Verb-ing form as an adjective or adverb
To learn how a verb-ing form can be used as an adjective or adverb To learn how to use a verb-i
To learn how to use the verb-ing form and verb-ing phrases in different situations
1. Print out the worksheet; 2. Cut them out and mix them up. 3. Let student speak out these sentences. For example our water killing
Review these sentences.
Other types of
river and sea life
Watch and Observe
Underline the V-ing form and pay attention to the usages. V-ing作宾语
V-ing作宾语 V-ing作宾语 V-ing作宾语 V-ing作宾语
Observe the sentences you have learned. 1. We’re going to visit so many exciting places and do lots of extraordinary things. (Unit 2, Book 2) 2. There are a lot of amazing adventures to have and places to see in the world. (Unit 2, Book 2) 3. Upon finishing his studies, he started traveling in China. (Unit 1, Book 1)
4. Witnesses also say they saw Justin walking towards his house at 10.45 p.m. (Unit 1, Book 2) 5. The Chinese led the way at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, winning 51 gold medals. (Unit 2, Book 4) 6. By the 1920s, he had become an explorer, searching for the tombs of the Egyptian kings. (Unit 3, Book 2) 7. She could feel her heart beating with fear. (Unit 1, Book 3)
Fill in the blanks with appropriate words. 1. We’re going to visit so many _________ exciting (excite) places and do lots of extraordinary things. amazing (amaze) 2. There are a lot of ________ adventures to have and places to see in the world. finishing (finish) his studies, he 3. Upon ________ started traveling in China.
4. Witnesses also say they saw Justin walking (walk) towards his house at _______ 10.45 p.m. 5. The Chinese led the way at the 2008 Beijing Olympics, winning _______ (win) 51 gold medals. 6. By the 1920s, he had become an searching (search) for the explorer, _________ tombs of the Egyptian kings. beating (beat) 7. She could feel her heart _______ with fear.
We can use a verb-ing / a verb-ing phrase as: [语境展示] 1. a. Mike held a burning stick and Tom carried a gun. b. The results of the survey led to some surprising conclusions. c. The young man sitting between John and Mary is our teacher. 2. a. The story he told us is very interesting. b. What you said is really inspiring. c. It was amazing to see so many rare animals and plants in the zoo.
3. a. She caught them stealing her apples. b. The boy is found very annoying. c. I kept him waiting twenty minutes at the gate of the park. 4. a. Having finished all his homework, he went time to play football with his friends. b. Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in reason touch with her. c. His parents died in a traffic accident, leaving result and sisters. him with four younger brothers d. If travelling north, you must change planes at Leeds. condition
动词-ing形式在功能上 具有形容词或副词的特 点，在句子中可以充当 定语、表语、宾语补足 语和状语。
1. 作定语 动词-ing形式可用于名词前，用来修饰该 名词，功能上相当于形容词。 This is an amazing discovery. 还可将副词置于动词-ing形式前，修饰动 词-ing形式。 It’s an extremely interesting book. 副词或名词可以和动词-ing形式一起构成 复合词，作定语。 A wood-burning stove does harm to the environment.
动词-ing形式也可用于名词后，用来修饰 该名词，功能上相当于形容词。此时动词 -ing形式可以改写为定语从句。 The man talking to the teacher is our monitor’s father. = The man who is talking to the teacher is our monitor’s father.
2. 作表语 动词-ing形式作表语多表示主语所具有的 特征或属性，这时通常可以把其看作形 容词。 His job is boring. The noise was frightening. The news was really exciting. The story he told us was really terrifying.
3. 作宾语补足语 动词-ing形式作宾语补足语时，与宾语有 着逻辑上的主谓关系。在英语中，常见的 能用动词-ing形式作宾语补足语的动词有： feel, smell, watch, see, hear, notice, catch, leave, find, keep, have等。 I saw him playing on the playground at this time yesterday. We all found his argument convincing and interesting.
4. 作状语 动词-ing形式后面跟宾语和/或状语，构成 动词-ing短语，可以表示时间、原因、结 果、条件、伴随等。 Hearing the news, they all jumped for joy. (时间状语) Living far from the school, I have to get up early every morning. (原因状语) She fell off the bike, breaking her left leg. (结果状语)
连词 + 动词-ing短语也可以用来表示时 间。常用的连词有when、whenever、 while、once和until。
While working on a new invention, Edison made 8,000 tests without success.
5. 独立(主格)结构 通常情况下，动词-ing形式作状语时，其 逻辑主语（即动词-ing动作的发出者）要 与句子的主语保持一致；如不一致，则 可用动词-ing的独立（主格）结构作状语， 即“名（代）词 + 动词-ing”，表示时间、 原因、条件、伴随等。 Weather permitting, we will have a football match tomorrow.
6. 动词-ing形式的不同形式 动词-ing形式的否定式是由not + 动词-ing 形式。 He sat there, not knowing what to say. 动词-ing形式的完成形式having + V-ed。 Having worked with many environmental consultants, I know that a healthy environment and development should be possible at the same time. Not having done it as he told us to, we were scolded.
请用所给动词的适当形式填空。 speaking (speak), women live 1. Generally __________ longer than men. Not knowing (not know) where her daughter 2. ____________ was, Mary went to the police for help. To tell (tell) you the truth, your behavior 3. ________ drove me mad. leading 4. There are two roads before us, one ________ (lead) to the hill, the other to the park. paying (pay) by credit card, please 5. Unless _________ pay in cash. 6. We don’t consider it possible ________ to set (set) back the clock of history.
