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Key to Unit 7



Unit 7

Exploring Human Nature

Reading Focus

On Human Nature

Reading F

ocus – Detailed Information

Task 2 Choose the sentence that best expresses the meaning of the sentence from the text. (P198) Key: 1 A 2 D 3 C 4 B 5 A 6 C 7 D 8 B

Reading Focus – Vocabulary in Action Task 1 Choose the answer that best explains the underlined word or phrase in the sentence. (P201)

Key: 1- A 2- C 3- B 4- B 5- C 6- A 7- B 8- C 9- A 10- C

Reading Focus – Vocabulary in Action Task 2 Form new words by combining affixes and the root words given in the box, then choose a word in its appropriate form to complete each of the sentences below. (P202) inunmis-ar -ee -ness -ment -ially -ial ? dedis-inal im-tion -er -st -ation -ist -or -al -able -ible -ly

part ially ____

un ___fold

un ness ___selfish/ selfish____ proverb___ refine_____ ment ial mis ar ___take alter ation li___ ____ philanthrop___ ist

___perfect employ___ ee im __destructible criminal ___ ___ in consider___ able trait___ or

Reading Focus – Vocabulary in Action

Task 2 indestructible 1. There is little point putting a(n) _____________door in a frame that will rot in 10 years. mistook 2. A woman ________ him for a well-known actor, and asked him for his autograph. 3. In their lessons at school, boys and girls may learn about unselfishness such virtues as _____________, courage, discipline and love of one’s country. 4. Democracy, no matter imperfect is still the best method _________, of government. 5. Max walked past her, without acknowledging her presence by the slightest alteration __________in his expression. traitor 6. Whether she is victim or ________remains unknown.

Reading Focus – Vocabulary in Action

7. A(n) _____________amount of research was done here by our considerable science department. 8. She may be stupid, but she’s not a(n)______. liar employees 9. We are a multi-national corporation with 140,000 ___________ worldwide. unfolds 10. As the story _______, we learn more about Max’s childhood. refinement 11. The new theory is a(n) __________ of Corbin’s theory of personality development. 12. Andrew Carnegie was a true_____________, giving away millions philanthropist to charity. criminal 13. The _________ was sent to prison for 10 years. partially 14. Lisa is deaf in one ear and _________ blind. proverbial 15. His modesty is ____________.

Reading Focus – Vocabulary in Action

Task 3
Complete the following sentences by translating the Chinese in brackets into English. Try to use the expressions you have learned from the text. (P203) So far as I’m concerned 1. _______________________(在我看来), some other arrangement would have been satisfactory. endeavor to measure 2. The management control process should ___________________ whether predetermined goals are being achieved ___________________________________________ (应该尽量 评测既定目标是否已经达到). 3. Who’s that guy Ally has been engrossed in conversation with ___________________________________ all night ________ (整晚一直专注地和他交谈)? 4. It would be unwise to ________________________________ draw conclusions from the results of a single survey _______________ (仅凭一次调查结果就得出结论).

Reading Focus – Vocabulary in Action He had no friends nor acquaintances 5. ________________________ ________(他既没有朋友,也没有熟 人), nor did he make any. 6. Only then did she tell him about the attack (她才告诉他袭击的事). ___________________________ as we had seen 7. Shelly, ______________ (正如我们所见), had met her through his uncle. 8. It was only lately that he had had a family himself ____________________________(他自己才成 家). the problems you mention are inherent in the system 9. I am afraid _____________________________________________ (你谈到的这些问题是体制固有的). 10. He liked_____________________________________________ young people conscientious in their work/young people who are conscientious in their ___________________________________ (工作认真的年轻人). deviated from her custom 11. The teacher _______________________ (与以往不同) and gave out no homework.

Reading Focus – Vocabulary in Action at the peril of 12. If you follow that course of action, it will be _____________ your own life / at your own peril (冒着丧失自己生命的危险). ____________________________ taken on a new dimension 13. His life had ________________________ (呈现出一片新面貌). 14. I’m perfectly ___________________________ (能够照顾我自 capable of looking after myself 己), thank you. in much the same way as it was 200 15. The furniture is made __________________________________ years ago _________ (和200年前几乎一样的式样). rescue the sailors from the 16. The lifeboat was sent out to _____________________________ sinking ship _____________ (拯救沉船上的海员). Portugal participated in the war 17. _____________________________ (葡萄牙参加了战争) by sending an army to France. due to our ignorance 18. The difficulty is ____________________ (由于我们的无知造 成的).

