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高中英语基础知识复习材料


Learning English is just like love at first sight.
英语学习就像一见钟情,

(注:多数辅音的读音与拼音差别不大,可以通过拼音来进行谐音;还有一部分辅音 没有对应的拼音字体,我们的记忆方法主要是针对这四个辅音。) 其中,[θ]和[?]这两个音标,它们没有近似的拼音来对应,主要靠嘴形来记忆。 [θ]――

外形像上下牙齿咬着舌头;[?]――外形则像舌头顶在上下牙齿之间。

Feeling is very important .
感觉很重要, 你从未想过它会变得如此重要.

名词、形容词、代词、数词、冠词、动词、副词、介词、连词、感叹词。

You never know it will become so essential in your life.
它在你的学习生涯中如此放肆逍遥,如影随形,你却无可奈何.

1、 名词(n.): 表示人、 事物、 地点或抽象概念的名称。 如: boy, morning, bag, ball, class, orange. 2、代词(pron.): 主要用来代替名词。如:who, she, you, it . 3、形容词(adj..):表示人或事物的性质或特征。如:good, right, white, orange . 4、 数词(num.): 表示数目或事物的顺序。 如: one, two, three, first, second, third, fourth. 5、动词(v.): 表示动作或状态。如:am, is,are,have,see .

Come on,boys and girls, let’s beat it and enjoy it.
元音部分: 1)、单元音: [i:]、[i]、[? :]、[? ]、[u:]、[u]、[?:]、[?]、[ɑ:]、[? ]、[e]、[? ] 2)、双元音: [ei]、[ai]、[? i]、[i?]、[ε?]、[u?]、[au] 、[?u] 辅音部分: [p]、[b] 、[t]、[d]、[k]、[g]、[f]、[v]、[s]、[z]、[θ]、[?]、[? ]、[? ]、[t? ]、[d? ] [tr]、[dr]、[ts]、[dz]、[m]、[n]、[?]、[h]、[l]、[r]、[j]、[w]

6、 副词(adv.): 修饰动词、 形容词或其他副词,说明时间、 地点、 程度等。 如: now, very, here, often, quietly, slowly. 7、冠词(art..):用在名词前,帮助说明名词。如:a, an, the. 8、介词(prep.): 表示它后面的名词或代词与其他句子成分的关系。如 in, on, from, above, behind. 9、连词(conj.): 用来连接词、短语或句子。如 and, but, before . 10、感叹词(interj..)表示喜、怒、哀、乐等感情。如:oh, well, hi, hello.

二,双元音:[ei]、[ai]、[? i]、[i?]、[? ?]、[u?]、[au]、[?u] [ei]――谐音为:妹(mei);鹅有一个妹妹。 [ai]――谐音为:爱(ai);音标的读音跟拼音一样。 [? i]――这个音标找不到拼音的谐音,可以按照字母 o、i 的发音连读来进行谐音记忆。 [i?]――谐音和外形都像:12 [? ?]――谐音为:挨饿;外形像 3 只鹅;三只鹅都在挨饿。 [u?]――谐音为:屋鹅;一屋子的鹅都装在杯子里。 [au]――谐音为:傲(ao);一个杯子很骄傲,不让人拿它喝水。 [?u]――谐音为:鸥(ou);一只鹅在杯子里找海鸥。 三,辅音:[θ]、[?]、[? ]、[? ]

2、句子成分:英语句子成分分为七种:主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语、表语、宾语 补足语。 1、主语是句子所要说的人或事物,回答是“谁”或者“什么”。通常用名词或代词担任。如: I?m Miss Green.(我是格林小姐) 2、 谓语动词说明主语的动作或状态,回答“做(什么)”。 主要由动词担任。 如: Jack cleans the room every day. (杰克每天打扫房间) 3、 表语在系动词之后,说明主语的身份或特征,回答是“什么”或者“怎么样”。 通常由名词、 代词或形容词担任。如:My name is Ping ping .(我的名字叫萍萍) 4、宾语表示及物动词的对象或结果,回答做的是“什么”。通常由名词或代词担任。如:

