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2014高考英语总复习 语法专题复习:第一讲 名词与冠词


◆高考总复习· 英语◆

第一讲 名词与冠词

◆高考总复习· 英语◆

温馨提示
广东高考英语试题中对名词的考查主要以词形变 化的形式出现,兼顾名词的数和名词的格的变化。所 以, 熟悉名词构词法,弄清楚哪些词后应接名词尤

为重要(请参考必修一第一单元的“巧用派生词,做
好语法

填空”)。语法填空中对冠词考查的重点是不 定冠词a和an的区别、形容词最高级、序数词前用定 冠词以及定冠词表示特指的意义。


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
一、名词考点透析
1.名词的数。 (1)可数名词有单复数之分。例如:book-books,box -boxes,leaf-leaves,city-cities。 (2)合成名词构成复数时,通常只将里面所含的主体名 词变成复数,如果没有主体名词,则将最后一部分变 成复数。例如: sonsinlaw 女婿

passersby 过路人
storytellers 讲故事的人 gobetweens 中介人


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
(3)下列名词单复数同形。

Chinese中国人,Japanese日本人,sheep绵羊,deer小
鹿,horsepower马力,fish鱼,fruit 水果。

(4)下列名词的单复数有不同的拼写方法。
细菌bacterium(单数)-bacteria(复数) 资料、数据 datum(单数)-data(复数) 现象 phenomenon(单数)-phenomena(复数)



◆高考总复习· 英语◆
(5) 不可数名词包括专有名词、物质名词和抽象名词, 一般没有单复数之分。例如:England,London, bread,rice,steel,knowledge,advice,health, wealth等。

Many people think that health is the greatest wealth in the world. (6)experience表“经验”时是不可数名词,表“经历” 时是可数名词。



◆高考总复习· 英语◆
(7)常见的单复数意义不同的名词有value(价值), values(价值观); manner(方式),manners (礼貌);

custom(风俗),customs(海关); damage(损害),
damages(赔偿金); work(工作),works(著作)等,需

特别注意。
(8)team,group,committee,crew,family等集体名 词强调整体时为单数,强调个体时为复数。例如:


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
His group is a big one and all group are very active in the activity.

他那个组是个大组,所有的组员都积极参加活动。
The film attracted a large audience and most audience were moved to tears. 这部影片吸引了大量观众,多数观众都被感动得流 下眼泪。



◆高考总复习· 英语◆
(9)名词做定语时,除man,woman有单复数变化外, 其他名词一般用单数。例如: three women doctors many coffee shops

2.名词的所有格。
(1)有生命的名词,其所有格一般在名词后加's, 例 如:his mother's friend; Susan is a friend of my mother's。 (2)无生命的名词,借用of表示所属关系。例如: the window of the room。


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
(3)如果一样东西为两个人共有,则只在后一个名词 后加 's,如果不是共有的则两个名词后都要加 's。
例如: That lady in a beautiful dress is Jane and Mary's mother. 那位穿漂亮裙子的女士是琼和玛利的妈妈。(共有, 暗示琼和玛利是姐妹关系) Those two women are Jane's and Mary's mothers. 那两位女士分别是琼的妈妈和玛利的妈妈。(不共有, 分别指两位妈妈)


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
(4)“a(two,some...)+名词+of+名词's/名词性物主 代词”构成双重所有格。
a friend of my mother's two photos of mine

3.抽象名词具体化。
表示抽象的特征、状态、思维、行为的一次、一种、 一类、一下等,常构成“a/an+(形容词)+抽象名 词”。例如:


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
a surprise 一个惊喜 a pleasure 一件乐事 a failure一个失败者,一次失败 a great success 一次巨大的成功 a wonderful breakfast 一顿丰盛的早餐 a happiness 一种幸福



◆高考总复习· 英语◆
强化训练一 (一)单句填空 按照句子结构的语法性和句子连贯的要求,用所给 单词的适当形式填空。 1.(2012· 福建卷)—Why do you choose to work in an international travel agency? —Well, you know, English is my ________.So it is my strength best choice. (strong)


