3)连接副词when,where, how, why等。
Why they suddenly disappeared still remains a mystery.
When they will leave is not decided. Where she is from is unknown. How we will paint the house has not been decided.

注意:
1)主语从句在句首时,必须由连接词引 导,不能省略这些连接词;但是如果用it 做形式主语,而把主语从句放在句末时, 从属连词that可以省略。
误:They should like each other is natural. 正:That they should like each other is natural. 正:It is natural (that) they should like each other.

2)如果主语从句放在句首,不能用if引 导,但是如果用it 做形式主语,而把主 语从句放在句末时,也可以用if引导. 或把if 改为whether
误:If Mary really heard him is really doubtful. 正:It was doubtful if Mary really heard him. 正: Whether Mary really heard him is really doubtful.

Complete the sentences using what, whether, where, when, who, why, how or that.
What is needed for success) is your hard work. 1.(_____

When/How 2.(______ they will arrive )has been told to the teacher.
Where/whether 3.(________ we will go tomorrow )hasn’t been decided yet. 4.(______ Who can join in the sport meet) is decided by the teacher. Whether it will rain or not) is not clear. 5.(________ 主语从句作主语时,谓语动词一般用单 Conclusion: 数形式。

主语从句的规律: 找出下列句子中的错误,并总结规律 例1.When will he come is not known.

正:When he will come is not known. 规律一、主语从句一律用陈述语序, 即主语在前,谓语在后。

主语从句的规律:

例2. He will not come to the meeting this evening is true. 正:That he will not come to the meeting this evening is true.
规律二、连词that 在从句中无实际意义, 但不能省略。

主语从句的规律: 例3. If the meeting will be put off

has not been decided yet. 正: Whether the meeting will be put off has not been decided yet.
规律三、whether 可以引导主语从句, 放在句首,但if不能

主语从句的规律: 例4. That whether he will help others

is a fact.
正:That he will help others is a fact. 规律四、主语从句中的连词不能重叠使用。

主语从句的规律:
例5. When he will come are a puzzle. 正:When he will come is a puzzle. 规律五、含主语从句的主句谓语动词多用 单数第三人称形式。

主语从句的规律:

1. What he needs is that book.
2. What he needs are some books.
规律六、what 引导的主语从句,可根据 表语决定主句动词的单复数形式。

主语从句的规律:

That the earth turns around the sun is known to all. It is known to all that the earth turns around the sun.
规律七、主语从句为了避免头重脚轻现 象,用 it 做形式主语,而 把从 句放在后面。

找出错误,并给出理由: 1.Where shall we spend the holiday isn’t decided. we shall 2.You have made a mistake is a fact. That you have 3. If the policeman will come is not certain. Whether

4. That is certain that we can win. It

5. It is ordered we should leave at once. that 6. Where he comes from are a is mystery. 7. What whether he likes the job is not clear. 8. Who he is and where he is from is are important. 9.What he saw is the stars in the sky.

x

are

Exercises :

Part One: 主语从句单选题 1.D has helped to save the drowning girl is worth
praising. A.Who B.The one 2.It was A he said
C.Anyone D.Whoever disappointed me.

A.what ;that B.that; that C.what;what D.that;what
3. B we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. A.If B.Whether C.That D.Where 4.A he said at the meeting surprised everybody present. A.What B. That C.The fact D.The matter

5. B was to return to school. A.That really interested him B.What really interested him C.Which really interested him D.That interest him really 6. C makes mistakes must correct them. A.What B.That C.Whoever D.Whatever 7. A your men have been on my land without permission. A.It seems that B.There seems to be C.That seems D.It seems for 8.It has always puzzled me B the old man lied a red

silk ribbon on the young tree. A.that B.why C.where

D.what

1.___ he made an important speech at the meeting was true. A. That B. Why C. What D. How 2. ___we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather . A If B Whether

C That

D Where

3. It

worried her a bit ___ her hair was turning gray. B. that
D. when

A.whether
C. what

4.What I say and think ___ none of your business. A. is B. are C. has D have

1. That _____ you don’t like him is none of my business. 2. What _____ he said at the meeting astonished everybody present 3.Whether ________ the 2000 Olympic Games will be held in Beijing is not known yet. 4.Whether ________ we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather. 5.Whoever ________ leaves the room last ought to turn off the lights.

请用恰当的主语从句连词填空: What ,it ,that , whether, whoever

用whether\if填空

whether the film is 1.The question is ________ interesting.
Whether we shall attend the meeting 2.________ hasn't been decided yet.

Correct or not? *When the meeting will be held haven’t been known yet.
……………………………. be held hasn’t been known yet.

×

Pay attention:主语从句的谓语用单数形式

Correct or not? * If we will have a meeting hasn’t been
decided yet.

×

Whether we will…………………………. decided yet. Pay attention:放在名词性从句句首,表示 “是否”,只能用whether, 不能用if

Correct or not? *That she wants to know is when the party will be held .
What she wants to know is……. Pay attention:此主语从句缺少成分-宾语, 故用作成分的what来引导,而不用that。

×

Correct or not? *He will give up his job surprises all of us.
That he will give up……… Pay attention:由that引导的主语从句放在句 首,that 不能省略。

×

1. ___ he made an important speech at the meeting was true.
A. That B. Why C. What D. How 2. ___we’ll go camping tomorrow depends on the weather . A If B Whether C That D Where

3.___ is known to us all that America is a developed country . A Which B As C What D It

4. It’s known to us all ___ a form of energy .
A. water is C. is water B. that water is D. that water to

5. It worried her a bit ___ her hair was turning gray. A. whether B. that C. what D. when

6.What I say and think ___ none of your business. A. is B. are C. has D have


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