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宾语补足语讲解及练习


M3 Unit 3

Grammar and Usage 宾语补足语

一.英语的五种基本句型结构: ① S 十 V 主谓结构 He runs quickly. ② S 十 V 十 P 主系表结构 The story sounds interesting. ③ S 十 V 十 O 主谓宾结构 They built a house last

year. ④ S 十 V 十 O1 十 O2 主谓双宾结构 He offered me his seat/ his seat to me. ⑤ S 十 V 十 O 十 C 主谓宾+宾补结构 They found her happy that day. I found him out. They named the boy Charlie. I saw him come in and go out. They felt the car moving fast. He found the door of study closed to him. 二.宾语补足语: 1、定义: 补充说明宾语,使句子意义完整的句子成分。 2、使用场合:vt. + 宾语 + 宾补 3、可以充当宾语补足语的词和词组有: (1). 名词: We made him our monitor. They thought this good advice. They named their daughter Jenny. 【考点】任命某人一个独一无二的职务,职务前面不加冠词。例如: He was made captain. They elected him monitor. Obama was made president. They elected John chairman of the committee. (2). 形容词: You should keep your room clean and tidy. We’d better leave the door open. We found the ruins most interesting. (3). 介词短语 He left his bag in the office. We found ourselves in the middle of a desert. (4). 副词 He opened the window to let the fresh air in. I saw him out with his father the day before yesterday. (5). 现在分词: I’m sorry to have you waiting for so long. I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face.
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At this moment she noticed the teacher coming in. (6). 过去分词: When he woke up, he found himself tied to a tree. He raised his voice to make himself heard. I had my watch repaired yesterday. (7). 不定式 或 省略 to 的不定式(秃头不定式) My mother allowed me to play games for a while. Can you make your car park over there? 【考点】 (1).使用不定式作宾语补足语时, “五看(see, watch, notice, observe, look at) 三使 (make, let, have) 两听(listen to, hear)一感觉(feel) ” 后接秃头不定式。 (2).help 一词后的不定式,可带 to,也可以不带 to 3)一般情况下,宾补通常紧跟在宾语之后。值得注意的是:think, find, consider, feel, make, take 等动词应使用先行 it 代替宾语,it 后面应接宾补,而将真正的宾语移到句子 的后部(形式宾语) 。 I felt it necessary to speak about our shortcomings. I think it very important to attend this meeting. We all thought it a pity that you couldn’t join us. 【小结】 1、宾语补足语是补充____语的成分,通常置于宾语之____。 宾语+宾语补足语=> 复合宾语。 2、可以用作宾补的有___词、_____词、___词、___词短语、_____式、现在___词和 过去___词。 3、能带宾补的动词一定是____物动词。

三、常跟宾语补足语的动词:
(1)感官动词(feel, hear, listen to, notice, observe, see, watch, look at)所接的宾补可以是 不带 to 的动词不定式,也可以是现在分词或过去分词。 I saw him cross/crossing the road. => He was seen___________/ ____________ the road. 但句子变为被动语态时,不定式的 to 要还原。 (2) 使役动词, 所接的宾补多为动词不定式或过去分词。 如: let, have, get, make, would like, want 等。 This makes people know the importance of protecting the environment. If you are back, will you please make yourself known to me? The machine doesn’t work. I must have it repaired right now. (3)含命名意义的动词,所接的宾补一般是名词。如:call, name, appoint, elect, make, consider 等。 Call me Joe, please. She was elected president of the company. (4)vt. + sb. + to do sth. 结构中的动词,所接的宾补一般是不定式。 这类动词有:advise, allow, ask, beg, cause, expect, force, get, help, inspire, invite, order, permit, persuade, remind, request, require, teach, tell, train, urge, want, warn, wish, report 等。
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(5)find, keep, leave 等几个词的用法非常灵活. We found it very difficult to solve the problem. How can you keep them waiting for so long? Keep the door closed. 四、 作宾语补足语的几种说明: (1)help后面作宾语补足语的动词不定式可以带to也可以不带to。 I often help my mother(to) do some housework. (2)在使役动词后作宾语补足语,不定式不带 to。有些动词跟不定式作宾语补足语时 省去了to,这些动词有: 一感二听三让四观看。 (一感feel二听hear, listen to三让let, have, make 四观看observe, see, watch, look at ) 转为被动语态时,其后通常都用带to的不定式 (have没有被动语态)。 What would you have me do? She made him give up smoking. Let him do whatever he wishes to do. Though he had often made his little sister cry, today he was made to cry by his little sister. (3)在表示心理状态的动词后作宾语补足语( consider, think, believe, discover, find, imagine, judge, suppose, prove) 这类动词后的不定式通常是"to be+形容词或名词"结构,think, consider, find后的to be 常可省略。 We consider him (to be) a good teacher. He proved that theory (to be) very important. I thought her (to be) nice and honest the first time I met her. (4)在表示情感状态的动词后作宾语补足语。 这类动词有:love, like, prefer, hate, want, wish, expect 等。 I'd prefer you to leave him alone. I don't want there to be any trouble. (5)hope, demand, suggest等动词后面不能接不定式作宾语补足语。 I hope you can give me a hand. I wish you to give me a hand. He required us to be present at the meeting. Mr Li suggested that she should not go there alone. (6)分词作宾语补足语
用现在分词作宾补,说明宾语是动作的发出者,形成逻辑上的主谓关系;用过去分词作宾补,表示 宾语是动作的承受者,构成逻辑上的动宾关系。

