主+谓 主+谓+宾 主+谓+双宾 主+谓+宾+宾补 主+系+表
名词性 从句 形容词 性从句 状语从句
主从 宾从 表从
Noun / Pronoun / The + adj V-ing / Clause / Infinitive Vi
noun 宾语 ( 直 ) 宾语 ( 间 ) Vt adj. / adv. 宾语 宾补 infinitive 表语 V-ing V-l V-ed noun Noun / Pronoun pronoun The + adj adj. / adv. be / feel / seem / look V-ing / Clause infinitive appear / stand / lie Infinitive V-ing / V-ed become /get / grow / turn clause go / come / remain/ keep taste / smell
1. 名词；2. 代词； 3. 数词；4. 动名词；5. 不定式；6. 词 组或复合结构；7. 从句；8. 名词化的其他词类，如： A foreign language is a weapon in the struggle of life.
Who is speaking, please? This is Jack speaking.
Two will be enough.
Living in that island country for three months was an
unforgettable experience for me. Early to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, happy and wise. Whether we’ll go depends on the weather.
“A” is an article.
谓语 谓语说明主语所做的动作或具有的特征和 状态。动词在句中作谓语，一般放在主语 之后。谓语的构成如下： 1、简单谓语：由一个动词或动词短语 构成。如：He practices running every morning. 2、复合谓语：（1）由情态动词或其 他助动词加动词原形构成。如：You may keep the book for two weeks. He has caught a bad cold. （2）由系动词加表语构成。如： We are students.
1. 名词2. 代词3. 数词4. 形容词5. 分词6. 动名词7. 不定式8. 副词9. 介词短语10. 词组11. 从句，如：
That’s something we have always to keep in mind.
She was the first to learn about it.
My idea is this.
Time is passing. Let’s hurry up. All I could do was to send him a telegram. We must be off now. They are twice the size of chickens. My idea is that we should stick to our original plan.
1. 名词；2. 代词；3. 数词；4. 动名词；5. 不定式；6. 复合 结构；7. 从句；8. 名词化的形容词及其他词类，如： She died a heroic death. They didn’t promise him anything definite.
How many do you want? We need two.
Pay attention to uniting and working with comrades who
differ with you.
Learn to play the piano.
I’ll get it repaired.
Did you write down what she said?
1. 形容词；2. 代词；3. 数词；4. 名词或名词所有格； 5.分词；6. 不定式；7. 介词短语；8. 副词； 9. 词组或合成词；10. 从句
Poor John tottered toward a hospital nearby． She likes oranges imported from the USA. John gave Mary many books，which are full of illustrations． Have you seen the book on the desk? The boy playing over there is my brother.
1. 副词；2. 介词短语；3. 不定式；4. 分词；5. 形容词；6. 词组；7. 复合结构；8. 从句，
John often came to chat with me．
John likes oranges very much．
Whenever he gets drunk，John makes Mary very angry．
Teacher came in, with books in her hands.
As he was ill, he didn’t come to class yesterday.
She is sitting at the desk, doing her homework.
My father worked in this school ten years ago. You’d better stay here.
英语中有些及物动词，除有一个直接宾语以外，还要有一 个宾语补语，才能使句子的意义完整。带有宾语补足语的 一般句型为：某些及物动词（如make等+宾语+宾补）。 宾补可由名词、形容词、副词、不定式、分词、介词短语 和从句充当。例如： 1.His father named him Dongming.（名词） 2.They painted their boat white.（形容词） 3.Let the fresh air in.（副词） 4.You mustn’t force him to lend his money to you.（不定式 短语） 5.We saw her entering the room.（现在分词） 6.We found everything in the lab in good order.（介短语） 7.We will soon make our city what your city is now.
? Exercise: handout
? 简单句 ? 并列句 ? 复合句
简单句只有一个限定动词（即只有一个主 谓结构），它是最小的句子单位。 一、 陈述句： She arrived quite early. (事实) She may have arrived now. (看法) 二、疑问句： 1．一般疑问句： Has the factory gone into production? Shall I turn on the TV? 2．特殊疑问句： Which colour do you prefer? How much is this table-cloth?
3．选择疑问句： Are you an Englishman or an American? Which do you prefer, red wine or white? 4．反意（或附加）疑问句： You are not going out today, are you? Yes, I am. 三、祈使句： Be sure to get here before nine. You do it right now. 四、感叹句： ① what + 感叹句： What a noble-hearted man he was! What good news it is! ② how + 感叹句： How well she dances! How fast they are working!