Practical Translation

修辞的翻译 修辞是艺术,也是科学。根据修辞格的特征,修辞可分为 词语修辞、结构修辞和音韵修辞三个方面。对不同类别的修辞 格主要有三种翻译方法: 1.直译法:保留原文句子结构和修辞,努力再现其形、内容和风 格。英汉语言中有对应修辞格的辞格(如明喻、暗喻、拟人、 夸张、转喻、反语、设问、反问、排比等),一般通过直译法 处理。 2.意译法:为了传达原文的确切含义,舍弃原文辞格的形式,从 而使译文自然贴切,具有较强的可读性。若找到相似的修辞方 式,也要认真加工以增强译文的表达效果。对偶、拟声、脚韵、 双关、反复等修辞,常采用意译的处理方法。 3.弥补法:对无法翻译的辞格(如头韵、联边、回文、镶字、仿 词等),可根据不同的语境采用不同的策略;内容重要非译不 可的可通过换格、加重语气、加上脚注等办法补救;与原作思 想力度和情节发展无重大关系的修辞格,干脆不译。

1. As it turned out, I went from the frying pan into the fire. 不料我跳出油锅,却又跳进了火中。 原文使用的暗喻,在译文中被完全直译,结构,形象, 意义都得以保留。 2. With so many carrots , I’ll be a real gem !(B.C. Muffins) 有这么多克拉(胡萝卜), 我是颗真宝石!(贝蒂妙厨发糕) 这是美国Betty Croker食品公司宣传其产品之一发糕的广 告语,旨在表明内容的实在,分量的充足,营养的丰富。 原文用了谐音双关的修辞格,即carrots(胡萝卜)和Croat (克拉)同音异义。 译文将carrots处理成“克拉”从而与 下半句中的“宝石”意思连贯,原意“胡萝卜”以加注的 形式体现出来。

3. The Internet is also fun. You can write to old friends. Or check out their web pages. Enjoy web based soap operas. Laugh at online parodies and jokes. Join in a live Net Event. Chat with other Internet surfers. 英特网也很好玩:你可以给老朋友写信,或查看他们的网页; 欣赏网上电视连续剧;网上还有模仿的滑稽剧和笑话让你开心; 你可以参与实况网络动态节目;与别的英特网冲浪者聊天。 通过直译原文由一连串短句组成的排比,译文条理清晰,语 势如瀑。 4. The technology of millimeter wave guidance is still in its infancy now. 毫米波制导技术目前才刚刚起步。 拟人用法 “in its infancy” 译成“刚刚起步”,意思和修辞格得 以保留,比直译“尚处在婴儿期”更符合汉语表达习惯。

5. With determination, with luck, and with help from lots of good people, I was able to rise from the ashes. 凭着我的决心,我的运气,还有许多善良人们的帮助,我 终于得以东山再起。 rise from the ashes指的是凤凰每五百年积木焚身,从灰烬 中获得新生,要在译文中体现这一典故显然太过复杂。译 文干脆舍去凤凰焚身的形象,意译为东山再起。 6.The electronic devices are used in computers as switches that simple turn on and off. 这些电子器件在计算机中起开关作用,只是开开关关而已。 英语辞格押头韵的手法历来被认为是很难译的,汉语表达的 叠音词琅琅上口,较好地弥补了原文的音韵美,又为意境的 营造推波助澜,一定程度上保留了形和声两方面的美。

7. Embalmed in books, their spirits walk abroad. 他们那保存在书中的精神走向了世界各地。
将人的精神像制作木乃伊一样用油膏和香料保护起来,这种 说法在汉语中很难再现,译文舍弃了原文的修辞格,意译为 “保存”。 8. A good book is often the best urn of a life enshrining the best that life could think of… 一本好书往往就是人的一生最好的归宿之所,它珍藏着人的思 想的精华。 Urn的意思是“收藏 东西的陶质器皿——瓮;放置死人骨灰 的骨灰瓮”。在本句表示人死后保存他们思想精华的东西。 译文淡化了urn的形象, 抛弃了隐喻修辞格,意译为“归宿 之所”,意思清楚明了,通俗易懂,效果优于直译。

Translate the following paragraphs into Chinese. Pay particular attention to the rhetoric techniques. Paragraph One The constancy of human nature is proverbial, as no one believes that a man can fundamentally change his nature. This is why it is so difficult for one who acquired an unsavory reputation to re-establish himself in public confidence. People know from experience that an individual who in one year displays knavish characteristics seldom in the next becomes any different. Nor does a thief become a trustworthy employee, or a miser a philanthropist. Nor does a man change and become a liar, coward or traitor at fifty or sixty; if he is one then, he has been one ever since his character was formed. Big criminals are first little criminals, just as giant oaks are first little acorns.