He can spell the word.(他能拼这个词) 有些及物动词带有两个宾语,一个指物,一个指人。指物的叫直接宾语 ,指人的叫间接宾 语。间接宾语一般放在直接宾语的前面。如:He wrote me a letter . (他给我写了一封 信) 有时可把介词 to 或 for 加在间接宾语前构成短语,放在直接宾语后面,来强调间接宾语。 如:He wrote a letter to me . (他给我写了一封信) 5、定语修饰名词或代词,通常由形容词、代词、数词等担任。如: Shanghai is a big city .(上海是个大城市) 6、状语用来修饰动词、形容词、副词,通常由副词担任。如:He works hard .(他工作 努力) 7 、宾语补足语用来说明宾语怎么样或干什么 , 通常由形容词或动词充当。如: They usually keep their classroom clean.(他们通常让教室保持清洁) / He often helps me do my lessons.(他常常帮我做功课) / The teacher wanted me to learn French all by myself.(老师要我自学法语)

比较:Now I put the sugar in the cup.

I am doing my homework now.

第一句用一般现在时,用于操作演示或指导说明的示范性动作,表示言行的瞬间动作。再如:Now watch me, I switch on the current and stand back. 第二句中的 now 是进行时的标志,表示正在进 行的动作的客观状况,所以后句用一般现在时。 2 一般过去时的用法 1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。 时间状语有:yesterday, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982 yesterday morning (afternoon, evening…) last night (week, month, year…), a moment ago , a week ago, three years ago… just now,等。 Where did you go just now? 2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。 When I was a child, I often played football in the street. Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome. 三、过去进行时用法:

☆ 同位语通常紧跟在名词、代词后面 , 进一步说明它的情况。如: Where is your classmate Tom ?(你的同学汤姆在哪里?)
1 一般现在时的用法 1) 经常性或习惯性的动作, 常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。 at…, on Sunday I leave home for school at 7 every morning. 2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。 The earth moves around the sun. 3) 表示格言或警句中。 Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。 Shanghai lies in the east of China. 时间状语: every…, sometimes,

1. 过去进行时主要表示过去某个时刻正在进行的动作,常和表示过去的状语连用。如: (just)then 那时,当时 午 at nine 在九点 last night 昨晚 (at)this time yesterday 在昨天这个时候 at this/that time 在这/那时 yesterday afternoon 昨天下

但在不少情况下,没有表示时间的状语,这时需要通过上下文来表示。 ①What were you doing at nine last night? 昨晚九点的时候,你在做什么? 我昨天下午正在家里看电视。

②I was watching TV at home yesterday afternoon.

③They were playing football at this time yesterday.昨天这个时候他们在踢足球。 2. 过去进行时也可以表示过去某一段时间内正在进行的动作。常与 those days, the whole morning, from 8:00 to 12:00 last night 等时间状语连用。 (1) From 1983 to 1998 , he was teaching at Yale . 从 1983 到 1998 年,他正在耶鲁大学教书。 (2)They were building a bridge last winter . 去年冬天他们正在造一座桥。 (3) He was writing a book those days . 那几天他正在写一本书 3.过去进行时与频度副词 always forever, continually, constantly 等连用时表示过去经常反

注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。 例:Columbus proved that the earth is round.. 4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。 I don't want so much. Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.

复的动作,常常带有埋怨、讨厌、赞扬或喜爱等情绪。 ?My sister was always forgetting things.(表示埋怨) ?He was always helping others. (表示赞扬) 一般将来时 一、意义:表示将来某个时间要发生的动作或存在的状态,也表示将来经常或重复发生的动作。 时间标志:tomorrow , soon , next Monday , evening …… 二. 构成及变化: 一般将来时常用的两种结构 be going to+动词原形 : 表示打算、准备做的事或即将发生或肯定要发生的事。 shall/will+动词原形 : 表示将要发生的动作或情况,没有太多的计划性, 还用来表示意愿. next year , next weekend , this afternoon , this

(

)7. If he _______harder, he will catch up with us soon. B. studies C. will study D. studied

A. study (

)8. --- Don?t forget to ask him to write to me.

