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1. have a lot / much/ sth/ little/ nothing in common with sb/sth 有很多/一些/几乎没有/没有共同之处
①I found I had a lot in common with

these people. ②four women with almost nothing in commo

n ③The two games have much in common. ④In common with a lot of other countries, we're in an economic recession (衰退).

2. make a/some/much/no difference to 对…有/没有 影响/重要
① Morning or afternoon, it makes no difference to me. ② It won't make much difference whether you go today or tomorrow. ③ It does make a difference whether we can speak English fluently.

3. It is obvious (that) 显然,很明显 It is quite obvious that he is lying. be obvious to sb that对…来说很清楚 It might be obvious to you, but it isn't to me. It was obvious to everyone that the child had been badly treated. 大家都清楚那孩子受过虐待. obviously adv. 显然,明显地 Obviously, television has both advantages and disadvantages. Obviously, you don't understand me.

4. queue n./v. 队伍、排队
a queue of people waiting for the bus the queue for the toilets There was a long queue to get into the cinema. jump the queue

queue (up) for/ to do
The school is one of the best, and parents are queuing up to send their children there. We queued for an hour but didn't get in.

5. confuse v. 使迷惑、混淆、分不清
to confuse black and white to confuse Mr. A with Mr. B

adj. confusing / confused
be confused about If you're confused about anything, phone my office.

6. compare … with / to
________ with the size of the whole earth, the biggest ocean does not seem big at all. (2004湖北卷) A. Compare B. When comparing C. Comparing D. When compared
Michael’s new house is like a huge palace, _______ with his old one. (2009重庆) A. comparing B. compares C. to compare D. compared

7. omit v. 省略、删除、遗漏、忘记 omit to do/doing omission n. omitting / omitted Don't omit locking /to lock the door. John omitted preparing his lessons that day. 8. vary v. 变化 ~ from … to … various adj. 各种各样的、不同的

variety n.种类,品种,多样化 a ~ of各种各样的
variation n. 变化~in/of/among/between

9.differ from …与…不同、有区别、不一样

differ with/from sb on/about sth
I'm sorry to differ with you on that. Chinese differs greatly from Japanese in pronunciation. differ from…in…= be different from…in… differ with = disagree with

10.settle v. 定居、解决、决定 settle down 定居 settle in 迁入新居并安顿好 That’s settled. 就这么决定了。 How long did it take you to settle down in this country? 11. remark on/upon 评论、评述 remark that 说… She remarked (that) we'd better go at once. The judge made a few remarks about our performance. 12. after all 毕竟、终究 above all 首先、尤其 in all 总共

13. have no/a little/much/great difficulty /trouble /a hard time (in) doing sth 有一点儿/很多/巨大的 困难 Do you have any difficulty in understanding spoken English? I have difficulty (in) remembering names. have difficulty/trouble with sth

14. lead to 导致,结果是,引起 result in/ cause Eating too much fat can lead to heart disease. It was a medical error which led to the death of the patient. look forward to; refer to; pay attention to; devote…to…; stick to; object to; contribute to; get down to; the attitude to; the key/ answer / solution to…; get/be used to; belong to

15. present v. 陈述,赠送,颁发 Present your ideas to the rest of the class. present sb with sth present sth to sb 向…赠送… He presents his views to his classmates very clearly. He presented the teacher with a notebook. present adj.在场的; 现在的 n. 礼物 at present =at the present time 目前.现在 All the students present were given a small present. At present, people present here can not present a good solution to problem.

16. Jane’s pale face suggested that she was ill, and her parents suggested that she should have a medical examination.

We have really everything in common with America nowadays, except of course, language.

如今,我们和美国在一 切方面都相同,当然除 了语言。 Oscar Wilde

Within a century British and American English speakers will not be able to understand each other. Henry Sweet 不出一百年,讲英国英语和讲美国英语 的人将不能互相理解。

America and England are two countries divided by a common language.

美国和英国是被同一种语 言分开的两个国家。

George Bernard Shaw萧伯纳

It doesn’t make much of a difference whether a teacher speaks British or American English.
老师讲英式英语或美国 英语并没有多大的差别。

Dave Sperling founder of Dave’s ESL Café

ESL—English as a Second Language作为第二 语言的英语 EFL—English as a Foreign Language 作为外语的英语

British English

American English

Mum programme theatre realise

Mom program theater realize

write to me

write me

Match paragraphs 1. Words, words, words
2. Chips or French fries

3. Have or have got
4. Colour or color A. Spelling and pronunciation B. Vocabulary

C. Grammar

Paragraph 1~2: the differences in vocabulary

British English

American English automobiles freeway gas subway cab flashlight stand in line French fries

cars motorway petrol underground taxi torch queue up chips

Br. Am. Ch. Br. Am. Ch.

chips French Fries 炸土豆条 crisps chips 炸土豆片

Paragraph 3: the differences in grammar

British English Have you got…? My friend has just arrived in the team/ at the weekend Write to me soon!

American English

Do you have…?
My friend just arrived. on the team/ weekend write me soon!

