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高二英语教材知识点总结及重难点解析Unit19


高二英语教材知识点总结及重难点解析 Unit19-20
☆重点句型☆ 1. She dressed herself as a lawyer's clerk. 2. I offer you six times what you have just offered. 3. I never knew so young a body with so wise a hea

d. 4. You shall get justice. 5. It's silly of sb. to do sth. 6. He has no choice but to cry. 7. I'd come to if 1 had time to spare. 8. I offer ten times the money that Antonio has borrowed. 9. It is not yet known how these were conveyed over a dis- tance of 380 kilometres. 10. In terms of technical development, people were going from the Stone Age to the Bronze Age. ☆重点词汇☆ 1. merchant n. 商人 2. deny v. 否定 3. enemy n. 敌人 4. reasonable adj. 合乎情理的 5. weakness n. 弱点 6. judgement n. 判断 7. gentleman n. 绅士 8. greeting n. 问候 9. envy vt. & n. 嫉妒 10. accuse vt. 指控 11. fortune n. 机会 12. bargain n. & adj. 讨价还价(的) 13. bless vt. 保佑 14. legal adj. 法定的 15. deed n. 行动 16. requirement n. 需要 17. declare vt. 宣布 18. court n. 法庭 19. justice n. 公正 20. therefore adv. 因此 21. worthy adj. 值得的 22. mercy n. 仁慈 23. punish vt. 惩罚 24. order vt. & n. 命令 25. emperor n. 皇帝 26. clothing n. 衣服 27. dozen n. (一) 打 28. spare adj. 额外的 vt. 腾出 29. average adj. 平均的 30. accompany vt. 陪伴 31. quality n. 数量 32. square adj. 平方的 n. 广场

☆重点短语☆ 1. pay back 偿还 2. have mercy on 对……表示怜悯 3. at the mercy of 任由……摆布 4. go about 着手干 5. as far as I know 就我所知 6. tear up 撕毁 7. go down on one's knees 跪下 8. tend to 趋于 9. in terms of 就……而言 10. in the eyes of 在……看来 11. 1end a hand 帮助 12. serve as 作为 13. may / might as well do sth. 还是做某事好 14. be seated 就座 15. take sb. in one' s arms 拥抱某人 16. have a hand in 插手 ☆短语闯关☆ 下列短语都是这两个单元学过的重要短语,请你根据 汉语在横线上填人一个正确的词,每个词 4 分,80 分才 能过关,你一定能过关,做好了闯关的准备吗?那么我 们就开始吧? 1. pay ____ 偿还;报答 2. have mercy ____ 对……表示怜悯 3. go ____ 开始做;着手干 4. as ____ as I know 就我所知 5. tear ____ 撕毁;取消(合同等) 6. ____ the mercy of 任由……摆布或控制 7. go down ____ one's knees 跪下 8. tend ____ 朝某方向;趋于 9. ____ terms of 就…而言;用……的话;以…的观点 10. in the ____ of 在……看来 11. lend a ____ 帮助 12. serve ____ 作为;当作 13. dig ____ 挖出;掘起 14. have a ____ in 参与;插手;对某事负部分责任 15. remind sb ____ sth 使某人想起……;提醒 16. have sb ____ your power 使某人在你的控制下 17. date to (=date from) 追溯到…… 18. take ____ 发生 19. be ____ 坐下 20. cut ____ 切断;割掉;剪掉 21. offer ____ 奉献;献出;献上 22. take ____ 拿走;拿开 23. send ____ 让走开 24. ____ least 反正;无论如何;至少 25. link... 把……和……联系起来

☆交际用语☆ 1. Correct me if I'm wrong, but ... 2. One of the most important facts is ... 3. As far as I know ... 4, You shouldn't forget that ... 5. You could, for example 6. What shouldn't be forgotten is ... 7. I wonder what I who ... 8. I'd like to know more about ,.. 9. What I'd really like to find out is ... 10. I' m curious about ... ☆单词聚焦☆ 13. accompany vt. 1) 陪伴 She accompanied me to the doctor's. / The minister was accompanied by his secretary to the hospital. 2) 伴随 Lightning usually accompanies thunder. 3) 伴奏 The well-known singer W&S accompanied at the electrical organ by his school teacher. 7. bargain 1) bargain n. 交易, 合同交易; 协议; 廉价买到的东西 A bargain's a bargain. / He made a bargain with his wife "You take care of the children and I'll cook." / This jacket is a real bargain at such a low price. / It's a real bargain. 2) bargain vi. (常与 with,for 连用) 讲价;谈条件 If you bargain with them they might reduce the price, she bargain- ed with the trader till he sold her the fruit cheaply. [比较] charge n. 费用,价钱;v. 要价,收费 charge sb some money for (doing) sth. 因做某事向人索价 此外,charge 还可作“看管,负责”解。 take charge (of sb. / sth.) 照管,管理 in charge (of sb. / sth.) 照管,管理 in the charge of sb. 在……的管理之下 Who is in charge here? = Who takes charge here? This project is in the charge of Mr. Smith. 11. dozen dozen n. pl. (dozen,dozens) (作为实数及用作定语时,复数不加“s”) 一打,十二个 (pl. dozens) 若干;几十; 许多 several dozen exercise-books 几打练习本 / some dozen (of) people 约十二个人 / some dozens of people 几 十个人 / pack pencils in dozens 按打包装铅笔 习惯用语:by the dozen 按打计算 / I've bought a dozen eggs for dinner tonight. / The institute has dozens of telescopes through which we can observe the satellites tra- velling in space. 3. envy 嫉妒;羡慕 (1) vt. Better be envied than pitied. 宁可让人妒忌, 不要让人怜悯。 / I envy him his success. 我很羡慕(嫉妒)他的 成功。 (2) n. They only say such unkind things about you out of envy. 他们纯粹出于忌妒才说你这些坏话。/ He was filled with envy at my success. 他十分羡慕(嫉妒)我的成功。 ▲搭配: ① feel envy at... 对……感到嫉妒 ② out of envy 出于嫉妒/羡慕 ③ envy sb 嫉妒/羡慕某人 ④ envy sb sth = envy one's sth 嫉妒/羡慕某人某事 I don't envy you your journey in this bad weather. 我并不羡慕你在这种坏天气去旅行。 【考例 1】I bought a new type of cellphone, which was the ____ of all my classmates.