--- I won?t. As soon as he _______, I?ll ask him to write to you. A. will come ( B. came C. comes D. is coming

)9. --- Do you like this silk dress? B. feels

--- Yes, I do. It _______ so soft and comfortable. C. has felt D. is felt

A. is feeling (

)10. Oh, it?s you. I?m sorry I _______ know you _______ here. A. don?t; are B. didn?t; are C. didn?t; were D. don?t; were

(

)11. Mr Lu Xun died in 1936. He _______ a lot of famous novels. B. was writing C. has written D. would write --- It?s 2567321.

A. wrote (

)12. --- Your telephone number again? I _______ quite catch it. A. can?t B. couldn?t C. don?t D. didn?t

(你不尝试,永远不会知道自己有多优秀,加油! ) ( )1. There _______ no hospitals in my hometown fifty years ago. A. is ( B. are C. was D. were (

)13. --- How was your weekend on the farm? B. went fishing

--- Great! We _______ with the farmers. D. make friends

A. enjoy ourselves (

C. will work

)2. --- Who sings best in your class? B. did C. does

--- Jenny _______. D. has done --- Yes, she

)14. --- What did Mr Jones do before he moved here?

A. do

--- He _______ a city bus for over twenty-five years. A. is driving ( B. drove C. has driven D. drives

( )3. --- _____ the young girl _____ the old man clean his room every day? does. A. Does; help ( B. Has; helped C. Did; help D. Do; helps

)15. Jane _______ a new dress every month when she was in Shanghai. A. buys B. is buying C. bought D. will bu

)4. --- Can I go to Beijing for my holiday, Dad? A. will get B. get

--- You can when you _______ a bit older. D. got

C. are getting

(

)5. --- What does Linda often do in the evening?

--- She often _______ her homework, but on the evening of March 12 she _______ TV. A. does; watches ( B. is doing; watched C. does; watched D. is doing; was watching

什么叫句子成分呢?句子的组成成分叫句子成分。在句子中,词与词之间有一定 的组合关系,按照不同的关系,可以把句子分为不同的组成成分。句子成分由词或词 组充当。现代汉语里一般的句子成分有六种,即主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语和补 语。 英语的基本成分有七种: 主语 (subject) 、 谓语 (predicate) 、 表语 (predicative) 、 宾语(object) 、定语(attribute) 、状语(adverbial) 和补语(complement) 。 英语句子的基本结构可以归纳成五种基本句型及其扩大、组合、省略或倒装。掌 握这五种基本句型,是掌握各种英语句子结构的基础。 英语五种基本句型列式如下:

)6. Our geography teacher told us yesterday that the earth _______ around the sun. B. moved C. has moved D. moves

A. was moving

一: S V (主+谓) 二: S V P (主+系+表) 三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 基本句型 一:S V (主+谓) 主语:可以作主语的成分有名词(如 boy) ,主格代词(如 you) ,动词不定式,动名词 等。主语一般在句首。注意名词单数形式常和冠词不分家! 谓语:谓语由动词构成,是英语时态、语态变化的主角,一般在主语之后。不及物动 词(vi.)没有宾语,形成主谓结构,如:We come. 此句型的句子有一个共同特点,即句子的谓语动词都能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫 做不及物动词,后面可以跟副词、介词短语、状语从句等 S │ V (不及物动词) 1. The sun │was shining. 2. The moon │rose. 3. The universe │remains. 4. We all │breathe, eat, and drink. 5. Who │cares? 太阳在照耀着。 月亮升起了。 宇宙长存。 我们大家都呼吸、吃和喝。 管它呢?