主语 ＋ 系动词 ＋ 表 (S + LV + predicative) 主语 ＋ 不及物动词 （ S + Vi ）
主语 ＋ 及物动词 ＋宾语 ( S + Vt + O)
主语＋双宾动词+间宾+直宾(S +Vt +O.indir+O. dir)
主语 ＋ 宾补动词 ＋宾语 ＋宾语补语
(S + Vt. + O + O. compl) There be…
(1) Mary has ordered a new dress. (2)His father might have died. (3)She is reading a novel. (4)Can you pass me that book? (5)You may have seen each other. (6)This factory makes machine tools. (7) The telephone doesn’t ring . (8) I’ll buy you a gift. (9) We all breathe, drink and eat.
1．主语 + 谓语 2．主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 3．主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语
3．主语 + 谓语 + 间接宾语 + 直接宾语：
双宾语动词： 第一类：give, show, send, bring, offer, read, pass, lend, leave, tell, hand, return, write, pay, throw, allow, wish, teach, promise, owe, refuse等。 第 二 类 ： make, buy, do, fetch, get, paint, play, save, reserve, spare, order, cook, sing, find等。
(1)I’ll return you the book tomorrow. → I’ll return the book to you tomorrow. (2)She made a new dress for Mary. → She made Mary a new dress.
注：第一类可以改为由 to 引导的短语；第二类可 以改为由 for引导的短语。
What are the problems? 1. I disagree you. 2. I arrived the school late. 3. They satisfied . 4. They sent an e-mail for me.
1.I live. 2.I was brought up. 3.He treats me.
注:在某些情况下，状语必不可少，这就引出了下 列句型： △ 主语 + 谓语 + 状语： (1)The meeting lasted for two hours. (2)We walked for five miles. (3)He lives in Guangzhou. (4)They will be flying to London.
△ 主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 状语：
(1)He put the vase on the table. (2)Jim brought his suitcases upstairs. (3)I’ll take Mary to the station. (4)They treated him kindly.
4．主语 + 谓语 + 宾语 + 宾语补足语：
We have proved him wrong. What make you think so? She found the child fast asleep. I called him a fool. 感官动词：find, feel, think, believe, consider.. 使役动词：make, have, let… 表“希望、想要”的动词want, expect
make/find/think/ +it+adj./n.+ believe/consider/feel
to do doing that-clause
+ 系动词 + 表语： (1) A foreign language is a weapon in the struggle of life. (2)The plan sounds perfect. (3)This material feels soft.
表语通常不用副词,除非表位置 或位置移动(趋向性的) 副词.
A Lebanese who had left the country for Syria during the conflict between Israel and Hizbollah, returns with her family following the ceasefire, at the Lebanon-Syria border in Magdel Anjar August 14, 2006.
S + V
Ministry: Thai bird flu did not originate in China
According to the current information held by the Chinese authorities, a verdict(裁定) arrived at by the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and the bird flu research and test centre of Thailand was arbitrary（专断的） and based on the fact that the virus found in Thailand and Laos was similar to recent finds in southern China, the ministry's statement said.
First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Format in the seventeenth century, the theorem（定理） had baffled（难住） and beaten the finest mathematical minds, including a French woman scientist who made a major advance in working out the problem, and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecolab polytechnique. （NMET2003.C篇）
这个定理，先是由十七世纪法国数学家皮尔法特提 出，曾使一批杰出的数学大师为难，包括一位法国女科学 家，她在解决这个难题方面取得了重大的进展，她曾女扮 男装为了能够在伊科尔理工学院学习。 简析：夹杂过去分词短语，现在分词短语，动名词及 两个定语从句。
Even though there may be a tendency in some rare families to live extraordinarily long, the genetic influence that emerged from the studies of twins was significantly less than much of the public and many scientists think it is.
主语 动词部分 宾语 状语
I bought a hat
方式 地点 时间
angrily. in silence. suddenly. confidently in the room. in a police car.
The taxi driver shouted at me We The car ate stopped our meal
A young girl walked They drove him away
主 语 的 合 并
两个简单句的主语可以连词and、but、both..and、 either…or、neither…nor、not only…but also等连词 连接组成一个简单句，但应注意主语和谓语动词的 一致性。 The boss is flying to Paris. His secretary is flying to Paris. The boss and his secretary are flying to Paris.
Both the boss and his secretary are flying to Paris.
The boss may be flying to Berlin. His secretary may be flying to Berlin. Either the boss or his secretary is flying to Berlin. The boss is not flying to York. His secretary isn’t flying to York. Neither the boss nor his secretary is flying to York.