Not having received (not receive) a reply, he 7. _________________ decided to write a letter to the teacher again. causing 8. It rained heavily in the south, ________ (cause) serious floods in several provinces. inviting (invite) and 9. The tea smells __________ tastes fresh. 10. I watched the athlete jumping _______ (jump) from the diving board into the swimming pool. 11. She got _________ to know (know) them while attending (attend) a conference in Beijing. _________ pouring (pour) 12. Just look at the rain ________ down!
Time for reflection
1. We can use a verb-ing as: ____________, the attributive the predicative _____________________ _____________, the object complement and the ____________. adverbial 2. The perfect form of a verb-ing is _______________. having + verb-ed 3. Verb-ing phrases can express: ______, time ________, _______ reason result and _________. condition
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I. Put the verb in the right form. Finding (find) the course very difficult, 1. _______ she decided ________ to move (move) to a lower level. (2013北京) 2. _________ Knowing (Know) basic first-aid techniques will help you respond quickly to emergencies. (2013福建) bathing 3. The sun began to rise in the sky, _______ (bath) the mountain in golden light. (2013湖南)
having set (set) the 4. Lionel Messi ____________ record for the most goals in a calendar year, is considered the most talented football player in Europe. (2013江苏) 5. Laura was away in Paris for over a week. When she got home, there was a pile of waiting (wait) for her. (2013辽宁) mail _______ 6. The room is empty except for a bookshelf ________ standing (stand) in one corner. (2013山东)
Not knowing (not know) which university 7. ____________ to attend, the girl asked her teacher for advice. (2013四川) 8. When I was little, my mother used to sit telling (tell) me stories till I by my bed, _______ fell asleep. (2013重庆) 9. Last night, there were millions of people ________ (watch) the opening ceremony watching live on TV. (2014北京) carrying 10. Toady there are more airplanes ________ (carry) more people than ever before in the skies. (2014大纲)
11. ___________ Having spent (spend) the past year as an exchange student in Hong Kong, Linda appears more mature than those of her age. (2014福建) 12. There is no greater pleasure than lying on my back in the middle of the staring (stare) at the night grassland, _______ sky. (2014湖南) Having spent (spend) nearly all our 13. ____________ money, we couldn’t afford to stay at a hotel. (2014江西)
14. There is a note pinned to the door _______ saying (say) when the shop will open again. (2014山东) Ignoring (ignore) the difference between 15. _________ the two research findings will be one of the worst mistakes you make. (2015安徽) 16. ______________ Having worked (work) for two days, Steve managed to finish his report on schedule. (2015天津) enjoying 17. The park was full of people, ________ (enjoy) themselves in the sunshine. (2015北京)
II. Translation. 1. 因为不知道怎样去公园，他向警察求助。 Not knowing how to go to the park _______________________________, he turned to the police for help. 2. 整天忙着做饭，她看上去有些疲倦。 ____________________, she looked Cooking all day long tired. 3. 从他的脸色看，他一定是病了。 ___________________, Judging from his face he must be ill.
4. 家长们不应该让孩子们整天学习。 have their children Parents should not _________________ studying all day ______________. 5. 当我在街上走时，我看到他了。 Walking in the street I saw him. __________________, 6. 只要你努力学习，就会成功。 Working hard you will succeed. _____________, 7. 如果天气允许，我们就步行到那里。 Weather permitting we’ll go there on __________________, foot.
8. 他的父母去世了，给他留下一大笔钱。 leaving him a lot of His parents died, _________________ money _______. 9. 请用另外一种方法回答这个问题。 using Please answer the question _______ another way ____________. 10. 亨利完成工作后就回家了。 _______________ Having finished his work, Henry went home.
III. Make sentences beginning –ing or Not -ing. Sometimes you need to begin with Having (done something).
Thinking they might be hungry, I offered them something to eat.
Being a foreigner, she needs a visa to stay in this country. Not knowing his address, I wasn’t able to contact him.
Having travelled a lot, Sarah knows a lot about other countries.
Not being able to understand English, the man didn’t know what I wanted.
IV. 阅读下面的短文，按照句子结构的语法 性和上下文连贯的要求，在空格处使用 动词的适当形式填空。 interesting (interest) race is Once a year, an ___________ held for old cars. You may find this race astonishing __________ (astonish). A lot of cars entered for this race last year and there was a great deal of excitement just before it began. One of the most handsome cars was a Rolls-Royce Silver Ghost. The most unusual car was a Benz which had only three wheels.
Built in 1885, it was the oldest car _______ taking (take) part. After a great many loud explosions, the race began. Many of the cars broke down on the course and some drivers spent more time under their cars than in them! A few cars, however, completed the race. The ________ winning (win) car reached a speed of forty miles an hour — much faster than any of its rivals. It sped downhill at the end of the race and its trying (try) to stop driver had a lot of trouble _______ it. The race gave everyone a great deal of exciting (excite). pleasure. It was very _______
1. Finish the exercises on P29 and P31. 2. Do Parts C1 and C2 on P100 in the Workbook. 3. Finish the Exercises of the Grammar part in Learning English. 4. Write at least six sentences, using Verb-ing form and Verb-ing phrases.