(7) “ with +宾语+过去分词”结构中,过去分词用作介词 with 的宾语补足语。这 一结构通常在句中作时间、方式、条件、原因等状语。 The murderer was brought in, with his hands tied behind his back. 凶手被带进来了,他的双手被绑在背后。 (表方式)
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With water heated, we can see the steam. 水一被加热,我们就会看到水蒸气。 (表条件) With the matter settled, we all went home. 事情得到解决,我们都回家了。 (表原因) 五、宾语补足语练习题(1) : 1.Tell him _______ the window. A. to shut not B. not to shut C. to not shut D. not shut 2. ----There’s a hole in your bag. --- I know, I’m going to have it _______. A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended 3. Though he had often made his little sister _______, today he was made _______ by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry 4. They would not allow him _______ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking to go C. for risk to go D. risk going 5. I found the door _______when I got home. A. opened B. close C. unlocking D. open 6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him _______. A. not to B. not to do C. not do D. do not to 7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise_______. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on 8. With a lot of difficult problems_______, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 9. I advised _______ at once. A. him to starting B. him to start C. to starting D. to start 10. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his heart still _______. A. beat B. to be beating C. beating D. was beating 11. You had better get a doctor _______ your bad tooth. A. pull out B. to pull out C. pulled out D. pulling out 12. He managed to make himself _______ with his _______ English. A. understand; breaking B. understand; broken C. understood; breaking D. understood; broken 13. The doctor asked him not to leave his wound _______. A. expose B. exposed C. to expose D. exposing 14.Don’t you think it ______ to learn this kind of skill at present? A. difficulty B. difficult C. difficultly D. the different 15. My advisor encouraged _______ a summer course to improve my writing skill. A. for me taking B. me taking C. for me to take D. me to take 16. The director had her assistant _______ some hot dogs for the meeting. A. picked up B. picks up C. pick up D. picking up 17. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found _______in the kitchen. A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked 18. To learn English well, we should find opportunities to hear English___as much as we can. A. speak B. speaking C. spoken D. to speak
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19. I smell something ________ in the kitchen. Can I call you back in a minute? A. burning B. burnt C. being burnt D. to be burnt 20. He is very popular among his students as he always tries to make them _______ in his lectures. A. interesting B. interest C. interested D. to interest 六、宾语补足语练习题(2) : 1. The manager discussed the plan that they would like to see A. carry out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out the next year.

2. ----There’s a hole in your bag. ---- I know, I’m going to have it _____. A. mend B. mending C. mended D. to be mended

3. Though he had often made his little sister___, today he was made___by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry

4. They would not allow him _____ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking to go C. for risk to go D. risk going

5. I found the door _____ when I got home. A. opened B. close C. unlocking D. open

6. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ___. A. not to B. not to do C. not do D. do not to

7. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise____. A. going on B. goes on C. went on D. to go on

8. With a lot of difficult problems__, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled

9. I advised _____ at once. A. him to starting B. him to start C. to starting D. to start

10. When I put my hand on his chest, I could feel his heart still ____. A. beat B. to be beating C. beating D. was beating

11. You had better get a doctor _____ your bad tooth. A. pull out B. to pull out C. pulled out with his____ English. B. understand; broken D. understood; broken
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D. pulling out