谓 语 、 宾 语 的 合 并
两个简单句的宾语可由and、both…and等连词连 接组成一个简单句。 I met Jane. I met her husband.
I met Jane and her husband. I met both Jane and her husband.
It was cold. It was wet.--It was cold and wet.
I didn’t meet Jane. I didn’t meet her husband. I didn’t meet either Jane or her husband.
I met neither Jane nor her husband.
两个或两个以上限定动词也可合并为一个简句。 We sang all night. We danced all night. We sang and danced all night.
Describe the pictures in simple sentences, trying to make them lively.
1. You should study hard. 2. She went home very late yesterday evening. 3. That morning we talked a great deal. 4. The meeting will last two hours. 5. Great changes have taken place in my home town in the past ten years. 6. Things of that sort are happening all over the world every day. 7. The May Fourth Movement broke out in Beijing in 1919.
8. Classes begin at eight every day. 9. This box weighs five kilos. 10. I lived in Beijing five years ago. 11. Alice swims very well. 12. John’s father died last night. 13. In autumn, some birds fly to the south. 14. My grandfather gets up early in the morning. 15. Every afternoon a lot of students come to the library to borrow books.
1. I wrote a letter last night. 2. He has read this book many times. 3. They have carried out the plan successfully 4. You must finish reading these books in two weeks. 5. That gentlemen can speak three languages fluently. 6. Do you mind my opening the window? 7. Jim cannot dress himself.
8. I received a letter from my pen friend in Australia. 9. All of us believe that Jack is an honest boy. 10. He did not know what to say. 11. He takes a cold bath every morning. 12. They sang high praise for the deeds of the hero.
2. I don’t believe in that man. 3. He pointed out the mistakes in my composition. 4. On Christmas Day, we will call on our foreign teachers. 5. You must hand in your exercise-books after class. 6. We cannot work out the problem in five minutes.
7. The nurse will take good care of your father. 8. You can depend on him in your work. 9. Boiling water gives off steam. 10. After writing a composition, we must go over it. 11. Take off your coat and put it on before you leave. 12. People will find her out. 13. We must send for a doctor
Part3 4. My brothers are all college students. 5. In winter, the days are short and the nights are long. 6. Mrs Brown looks very healthy. 7. At the age of fifteen he became a famous pianist. 8. Children, keep quiet please.
9. This book is about the history of the United States. 10. Her job is to look after the children in the nursery. 11. He is out of work. 12. The leaves have turned yellow. 13. The report sounds interesting.
Part4 ? ? ? ? ? We call her Alice. His parents named him John. All of us considered him honest. They pushed the door open. They have set the thief free.
? ? ? ? ?
We will make our school more beautiful. He asked us to join in the game. I want you to tell me the truth. The guards ordered us to leave at once. Tomorrow I’ll have someone repair the machine.
? ? ? ? ?
The pain made him cry out. We won’t let her go out at night. He has his hair cut once a month. I’ll get my recorder mended. The terrible sound made the children frightened.
? She is listening to someone telling stories. ? The boys were watching the soldiers drilling. ? I have never seen the word used that way before. ? He felt it very difficult to talk with you.
? I think it more comfortable to go there by ship. ? I consider it possible to work out the problem in another way. ? The school made it a rule that the students should stand up when class begins. ? I thought it no use talking with that man
Part5 1. Mr Johnson taught us German last year. 2. Grandma told me an interesting story last night. 3. Mary handed the wallet to the schoolmaster. 4. Would you please pass me the dictionary? 5. He showed the ticket to the conductor. 6. This term I have written three letters to my parents.
7. My father has bought me a new bike. 8. Robinson Crusoe made himself a boat. 9. Will you please get me a new copy? 10. Shall I call you a taxi? 11. The new machine will save you a lot of labour.
Ex1 Read the sentences and point out the sentence patterns
1. We think it right to help the poor. 2. He didn’t rest yesterday.
（ S + Vi ） ( S + Vt + O) (S + Vt. + O + O. compl)
3. Mike often cleans the classroom. 4. He looks angry. (S + LV + predicative)
5. He passed me the salt.(S +Vt +O.indir+O. dir
Ex2 Make up sentences according to the pictures
The cat is satisfied/proud.
The cat is proud ,
for she is an expert on catching mice.
My classmate and I worked together yesterday. My classmate and worked together yesterday, so we successfully solve that problem.
I found it hard to solve the problem. I found it hard to solve the problem;
however I didn’t give up.
Frank worked hard and he became an architect. I’ve got a cold, so I’m going to bed. They made him chairman, but (they) didn’t increase his salary.
