介词 ( preposition )
一 介词的分类与语法功能 1.介词是虚词， 不能单独做句子成分， 必须与名词、 代词（ 或相当于名词的其他词类、短语、或从句 ） 构成介词短语，在句子中充当一个成分。 介词分为： 简单介词: at 、 in 、 on 、for 、 to 合成介词: within 、 inside 、 onto、 throughout . 短语介词
: according to 、 out of 、 because of、 by means of、 in spite of 、 instead of
双重介词 ： from behind /above / under , until after
分词介词 ：considering , including , judging from /by
1. It is going to rain this afternoon according to the weather forecast.
2. He quarrelled with her yesterday. 3. He succeeded in passing the final examination . 4. I’m still thinking of how I can fulfill the task ahead of time. 5.The professor will give us a talk on how to study
总结 1：介词后常接 名词、代词、动名词 、从句、
不定式组成介词短语。 This machine is in good condition .
Where is the key to my bike ?
Nothing in the world could live without air or water . She always thinks herself above others 总结 2 : 介词短语在句子中可作表语、 定语 、状语和 宾补。
二. 介词搭配 1. 动词＋ 介词 ? rob sb of sth ( clear / inform /cheat / remind / accuse / cure . etc)
? supply us with sth = supply sth to / for sb
( provide / fill )
? make sth of / from / into ? 介词＋ the + 人体部位 （strike / catch / hit/
? prevent sb from doing
? persuade sb into / out of doing sth ( advise/ warn /reason)
? buy sth for sb ( leave / get / win / gain / lose ) ? tell sth to sb ( show / teach / sing / write / read) ? give sth to sb( allow / promise / pass / hand ) ? say to sb ( suggest / explain / apologize / murmur /whisper) ? 同一介词与不同动词 （ to / for / at … 同一动词与不同介词的搭配 ( look / agree / hear / call /stand …
2. 形容词＋ 介词 afraid / angry / anxious / tired / strict / good popular / pleased / known / familiar
1. I’m afraid _____ being late for school because my head teacher is very strict _____ us . 2. Einstein was known ______ his theory of relativity _____ a famous physics scientist ______ the world .
3. He is angry _____ what his e-pal has said for he is tired _____ being laughed at by others . 4. The boy is familiar ______ the fiction because it is very popular ______ teenagers so far .
3. 名词＋ 介词 1. The absence / lack of water is the most serious problem . 2. The girl has a good way _____ studying English . 3. The key _____ success lies in diligence and wisdom . 三 重点介词的用法归纳与辨析 1. 表示世纪、年、月、 季、周 用 in / during , in the 1990s , in May , in spring ,in the first week of June 2. 在某一天或某天上、下午、晚上 、前夕 用 on
3. 在某一时刻、 或某一点时间用 at .
4. till , until , to 的用法。 1） till / until 与延续动词连用，用于肯定句，与短暂 动词连用用在否定句（ 在句首、强调句 不用till ).
2) to 表终结常与from 连用 from … to … from time to time from hand to hand from door to door from house to house from one + 名词＋ to another 表 “依次” 名词 + by + 同一名词 one by one …
5. in , after , later in + 一段时间 . after + 一段时间 . after + 点时间 . 一段时间 ＋ later 常用 一般将来时。 常用一般过去时。 用各种时态。 过去时
6 . 地点介词 : at , on , in , to , off across , through over , under below , above to （ 静态 ）, towards ( 动态 ）,along 7. 表示方式、手段、 工具 的介词 by / through ( 表泛指 的方式、手段） by (交通工具类） by / with / in ( 方式、手段） 1.The boy likes writing _____ a pen and especially likes writing _____ blue and black ink . 2. He got full mark _____ his own effort, he often contacts with his epals _____ email .
8. 表 “ 除… 之外 ” 的介词 besides , but ＝ except ， except for , except that … 注意： 1） 前面有不定代词、 疑问代词时，多用but
All but one are here . Nobody but I likes literature . 2） 后接不定式短语为排除对象时，多用but He has nothing to do but wait . 3) 固定短语 have no choice but to do sth （只得做某事） can not but do sth ＝cannot help but do sth (不得不） but for / but that…（要不是）
9. between / among (三者以上）
1） Mary is sitting _____ Tom and wang Li.
2） She was busy _____ cooking , washing , sewing and looking after the baby . 3）Shanghai is _____the largest cities in the world . 4） A horse can be seen _____ trees now.
for , because of , due to , owing to , on account of , as a result of 1. He didn’t come to the meeting ______ his illness . 2. The reason ______ his being angry is that he lost his cell phone. 3. ______ a heavy snow , the highway has been closed up. 4. The accident is ______ the driver’s drinking .
11. 不定式复合结构中的 for , of 1）It is clever ______ you to answer such a difficult answer.
2）It is mean ______ her to give me so little pocket money .
3）It is quite impossible _____ him to explain why .
4） It is hard ______ you to learn a foreign language
without perseverance . 12 . 兼类词 （ 兼作连词和副词） after since till / until before .
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