Translation for Reference:

人性的恒定性是众所周知的,因为没有人相信一个 人能够从根本上改变他的本性。这就是为什么一个 恶名远扬的人很难重建公众对他的信心。人们凭经 验知道某一年中表现出无赖性格的人不太可能在第 二年有任何改观。小偷也不会变成值得信赖的员工。 吝啬鬼也不可能变成慈善家。一个人也不会在五六 十岁的时候变成谎话精、懦夫或叛徒,如果那时候 他是,那么早在他性格形成的时候他就已经是了。 大罪犯最初都是小罪犯,正如大橡树最初都是小橡 果。

Paragraph Two I recalled his high spirits, his vitality, his confidence in the future, and his disinterestedness. It was impossible that it was the same man, and yet I was sure of it. I stood up, paid for my drink, and went out into the plaza to find him. My thoughts were in a turmoil. I was aghast. I could never have imagined that he was reduced to his frightful misery. I asked myself what had happened. What hopes deferred had broken his spirit, what disappointments shattered him, and what lost illusions ground him to the dust? I asked myself if nothing could be done. I walked round the plaza.

Translation for Reference: 我回想起他那时高涨的情绪、他的活力、他对未 来的信心,还有他的冷漠。这两个人不可能是同 一个人,然而我确信就是他。我起身付了账,走 进广场去找他。我的思绪一片混乱。我感到惊恐。 我绝不会想到他已经沦落到这般可怕的悲惨境地。 我问自己发生了什么事,是什么样的希望迟迟不 能实现令他伤心,是什么样的失意将他击垮,是 什么样的幻想破灭将他逼向屈辱?我问自己是否 已经无计可施。我绕着广场走着。

Focused Writing


Focused Writing — Abstracts
An academic abstract : 1. tells a reader what is in a paper or research report; 2. is usually placed on the second page after the title page; 3. has the purpose of identifying the focus of the paper or research and to tell potential readers what will be covered in the full text; 4. is a brief statement of purpose and scope, thesis, relevant theory and the methodology used in the research; 5. does not provide detailed results, conclusions, or recommendations; 6. is usually no more than 250 words. Note: A summary gives the reader an overview of the main points in a text. An informative abstract is rarely longer than one page and should never exceed more than 10% of the length of the original paper.

Focused Writing — Abstracts
An academic abstract may include many or all of the following points: 1) Motivation ? Why do we care about the problem and the results? ? What is the motivation for the research or report? ? The importance of your work, any difficulty encountered, and/or the impact it might have if successful. 2) Problem statement ? What problem to solve? ? What is the scope of work (a generalized approach, or for a specific situation)? ? What is the thesis, what is being proved? ? Not to use this inappropriate jargon unless it will be understood by intended readers. Note: the problem statement might be put before the motivation if readers would already understand why the problem is important.

Focused Writing — Abstracts
3) Approach/Methodology/Theoretical Basis ? How did you go about solving or making progress on the problem? ? Did you use simulation, analytical models, prototypes, surveys or quantitative or qualitative analysis of ignore, or measure? ? What, if any, established theoretical works underpinned your research? 4) Results ? What’s the answer? Indicate briefly what your results are and what they mean. ? No room for details. 5) Conclusion ? What are the implications of your results? ? Is it going to change the world (unlikely), be a significant “win”, be a nice “hack”, or simply serve as a road sign indicating that this path is a waste of time. ? Are your results general, potential general, or specific to a particular case?

Focused Writing — Abstracts
How can you write an effective abstract?

To begin with the introduction and the summary, if you’re writing an abstract about another person’s article, paper, or report:
? Read the article, paper or report with the goal of abstraction in mind. Look specially for the main parts: the purpose, methodology, scope, results, conclusions, and recommendations. ? Don’t merely copy key sentences, make an academic abstract no longer than 250 words. ? Keep phrases such as “this paper…”, “this report…”, “is described…”, “is report…” to a minimum. ? Need not explain the sections or parts of the paper. ? Avoid trade names, acronyms, abbreviations, or symbols. ? Only refer to information that is in the document and do not include your own or anyone’s opinion. ? Write in the third person: use passive verbs to downplay the author and emphasize the information.

Final Project

Final Project

Step One Imaging yourself to be the red-haired beggar in Somerset Maugham’s story Bum. Make a monologue of your experience of meeting an old acquaintance at the plaza. Emphasize how his sudden appearance in your life affects your peace of mind. Words and Expressions you may use: to earn one’s living disturb interest recognize unfair superior luck

come to an end be too much for

Final Project Step Two Suppose the author couldn’t get over the shock of meeting with the red-haired beggar after returning home. He would tell his friends about his encounter. Work together with your partner, and act out the conversation between the author and his listener. Your partner should try to help you recover your inner place.

Words and Expressions you may use:
figure out, far away, in nature, meals and shelter, come into one’s sight, on the tip of one’s tongue annoy, shock, point, brilliant, vague, attempt, note arrogant, vanity, humiliate, embarrass, acquaintance, misery, predetermine

Thank You!



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