3. He │fell │in love. 4. Everything │looks │different.

他堕入了情网。 一切看来都不同了。

There be 结构: There be 表示?存在有?。这里的 there 没有实际意义,不可与副词 ?there 那里?混淆。 此结构后跟名词,表示?(存在)有某事物? 试比较:There is a boy there.(那儿有一个男孩。 )/前一个 there 无实意,后一个 there 为副词?那里?。

基本句型 三: S V O (主+谓+宾) 此句型句子的共同特点是:谓语动词都具有实义,都是主语产生的动作,但不能表达 完整的意思,必须跟有一个宾语,即动作的承受者,才能使意思完整。这类动词叫做 及物动词。宾语位于及物动词之后,一般同主语构成一样,不同的是构成宾语的代词 必须是?代词宾格?,如:me,him,them 等 S │V(及物动词)│ O 1. Who │knows │the answer? 谁知道答案? 2. She │smiled │her thanks. 她微笑表示感谢。 3. He │has refused │to help them. 他拒绝帮他们。 4. He │enjoys │reading. 他喜欢看书。 基本句型 四: S V o O (主+谓+间宾+直宾) 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,如:give 给,pass 递,bring 带,show 显示。这两个 宾语通常一个指人,为间接宾语;一个指物,为直接宾语。间接宾语一般位于直接宾 语之前。 一般的顺序为:动词 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语。如: Give me a cup of tea,please. 强调间接宾语顺序为:动词 + 直接宾语 +介词+ 间接宾语。如: Show this house to Mr.Smith. S │V(及物)│ o(多指人) │ O(多指物) 1. She │ordered │herself │a new dress. 她给自己定了一套新衣裳。 2. She │cooked │her husband │a delicious meal. 她给丈夫煮了一顿美餐。 3. He │brought │you │a dictionary. 他给你带来了一本字典。

基本句型 二: S V P (主+系+表) 此句型的句子有一个共同的特点:句子谓语动词都不能表达一个完整的意思,必须加 上一个表明主语身份或状态的表语构成复合谓语,才能表达完整的意思。这类动词叫 做连系动词。系动词分两类:be, look, keep, seem 等属一类,表示情况;get, grow, become, turn 等属另一类,表示变化。be 本身没有什么意义,只起连系主语和表语的 作用。其它系动词仍保持其部分词义。感官动词多可用作联系动词: look well/ 面色 好,sound nice/听起来不错,feel good/感觉好,smell bad/难闻 S │V(是系动词)│ P 1. This │is │an English-Chinese dictionary. 这是本英汉辞典。 2. The dinner │smells │good. 午餐的气味很好。

4. He │denies │her │nothing. 他对她什么都不拒绝。 5. I │showed │him │my pictures. 我给他看我的照片 6. I │gave │my car │a wash. 我洗了我的汽车。 7. I │told │him │that the bus was late. 我告诉他汽车晚点了。 8. He │showed │me │how to run the machine. 他教我开机器。

但常用的英语句子并不都象基本句型这样简短,这些句子除了基本句型的成分不变外, 通常是在这些成分的前面或后面增加一些修饰语(modifier)而加以扩大。这些修饰语 可以是单词(主要是形容词、副词和数词) ,也可以是各种类型的短语(主要是介词短 语、不定式短语和分词短语) 。我们称之为:定语、状语 一、 定语: 定语是对名词或代词起修饰、 限定作用的词、 短语或句子, 汉语中常用?…… 的?表示。定语通常位于被修饰的成分前。若修饰 some,any,every,no 构成的复合不定 代词时, (如:something、nothing) ;或不定式、分词短语作定语、从句作定语时,则 定语通常置后。副词用作定语时须放在名词之后。 ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? 形容词作定语: The little boy needs a blue pen.(little 修饰名词 boy;blue 修饰名词 pen.)/小男 孩需要一支兰色的钢笔。 Tom is a handsome boy./Tom 是个英俊的男孩。 There is a good boy./有个乖男孩。 数词作定语相当于形容词: Two boys need two pens./两个男孩需要两支钢笔。 The two boys are students./这两个男孩是学生。 There are two boys in the room./房间里有两个男孩。 代词或名词所有格作定语: His boy needs Tom\'s pen./他的男孩需要 Tom 的钢笔。 His name is Tom./他的名字是汤姆。 介词短语作定语: The boy in the classroom needs a pen of yours./教室里的男孩需要你的一支 钢笔。 The boy in blue is Tom./穿兰色衣服的孩子是汤姆。 There are two boys of 9,and three of 10./有两个 9 岁的,三个 10 岁的男孩。 名词作定语: There is only one ball pen in the pencil box./这铅笔盒里只有一支圆珠笔。 ? ? 副词作定语: The boy there needs a pen./那儿的男孩需要一支钢笔。