需把几个意思连接在一起时，可用分号或把两 个或几个简单句用并列连词等连接起来，这种 结构即构成一个并列句。
用分号： We fished all day; we didn’t catch a thing. 用并列连词（如and、but、so、yet等）
We fished all day, but (we) didn’t catch a thing.
We fished all day; however, we didn’t catch a thing.
用关联连词（ not only…but also…, either…or…）
He is not only good at English, but also enjoys sports.
一、常用并列连词 coordinating conjunctions
平行并列连词 and, and then (similarity, addition) 转折并列连词： but, yet (opposition or contrast) 因果并列连词: for, so (explanation, consequence) or 选择并列连词: (choice)
表对比 （Indicating contrast）: however, instead, on the other hand, otherwise, in contrast… 表原因结果 （Indicating cause and effect）: therefore, thus, as a result, for this reason… 表平行并列 （Indicating a similar idea）: besides, furthermore, in addition, similarly… 表强调说明 （Indicating emphasis and illustration）: in fact, for example… 表时间 （Indicating time）: then, meanwhile, afterward, later…
二、常用连接副词 conjunctive adverbs
三、常用关联连词 correlative conjunctions not only…but also…, either…or…, neither…nor…, both…and…
1. 祈使句+and+一般将来时的句子 这个句型表示“如果做到了祈使句表示的事情， 就会有后面句子表示的结果”。 Study hard, and you are sure to have a good result in the exam.
2. 祈使句 + or + 一般将来时的句子 这个句型表示“如果做不到祈使句表示的事情， 就会有后面句子表示的结果”。 Be quick, or we’ll be late for class.
Practice Exercise1: Combine the simple sentences。 1. He was tired. He went to bed.
He was tired, so he went to bed.
2. The child hid behind his mother's skirt. He was afraid of the dog. The child hid behind his mother's skirt, for he was afraid of the dog. 3. He made a promise. He didn’t keep it. He made a promise, but He didn’t keep it.
4. The visitor came to the door. It was too late for him to get in. The visitor came to the door; however, it was too late for him to get in. 5.This apartment building is too old. People have decided to pull it down. This apartment building is too old; as a result, people have decided to pull it down. 6.This new diet will do wonders for your health. it will make you look and feel better. This new diet will not only do wonders for your health but also make you look and feel bette.r
7. I needed butter to make the cookie better. I couldn’t find any. I used vegetable oil instead.
I needed butter to make the cookie better, but I couldn’t find any, so I used vegetable oil instead.
Exercise2 approaching NMET 1. We bought her a birthday present, _____ she liked it very much. A. so B. or C. and D. but 2. — Would you like to go to the concert with me? — I’d love to, _____ I can’t. I have a lot of homework to do. A. or B. but C. so D. and 3. The doctors tried their best to save the patient’s life, _____ failed. A. or B. so C. but D. because
4. “Are you going to eat here ____ take it away?” asked the waiter. A. and B. so C. or D. but 5. Come a little earlier next time, ________you’ll miss the best part of the TV play. A. so B. for C. and D. or
6. There is a lot of traffic in this city, _____ look both ways before crossing the street A. so B. and C. but D. for
假设你是李华，你的澳大利亚朋友Dick听说中国的中小 学正在减轻学生的学习负担，来信询问有关情况。请你根 据下表提供的信息，写一封回信，谈一谈减负给你的学习 和生活带来的变化。
（减负前）周末活动 白天：上课，做作业 晚上：做作业 就寝时间：11：30 （减负后））周末活动 白天：参观博物馆，学习电脑， 绘画等 晚上：看新闻，读书，看报 就寝时间：10：00
Student’s writing I will tell you the changes of my life. Before, we had many classes every day. I had to do a lot of homework after school. I went to bed at 11:30 in the evening. I had no time to play. I was very tired. Now I can visit museums. I can learn computer and drawing. In the evening, I can read books and newspapers and watch TV. I go to bed at 10:00 now.
I’m very pleased to tell you the changes in my life since our homework has been reduced. Before that, learning during the day was very boring, for we only had class and did homework; besides, we also had a lot of homework to do in the evening . We could not go to bed until 11:30. However, my life has become much more interesting now. Not only can I visit museums and computer rooms but also draw pictures in my spare time. In the evening, I also have time to watch TV and I can spend much time reading newspapers. I no longer stay up late; on the contrary, I go to bed at about 10 pm. In short, I am quite satisfied with my life now.