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
2.(2012· 山东卷)My first __________ impression of him was that he was a kind and thoughtful young man. (impress)
3.(2012· 江西卷)You'd better write down the phone number of that restaurant for future ________.(refer) reference 4.(2012· 浙江卷)Your ____________as a student will performance be excellent if you develop a habit of reflecting on how you learn. (perform)



◆高考总复习· 英语◆
5.(2012· 江苏卷)—Don't worry, Mum. The doctor said it was only the flu. —What a ________ relief ! I'll tell Dad there's nothing serious. (relieve) (二)单项选择 从A、B、C、D四个选项中,选出可以填入空白处的 最佳选项。 1.(2012· 全国卷Ⅱ)The Harry Potter books are quite popular; they are in great ________ in this city. D A.quality B.progress C.production D.demand


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
2.(2012· 天津卷)You were working too hard. You'd better keep a ________between work and relaxation. C
A.promise C.balance B.lead D.diary

3.(2012· 江苏卷)—Can I help you with it? —I appreciate your ________ , but I can manage it C myself.

A.advice
C.offer

B.question
D.idea


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
4.(2012· 湖北卷)It is important to have your eyes examined regularly to check for any sign of eye disease that may not have any ________. A A.symptom B.similarity

C.sample

D.shadow

5.(2012· 湖北卷)The officer insisted that Michael did not follow the correct ________ in applying for a visa. B A.pattern B.procedure

C.program

D.perspective


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
6.(2011· 湖北卷)“Tommy,run!Be quick!The house is on fire!” the mother shouted,with D clearly________ in her voice. A.anger C.regret B.rudeness D.panic

7.(2012· 福建卷)The lack of ecofriendly habits among the public is thought to be a major ________of global B climate change. A.result C.warning B.cause D.reflection


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
A 8.(2011· 山东卷)There's a ________in our office that when it's somebody's birthday,they bring in a cake for us all to share. A.tradition
C.concern

B.balance
D.relationship

9.(2011· 江西卷)What‘s the________ ,in your opinion, D of helping him if he doesn't make an effort to help himself ? A.sympathy
C.object

B.theme
D.point


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
10.(2011· 江苏卷)Teachers have to constantly update their knowledge in order to maintain their professional________. C A.consequence B.independence C.competence D.intelligence 二、冠词考点透析 1.不定冠词最基本的用法是泛指,表示“一个/一张/ 一本/一······”以及用于第一次出现的可数名词单数前。 例如: An umbrella is an article that keeps the rain out. Ten years is a long time.


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
2.定冠词最基本的用法是表特指。重复出现的名词、 形容词最高级、序数词、江河湖海、山脉群岛、海 峡海岸、乐器名称、某些建筑物前,都需有定冠词。 例如:
(1)The film I saw last night is the most moving one that I have ever seen. (2)The Yellow River is the second longest river in China. (3)The Browns are all fond of playing the violin while the Whites are interested in playing tennis.


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
3.不用冠词的情况。 (1)抽象名词表示一般概念时。 (2)在表示职位或头衔的名词前。 (3) 在表示季节、月份、日期、节日(但在中国的 传统节日前一定要有the)、星期的名词前。 (4)一日三餐、球类活动前。



◆高考总复习· 英语◆
例如:
(1)March 8 is Women's Day,and June 1 is Children's Day. (2)We elected Tom monitor of our class. (3)It is not very cold here in the south of China in winter, but the winter of 1990 was extremely cold. (4)I always have breakfast at home and lunch at school.

(5)Some students will play basketball after school,and others will go running around the campus.