基本句型 五: S V O C (主+谓+宾+宾补) 此句型的句子的共同特点是:动词虽然是及物动词,但是只跟一个宾语还不能表达完 整的意思,必须加上一个补充成分来补足宾语,才能使意思完整。 宾语补足语:位于宾语之后对宾语作出说明的成分。宾语与其补足语有逻辑上的主谓 关系,它们一起构成复合宾语。 名词/代词宾格 + 名词 The war made him a soldier./战争使他成为一名战士. 名词/代词宾格 + 形容词 New methods make the job easy./新方法使这项工作变得轻松. 名词/代词宾格 + 介词短语 I often find him at work./我经常发现他在工作. 名词/代词宾格 + 动词不定式 The teacher ask the students to close the windows./老师让学生们关上窗户. 名词/代词宾格 + 分词 I saw a cat running across the road./我看见一只猫跑过了马路 S │V(及物)│ O(宾语) │ C(宾补) 1. They │appointed │him │manager. 他们任命他当经理。 2. They │painted │the door │green. 他们把门漆成绿色 3. This │set │them │thinking. 这使得他们要细想一想。 4. They │found │the house │deserted. 他们发现那房子无人居住。 5. What │makes │him │think so? 他怎么会这样想?

? ? ? ?

The best boy here is Tom./这里最棒的男孩是 Tom。 不定式作定语: There is nothing to do today./今天无事要做。 分词(短语)作定语: The pen bought by her is made in China./她买的笔是中国产的。

In the classroom,the boy needs a pen./在教室里,男孩需要一支钢笔。 (地点状语) Before his mother,Tom is always a boy./在母亲面前,汤姆总是一个男孩子.(条件状语) On Sundays,there is no student in the classroom./星期天,教室里没有学生.(时间状语) 分词(短语)作状语: He sits there,asking for a pen./他坐在那儿要一支笔。 (表示伴随状态) Frightened,he sits there soundlessly./(因为)受了惊吓,他无声地坐在那儿。 (原因 状语) 不定式作状语: The boy needs a pen to do his homework./男孩需要一支笔写家庭作业。 (目的状语) To make his dream come true,Tom becomes very interested in business./为实现梦想, 汤姆变得对商业很有兴趣. 名词作状语:

? ? ?

There are five boys left./有五个留下的男孩。 定语从句: The boy who is reading needs the pen which you bought yesterday./那个 在阅读的男孩需要你昨天买的钢笔。

The boy you will know is Tom./你将认识的男孩叫汤姆。 There are five boys who will play the game./参加游戏的男孩有五个。

二、状语: 状语修饰动词、形容词、副词或全句,说明方式、因果、条件、时间、地点、让步、 方向、程度、目的等。 状语在句子中的位置很灵活,常见情况为:通常在句子基本结构之后,强调时放在句 首;修饰形容词或副词时,通常位于被修饰的词之前;表示时间、地点、目的的状语 一般位于句子两头,强调时放在句首,地点状语一般须在时间状语之前;一些表示 不确定时间(如:often)或程度(如:almost)的副词状语通常位于 be 动词、助动词、 情态动词之后,动词之前。 有时状语在句中的某个位置会引起歧义,应注意,如:The boy calls the girl in the classroom.一般理解成?男孩喊教室里的女孩?(此时 in the classroom 为 girl 的定语) , 也可以理解为?男孩在教室里喊女孩?(此时 in the classroom 为地点状语) ,最好写作?In the classroom,the boy calls the girl.\' 副词(短语)作状语: The boy really needs a pen./男孩真的需要一支钢笔。 (程度状语) The boy needs a pen now./Now,the boy needs a pen./The boy,now,needs a pen./ 男 孩现在需要一支钢笔。 (时间状语) 介词短语作状语:

Come this way!/走这条路! (方向状语) 状语从句: 时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、结果状语从句、目的状语从句、比 较状语从句、让步状语从句、条件状语从句 三、同位语: 同位语是在名词或代词之后并列名词或代词对前者加以说明的成分,近乎于后置 定语。如: We students should study hard. / (students 是 we 的同位语,都是指同一批?学生?) We all are students. / (all 是 we 的同位语,都指同样的?我们?)

句子成分练习题(自信飞扬,你一定可以做好,加油哦) (一). 指出下列句中主语的中心词() ① The teacher with two of his students is walking into the classroom. ? ? ② There is an old man coming here. ③ The useful dictionary was given by my mother last year.

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

④ To do today's homework without the teacher's help is very difficult (二) 选出句中谓语的中心词() ① I don't like the picture on the wall. A. don't B. like C. picture D. wall

? ?

④ How many new words did you learn last class? ⑤ Some of the students in the school want to go swimming, how about you?

(四) 挑出下列句中的表语() ? ? ? ? C.go D. bus ? ? ? ? ? ? D. his homework ? ? ① The old man was feeling very tired. ② Why is he worried about Jim? (五) 挑出下列句中的定语() ① They use Mr, Mrs with the family name.

② The days get longer and longer when summer comes. A. get B. longer C. days D. summer

③ Do you usually go to school by bus? A. Do B. usually

② What is your given name? ③ On the third lap are Class 1 and Class 3. (六) 挑出下列句中的宾语补足语() ① She likes the children to read newspapers and books in the reading-room. ② He asked her to take the boy out of school. ③ She found it difficult to do the work. (七) 挑出下列句中的状语() ① There was a big smile on her face. ② Every night he heard the noise upstairs. ③ He began to learn English when he was eleven.

④ There will be a meeting at the library this afternoon. A. will be B. meeting C. the library D. afternoon

⑤ Did the twins have porridge for their breakfast? A.Did B. twins C. have D. breakfast

⑥ Tom didn't do his homework yesterday. A. Tom B. didn't C. do

⑦ What I want to tell you is this. A. want B. to tell C. you D. is

? ?

⑧ We had better send for a doctor. A. We B. had C. send D. doctor

?

⑨ He is interested in music. A. is B. interested C. in D. music 1.

定语从句专题讲解
基本概念:

(再难也要勇敢向前,加油哦)

⑩ Whom did you give my book to? A. give B.did C. whom D. book

(三) 挑出下列句中的宾语() ① My brother hasn't done his homework. ② People all over the world speak English. ③ You must pay good attention to your pronunciation.

修饰某一名词或代词的从句叫定语从句。 Do you know the man who spoke at the meeting just now? That is the house where he lived ten years ago. 定语从句所修饰的词叫先行词;定语从句一般用关系代词或关系副词来引导,关系 词放在先行词与定语从句之间起连接作用,同时又作从句中的一个成分。 引导定语从句的关系代词有:that, who, whom, whose, which,as 关系副词有:when, where, why.