复 合 句
由一个主句和一个或者一个以上从句所 构成的句子。在英语书面语中应用广泛。 主句是一个完整的句子,它可以独立存在。 从句是一个不完整的句子,它必须和一个 主句连用，不能独立存在。 复合句可以通过把两个以上简单句连接 在一起构成,但复合句的各组成部份并非 同等重要，其中一个句子由从属连词引 导（从句），用以修饰另一句子（主句）。
复合句 = 主句 + 从句
复合句是在简单句的基础上，通过从属连词将两个或两个 以上简单句连接在一起而构成。从属连词所引导的从句起 形容词、名词、副词的作用。复合句主要包含以下类型从 句： 1. 主语从句 2. 宾语从句 3. 表语从句 4. 定语从句 5. 状语从句 6. 同位语从句
英文写作中最常使用的从句 1. 宾语从句 2. 状语从句 3. 定语从句
复合句与简单句：复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句 that the match had been cancelled.
He told me the news. 宾语从句 宾语
that I could have the money without delay. how how much he was prepared tomuch he was prepared to pay for my car. pay for my car and that I could have the money without delay.
复合句与简单句：复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句
I don’t know 宾语从句 him.
that he is leaving for Washington. when he is leaving for Washington. why he is leaving for Washington. how he is leaving for Washington. whether he is leaving for Washington.
复合句与简单句：复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句 What he said what he did
the room. That surprised the people in 定语 主语
who were sitting in the room. who were present. whose sons were at war. who had signed the contract.
That he didn’t know the answer
复合句与简单句：复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句
the fact. 表 语
what he needs. what he gave me. why he was late. because he was ill. what has happened.
复合句与简单句：复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句
I lived there. where I lived
He lived there three years ago.
He worked in that years ago. 地点状语 factory three 时间状语
where his His father worked there. father worked when he lived there
复合句与简单句：复合句 = 简单句 + 从属连词 +简单句
where it was.
Put the book on the desk. 地点状语 you found it. where where you took it. You can’t camp here.
wherever you like.
where there are a lot of trees.
?I believe that everything is going on well. ?She was reading a novel when I came in. ?She is the girl who sings best in my class. 宾语从句 状语从句
用连词连接句子。 He has found out. She was late. He has found out why she was late. I still remember the day. I first went to York on that day. I still remember the day when I first went to York. He didn’t come yesterday. He was ill. He didn’t come yesterday because he was ill.
I’ll give the letter to him. I see him. （时间）
I’ll give the letter to him when I see him. I’ll give the letter to him as soon as I see him. I’ll give the letter to him the moment I see him.
It is such a big box. Nobody can move it. （结果）
It is such a big box that nobody can move it.
We’ll go to the Great Wall. It’s fine tomorrow. (条件)
We’ll go to the Great Wall if it’s fine tomorrow.
We should not go there all the time. The place is quite pleasant.(让步）
Although the place is quite pleasant, we should not go there all the time.
1. The place ________ the bridge is supposed to be built should be _______ the cross-river traffic is the heaviest. A. which; where B. at which; which C. at which; where D. which; in which 2. We will have to finish the job, _____. A. long it takes however B. it takes however long C. long however it takes D. however long it takes 3. She found her calculator _____ she lost it. A. where B. when C. in which D. that 4. _____ the meeting will be held in Beijing is not known yet A. Whenever B. If C. Whether D. That
5. I’d like to arrive 20 minutes early ______ I can have time for a cup of tea. A. as soon as B. as a result C. in case D. so that 6. I think Father would like to know ___ I have been up to so far, so I decide to send him a quick note. A. how B. what C. when D. where 7. It was true ____Alice did surprised her mother A what B that C all which D all what
8. ___ seat belts save lives has been proven in study after study. A. what B. that C. whether D. who
? 他住的那幢房子仍是老样子。 His house in which they used to live remains the same. 我们去了那座名山，并在山顶上观看日出。 We went to that famous mountain, on the top of which we watched the sunrise. 老师告诉我们英国英语与美国英语拼写方面有些不同
The teacher told us that there were some differences between British English and American English in spelling
When you speak English, you must make yourself understood. ? 据报道在那个地区又建了一所新学校。
It is reported that another new school has been set up in that area.
The news that he failed in the exam made him depressed. ? 老师的梦想是希望每个学生考上理想的大学。 The teachers’ dream is that every student will attend an ideal university.
You’d better take an umbrella in case it rains.
? 研究地震的人们认为把房子建在沙地上是不 安全的。
People who do research on earthquakes think it not safe to build houses on sand.
The boy said he had ever spoken English to an American.
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