12. He managed to make himself A. understand; breaking B. C. understood; breaking

13. The doctor asked him not to leave his wound ______. A. expose B. exposed C. to expose D. exposing

14. They are going to have the service man ____ an electric fan in the office tomorrow. A. install B. to install C. to be installed D. installed

15. After a few rounds of talks, both sides regarded the territory dispute ______. A. being settled B. to be settled C. had settled D. as settled

16. You will see this product ____ wherever you go. A. to be advertised B. advertised C. advertise D. advertising

17. His remarks left me _____ about his real purpose. A. wondered B. wonder C. to wonder D. wondering

18. When I caught him ______ me I stopped buying things there and started dealing with another shop. A. cheating B. cheat C. to cheat D. to be cheating

19. Though he had often made his little sister____, today he was made__by his little sister. A. cry; to cry B. crying; crying C. cry; cry D. to cry; cry

20. Did you intend us ___ the new method? A. using B. to use C. using good compositions. C. to write D. is writing

21. The teacher encouraged us ______ A. Writing B. written

22. The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him ______. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to

23. Mrs. Brown was much disappointed to see the washing machine she had had ____went wrong again. A .it B. it repaired C .repaired D. to be repaired

24. With a lot of difficult problems____, the newly elected president is having a hard time. A .settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled

25. With trees, flowers and grass_____ everywhere, my town had taken on a new look. A. planting B. planted C. to plant D .to be planted
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26. She was glad to see her child well_____ care of. A. take B. to be taken C. taken D. taking

27. The result of the entrance exams was not made __to the public until last Thursday. A. knowing B. known C. to know D. to be known

28. I can make you _____what I say, but you can’t make yourself ____ in English. A. understand; C to understand, understand understand B .understand, D. understand; understood to be understood

29. He found them ____ at a table_____. A. sat; to play chess C. seated; playing chess B. sitting; to play chess D. seat; play the chess

30. John rushed out in a hurry, ___ the door_____. A. leaving; unlocked C. left; unlocked B. leaving; unlocking D. to leave; unlocking

31. We are pleased to see the problem___ so quickly. A. settled B. settling C. be settled D. having been settled

32. I could feel the wind ___on my face from an open window. A .to blow B .blowing C. to be blowing D .blown

33. ____ production up by 60%,the company has had another excellent year. A. As B. For C. With D. Through

34. ____ everything ____ , she left the supermarket with satisfaction. A. As, buying B. For, to buy C. With, bought D .Because, to buy

35. Don’t leave the water ____ while you brush your teeth. A. run B. running C. being run D. to run

36. He looked around and caught a man ___ his hand into the pocket of a passenger. A. put B. to be putting C. to put D. putting

37. Laws that punish parents for their little children’s actions ag ainst the laws get parents ___. A. worried B. to worry C. worrying D. worry

38. The teacher asked us _____ so much noise. A. don’t make B. not make C. not making D. not to make
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39. An army spokesman stressed that all the soldiers had been ordered ____ clear warnings before firing any shots. A. to issue B. being issued C. to have issued D. to be issued

40.-Good morning. Can I help you? -I'd like to have this package __ ,Madame. A. be weighed B. to be weighed C. to weigh D. weighed

41. Father will not __us to use his recorders. A. have B. let C .agree D. allow

42. John was made __the truck for a week as punishment. A .to wash B. washing C. wash D. to be washing

43. The missing boys were last seen __ near the river. A. playing B. to be playing C. play D. to play

44. Paul doesn't have to be made __ .He always works hard. A. learn B. to learn C .learned D. learning

45. Seeing the sun __ above the surface of the sea, we let out a shout of joy. A. to rise B. to raise C. rising D .raising

46. I was disappointed to find his suggestions __ . A been turned down B. turned down C. to be turned down D. to turn down

47. The patient was warned ____oily food after the operation. A. to eat to B. eating not C .not to eat D not eating

48. The speaker raised her voice but still couldn’t make herself _______. A. hear B. hearing C. to hear D. heard

49. If you go to Xi’an, you’ll find the palaces there more magnificent than commonly________. A. supposing B. to suppose C. supposed D. suppose

50. It’s so cold today, we must keep the fire ________. A. to burn B. burning C. burn D. burnt

1-5 CCAAD

6-10 AACBC 11-15 BDBAD

16-20 CDAAB

21-25 CACAB 46-50 BCDCB

26-30 CBBCA 31-35 A BCCB

36-40 DADAD

41-45 D AABC

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