二、关系词的用法:

(一)关系代词的用法: 1. 作主语用 who, which 和 that, 如: He is the man who/that lives next door. The train which/that has just left is for Shenzhen. 2. 作宾语用 whom, who, which, that, 如: The man (whom/who/that) we have just seen is a famous writer. Where is the book (which/that) I bought last week? 注:在非正式文体中,用于指人的关系代词 who whom, that 通常可以省略,但在正式文体中 通常用 whom, 不可省略; 用于指物的关系代词 which 和 that 在非正式文体中也通常省略, 但 在正式文体中一般不省略。 3. 作定语用 whose, 如: (a) He is the man whose car was stolen last week. (b) It was a meeting whose importance I did not realize at that time. 注:“whose +名词中心词”这一结构在定语从句中既能作主语(如上 a 句),又能作宾 语(如上 b 句)。whose 的先行词常用来指人,但有时也可以用来指具体事物或抽象 概念,这时可以与 of which 结构互换,词序是:“名词+of which”,如: They came to a house whose back wall had broken down.. (= the back wall of which) He?s written a book the name of which I?ve completely forgotten. (= whose name) 4. 作表语只用 that ,它既可以指人,也可以指物,但时常省略。如: He is no longer the man that he used to be. This is no longer the dirty place (that) it used to be. (二)关系副词的用法: 1.when 指时间,在从句中作时间状语,它的先行词通常有:time, day, morning, night, week, year 等。如: I still remember the time when I first became a college student. Do you know the date when Lincoln was born? 注:when 时常可以省略,特别是在某些句型和某些时间状语中。如: Each time he came, he did his best to help us. But help never stopped coming from the day she fell ill. 2.where 指地点,在从句中作地点状语。它的先行词常有:place, spot, street, house, room, city, town, country 等。

This is the hotel where they are staying. I forget the house where the Smiths lived. 注:where 有时也可以省略。如: This is the place (where) we met yesterday. 3. why 指原因或理由,它的先行词只有 reason。如: That is the reason why he is leaving so soon. 注:why 时常也可以省略。如: That is the real reason he did it. (三) 使用关系副词应注意下列几点: 1. 这三个关系副词在意义上都相当于一定的介词+which 结构: when = on (in, at, during…) + which; where = in (at, on…) + which; why = for which. 如: I was in Beijing on the day when (=on which) he arrived. The office where (=in which) he works is on the third floor. This is the chief reason why (=for which) we did it. 2. 当先行词是表时间的 time, day 等和表地点的 place, house 等时,一定要注意分析 从句的结构,如果缺少主语或宾语时,关系词应该用 which 或 that, 缺少时间状语或地 点状语时,才能用 when 或 where,试比较: I?ll never forget the day when my hometown was liberated. I?ll never forget the days which/that we spent together last summer. His father works in a factory where radio parts are made. His father works in a factory which/that makes radio parts. 3. when 和 where 既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引导非限制性定语从句。而 why 只能引导限制性定语从句。 三.限制性定语从句与非限制性定语从句 1. 限制性定语从句说明先行词的情况, 对先行词起限定作用, 与先行词关系十分密切, 不可用逗号隔开,也不可省略,否则全句意义就不完整。如: This is the telegram which he refers to. Is there anything (that) I can do for you? 2.非限制性定语从句只是对先行词作补充说明,没有限定作用,它与先行词的关系比

较松散,因而不是关键性的,如果省略,原句的意义仍然完整。这种从句在朗读时要 有停顿,在文字中通常用逗号与主句隔开。如: This note was left by Tom, who was here a moment ago. As a boy, he was always making things, most of which were electric. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系词有:who, whom, whose, which, when 和 where,不 可以用 that 和 why。 另外,非限制性定语从句从意义上讲,相当于一个并列句,在口语中使用并不普遍, 在日常生活中,人们通常用并列句或简单句来表达。如: I told the story to John, who later did it to his brother. = I told the story to John, and he later told it to his brother. Yesterday I happened to see John, who was eager to have a talk with you. = Yesterday I happened to see John and he was eager to have a talk with you. 3.两种定语从句的内涵不同,限制性定语从句具有涉他性,而非限制性定语从句具有 唯一性,这在理解和翻译时应特别注意。试比较: All the books there, which have beautiful pictures in them, were written by him. All the books there that have beautiful pictures in them were written by him. His brother, who is eighteen years old, is a PLA man. (只有一个) His brother who is a PLA man is eighteen years old. (不止一个) 4.有时,非限制性定语从句所修饰的不是某一个词,而是整个主句或是主句中的一个 部分,这时一般采用 which 或 as 来引导。当整个主句(先行词)在从句中作主语时, 从句的谓语动词要用单数。 eg: He passed the exam, which/as he hoped he would. He has left here, which greatly upsets me.