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
4.习惯用法:英语中有不少名词前不带冠词、带定 冠词或带不定冠词意思完全不同。例如: go to school 上学 go to the school 去学校 in front of 在· · · · · · 前面 in the front of 在· · · · · · 前部 (sit) at table 在吃饭


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
(sit) at the table 坐在桌子旁边
go to sea 去当水手

go to the sea 到海滨去(度假)
out of question 没问题

out of the question 不可能
be in hospital 在住院 be in the hospital 在医院


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
强化训练二

最新高考演练
按照句子结构的语法性和句子连贯的要求,在空格 上填上适当的冠词或零冠词。 1.(2012· 全国卷Ⅰ)Sarah looked at ________ finished the painting with ________ satisfaction. / 2.(2012· 重庆卷)—The Modern Art Exhibition in the City Museum has been cancelled.

—Oh, no! It's ________ pity. a


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
3.(2012· 全国卷Ⅱ)He missed ________ gold in the the high jump, but will get ________ second chance in the a long jump. 4.(2012· 安徽卷)Carl is studying food science at college and hopes to open up ________meat processing a factory of his own one day. 5.(2012· 山东卷)Being able to afford ________ drink a would be ________ comfort in those tough times. a



◆高考总复习· 英语◆
6.(2012· 重庆卷)Sam has been appointed manager of the engineering department to take ________ place of the George. 7.(2012· 四川卷)We are said to be living in ______ the Information Age, ________ time of new discoveries a and great changes.

8.(2012· 江西卷)The Smiths don't usually stay at hotels, but last summer they spent a few days at a very nice hotel by ________ sea. the


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
9.(2012· 浙江卷)The development of industry has been________ gradual process throughout human a existence, from stone tools to modern technology. 10.(2012· 辽宁卷)I woke up with ________ bad a headache, yet by ________evening the pain had gone. the 11.(2011· 江西卷)—It's said John will be in a job paying over $60,000 ________ year. a —Right, he will also get paid by ________ week. the


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
12.(2011· 山东卷)Take your time—it's just ________ a short distance from here to ________ restaurant. the 13.(2011· 陕西卷)As is known to all, ________People's the Republic of China is________ biggest developing country the in the world.

14.(2011· 全国卷Ⅱ)As he reached ________ front door, the Jack saw________ strange sight. a 15.(2011· 浙江卷)Experts think that ________recently the discovered painting may be ________ Picasso. a


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
专题训练 广东各地市历年模拟题演练 按照句子结构的语法性和句子连贯的要求,在横线 上填入正确单词或用括号中单词的正确形式填空。 1.The order in which they finished would decide the appearance (appear) in the Chinese order of their __________ calendar. 2.When it was time to leave, I said “thank you” in Korean, using some of ________ few words I had the learned.


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
3.________accident took the life of the child only a An short time later. 4.Computermaker HewlettPackard announced this week that ________ chairwoman of its board of the directors(董事会) will leave office in January. 5.“When a customer enters my store, forget me.He is king.” said John Wanamaker, ________ boss of the the world's first department store. 6.The Internet is working ________ wonders (wonderful) in raising living standards.


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
7....nothing but top performance meets with our _________ approval (approve). 8.He was ________ shy, nervous perfectionist. a 9.The 104episode cartoon series tells ________ life the stories of Confucius from a little boy to a master. 10.The TV series is jointly invested by China Confucius Foundation, Radio and Television Station of Shandong Province and ________ Shenzhenbased film a and radio company.


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
developments (develop) have also 11.Technological ____________ played their part in keeping Valentine's Day relevant in the

21st century.
12.I fingered the bill with growing__________ excitement (excite).

13.The line which was created by Walt Disney Pictures
has been made true through the __________ description (describe) of hundreds of world famous fairy tales and the creation of the world famous Disneyland fun parks.


◆高考总复习· 英语◆
14.One day, about ten years ago, while working at the cash register in the gift shop at my University Museum

of Natural History, I saw ________ elderly couple an come in with a little girl in a wheelchair. 15.She took me from a poor, unhappy college student
and brought me into her world; a world of smiles, love

and ________ warmth (warm).



◆高考总复习· 英语◆




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