Paragraph 4: the differences in spelling and pronunciation

British English

American English

spelling

center centre color colour programme program

pronunciation

Monita Rajpal是CNN International “World News” 节目的主持人,在CNN 位于亚特兰大的总部工作。自 2001年起, Rajpal已报道了众多事件,如美国领导的 反恐战争;持续已久的中东冲突;天主教会丑闻;利 比里亚社会动荡;伊拉克管理委员会就职;特蕾莎修 女授福及阿富汗战争中的坎大哈事件。她还主持了 CNN 技术和环境特色节目“Global Challenges” ,并 参与了另一个 CNN特色节目“Inside the Middle East”的工作。

ABC American Broadcasting Company 美国广播公司 NBC National Broadcasting Company 全国广播公司 VOA Voice of America 美国之音 BBC British Broadcasting Corporation 英国广播公司 CNN Cable News Network 美国有线电视 新闻网

dimension n. 大小,体积,范围,面积(常用复 数);cn.宽度,长度,厚度,高度等; 维,度;方面, 程度 What are the dimensions of the room? 这房间的面积是多少? of three dimensions 三维的, 立体的 There is another dimension to this problem which you haven't mentioned. 这个问题还有一个方面你没提到。

1.谈论永久的状况,或谈论经常发生或随 时都在发生的事(而不只是眼前的是), 通常用一般现在时。
I go to London about three times a week. Water freezes at 0°Celsius.

My parents live near Dover.

2.通常用现在进行时谈论眼前正在进行的暂 时的动作和事情,而不用于持续长时间的 或永久的情况。
“What are you doing?” “I’m reading.”

Why is that girl standing on the table?
3. 谈论一系列动作或事情,一边说,一边 做,通常用一般现在时。 Watch carefully. First I take a bowl and break two eggs into it. Next …

4. 如果重复的动作和事情发生在说话时刻 前后的话,就可以用现在进行时来表示。 Why is he hitting the dog?

但是我们通常不用现在进行时来谈论那些 与说话的时刻没有密切联系的重复动作和 事情。
I go to the mountains about twice a year.

5. 要说明目前的一个动作或情况已经进行 了多长时间,要用完成时。 I’ve known her since 1960.
I’ve been learning English for three years.

refer to…as… 把…称为… People refer to Yuan Longping as “the father of hybrid rice”. China is referred to as “the factory of the world”. refer to I had forgotten the date of the battle so I referred to a history book.(查阅,参考) When I said some people are stupid, I wasn’t referring to you.(针对,指的是…) Don’t refer to the matter again.(提到,谈到)

attempt n. v. 尝试、企图、试图 to do make an attempt at (doing) sth attempt to do The boys attempted to leave for camping

but were stopped by their parents.
They failed in all their attempts to climb

the mountain.

criticize/criticise v. criticism n. 批评 criticize sb/sth for (doing) sth Doctors have criticized the government for failing to invest enough in the health service. He was criticized for not finishing the work in time.
blame v. 责备、指责 blame sb for sth = blame sth on sb sb is to blame for sth She blamed him for the failure of their marriage. Which driver was to blame for the accident?

简化字汉字由来已久, 汉字从甲骨文、 金文变为篆书,再变为隶书、楷书。 楷书在魏晋时开始出现,而简体字已见 于南北朝的碑刻,到隋唐时代简化字逐渐增 多,在民间相当普遍,被称为“俗体字”。 宋代以后,随着印刷术的发明,简体字 由碑刻和手写转到雕版印刷的书籍上,从而 扩大了简体字的流行范围,数量大大增多。 根据《宋元以来俗字谱》,宋元明清12种民 间刻本中所用的简体字多达6240个,合为繁 体字共1604个,平均每个繁体字有3—9个不 同的简化字。

目前,簡體字主要在中國大陸、馬來西 亞、新加坡,以及東南亞的一些華人社 區中使用。過去簡體字與繁體字並存於 聯合國各式文件中,然而中華人民共和 國於1971年恢復聯合國合法席位後,目 前聯合國中無成員國家使用繁體中文字 體。聯合國的漢字體系標準與大陸的簡 體漢字保持一致。對外發布的漢字正式 文本以簡體漢字為準。 2008年後,聯 合國將不再同時發行兩種漢字文本,只 保留簡體文本。

The Writing System
There are about 50,000 characters in written Chinese, however most people only know about 20,000 of these. Most of these characters have elements of meaning and information about pronunciation. The most widely used system of writing is Putonghua, which became the medium of instruction in all schools in 1956, and almost all publications made are using it.

Varieties of Chinese

There are eight main varieties of Chinese. These are regional, and are often called dialects, although they are very different from each other in pronunciation. There is also another classification. There is also another classification, however, which gives two varieties: Wenyan, an ancient literary language, and Baihua, a kind of colloquial language. Putonghua, closely similar to the language spoken in Beijing, has been developed since the late of 1950s. Its development has had the aim of simplifying Chinese.

The Language Today
Pinyin is a 58-symbol writing system which has been used since 1958. It has the aims of helping everyone to use Putonghua, and to learn the Chinese characters. In the 1970s a new map of China was printed which standardised the place names of every town, city and village.

Read the passage and answer:

What reasons did Webster have for writing an American dictionary? He wanted to simplify the spelling of English and make it look different from British English.

What are the two problems with English?
The spelling of words does not always represent the sound. Some words just seem to have too many letters.

Can you see any similarities between Webster’s work and attempts to simplify Chinese? The work of simplifying Chinese has made it convenient for people to read, understand and use the Chinese language. So has Webster’s work for American people.


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