四.关系词的选择 1. 在非限制性定语从句中,关系代词作主语,只能用 who 指人,which 指物;关系 代词做宾语,常用 whom(口语中有时用 who)指人,which 指物,它们都不能用 that 代替。 2. 关系代词作介词宾语,不论是在限制性定语从句中,还是在非限制性定语从句中, 当介词前置时,只能用 whom 指人,which 指物;但如果介词后置,则不受这种限制, 关系代词还可以省去,特别是在口语中。如: Do you know the boy to whom she was talking? Do you know the boy (that) she was talking to? The pencil (which/that) he was writing with suddenly broke.

3. 在限制性定语从句中,当先行词指物时,关系词可用 which 或 that,二者常可以 互换;但在下列情况中,只能用 that,不用 which: (1) 当先行词是 all, a lot, (a) little, few, much, none, anything, something, everything, nothing 等词时。如: All that can be done has been done. In this factory I saw little / much that was different from ours. (2) 当先行词被 all, any no, much, little, few, every 等限定词所修饰时。如: We heard clearly every word that he said. (3) 当先行词是序数词或被序数词所修饰时。如: The first thing that should be done is to get the tickets. When people talk about Hangzhou, the first that comes to mind is the West Lake. (4) 当先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级所修饰,以及先行词被序数词和形容 词最高级同时修饰时,如: Is that the best that you can do? That?s the most expensive hotel that we?ve ever stayed in. This novel is the second best one that I have ever read. (5) 当先行词被 the very, the only, the next, the last 等所修饰时。如: This is the very book that I want to find. (6) 当先行词为指人和指物的两个并列名词词组时。如: The guests spoke highly of the children and their performances that they saw at the Children?s Palace. She described in her compositions the people and places that impressed her most. (7) 当主句是以 which,who,what 开头的特殊疑问句时。如: Which is the car that killed the boy? Who is the person that is making this lecture? 8. 当先行词前有 such, so, as 时,关系词应当用 as。如: A wise man seldom talks about such things as he doesn?t understand. He spoke in such easy English as everybody could understand. At this time of the day, all buses and trolleys have to carry as many passengers as they can. It is so easy a book as every schoolboy can read. Let?s discuss such things as we can talk of freely. 另需注意: This book is written in such easy English as beginners can understand.(定语从句) This book is written in such easy English that beginners can understand it.(结果状语 从句) 9.as 引导非限制性定语从句既可放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,用来修饰整个句 子。通常用下列句型:

as is known to all,as is said,as is reported, as is announced,as we all know,as I expect 等。 Eg:As I expected,he got the first place again in this mid-term examination.正如我所 预料的那样,他在这次期中考试中又获得了第一名。

10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which 11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that

检测题目:(聪明的你一定可以做的很好,加油哦) 1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. Which B. where C. what D. in which 2.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke 3.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed B. at that they stayed C. where they stayed at D. where they stayed 4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. when D. on which 5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when 6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which 7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which D. there 8.This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year B. that have shown C. that has been shown this year D. that you talked 9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day? A. about which you talked B. which you talked C. about that you talked D. that you talked

12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom 13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose 14.I'm interested in ______you have said. A. all that B. all what C. that D. which 15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as 16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as 17.He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what 18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much. A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him 19.I don't like ______ as you read. A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels 20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the scho ol. A. which B. that C. whom D. what 21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who 22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women.

A. them B. which C. whom D. who 23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it. A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who 24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that 25.Last summer we visited the WestLake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what


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