A. admire

B. wish

C. respect

D. envy

[考查目标] 考查词语在具体语境中的用法。 [答案与解析]D ...is the envy of sb. 意为“……是某人所羡慕的”。 【考点 lO】expect 的用法 ▲构词: ① expectation n. [C;U] 预料;预期;期待;期望;盼望 ▲句型: ① expect that clause 以为;认为;期望 ② expect to do sth 期望干某事 ③ expect sb to do sth 期待某人做某事 ④ sb didn't expect sb to do sth 没料到某人会干某事 ⑤ expect so / not 料想如此/不会如此 ⑥ ...as / than (sb) expected 如……预料/比预料更 ⑦ as is / was / might be expected;as might have been expected 果然;不出所料;正如所料 ⑧ had expected to do sth 表示“本希望(本想),但未实 现”。 ⑨ beyond (one's) expectation 出乎(某人)意料;料想不到;较预期的更大/好 ▲辨析:desire;expect;hope;want;wish 该组词均可表达愿望,但: expect 表示“期待。期望,盼望”,有把握,有根据地认为某事将要发生或期待某事的发生,着重相信或认为 有客观可能。 hope 表示想做某事或期望出现某种有利的结果,隐含这种希望可以实现,意为“希望于某事”。 want 为普通口语用词,指对满足某种实际需要的渴求。 wish 表示一种心愿和渴望,渴望的程度比 desire 弱,或表示一种不能实现的愿望,也用来表示对人的祝福。 desire 既可作动词。也可作名词。最正式、严肃,强调感情的强烈和热切,强调“主观愿望的热切性”,含有“强 烈希望做某事”的意思。例如: He desires a college education. 他想受大学教育。/ I expect that we'll succeed this time. 我想这次我们一定会成 功。/ I hope everything goes well with your work. 祝你工作如意,事事顺心。/ I don't want your child to be spoiled. 我不愿你的孩子被宠坏。/ I wish I had tried more things at college. 我以前读大学时,若能多尝试一些事情多好。 / How I wish I could buy a house like that. 啊,假如我能 买一栋那样的房子该多好。 ▲友情提示:expect 表示“期待,期望,盼望”,有把握、有根据地认为某事将要发生或期待某事的发生,着 重相信或认为有客观可能。 【考例 10】(2004 北京春招) I arrived late; I ____ the road to be so icy. A. wouldn't expect C. hadn't expected B. haven't expected D. wasn't expecting ② unexpected adj. 未预料到的

[考查目标]考查 expect 的时态所表示的含义。 [答案与解析]C I hadn't expected 表示“我当时没有意料到……”,与过去的事实情况相反。 4. fortune n. 机会;运气 make a fortune 发财致富 / push one's fortune 追求名利,努力抬高自己的地位;力图发迹 / run a fortune 冒风 险 / seek one's fortune 寻求出路,力图发迹 / try one's fortune 碰运气 waste materials. 他靠卖废料发了大财。/ Fortune favours the brave. 【考点 9】hand 的用法 ▲构词: ① handshake n. [C] 握手 ② handstand n. [C]手倒立 ③ handtruck n. [C]手推车 ④ handwriting n. [U]笔迹,书法 He made a considerable fortune selling

⑤ handful n. [C] (一)把;少数。少量 ⑥ handkerchief n. [C]手帕 ⑦ handbag n. [C]女用皮包,手提包 ▲ 搭配: ① hold out one's hand 伸出手 ② hold one's hand 握着某人的手 ③ reach (out) for...= reach (out) one's hand for...伸手够…… ④ raise one's hand(s) = put up one's hand(s)举手 ⑤ hand down 把……传下去/发下去 ⑥ hand in 上交;递交;提交 ⑦ hand out 分发;发放;散发 ⑧ hand (over) to... 移交给……,拿给(另一个) ⑨ go hand in hand with 与……齐头并进 ⑩ by hand 手工;用手(区别于用机器等) ? hand in hand 并进;联合;手拉手;紧密合作 ? from hand to hand 从一人之手转到他人之手 ? at hand 在手边;即将到来;即将来临;在近处 ? a green hand 生手;没有经验的人 ? a handful of 少量的;一把;很少的 ? be short of hands 缺人手 ? give / lend sb a hand (with sth) (在某方面)帮某人一下忙 ? shake hands with sb = shake one's hand = shake sb by the hand 与某人握手 ? catch / take sb by the hand = catch / take one's hand 抓住/拉着某人的手 ? Hands up! 举起手来!(命令) 比较:Hands off! 请勿动手!(不要用手摸!) ▲ 句型: ① hand sb. sth = hand sth (on) to sb = hand (on) sth to sb 把……交给…… ② on the one hand..., on the other hand 一方面…,(但)另一方面… (可连用,也可单独使用) (第一个 the 和第 二个 hand 可以省略) ③ have a hand in (doing) sth 参与;插手;对(干)某事负部分责任 【考例 9】(2004 福建)It's certain that he will ____ his business to his son when he gets old. A. take over [答案与解析]C ▲构词: ① hopeful adj. 有希望的;有前途的 ② hopefully adv. 有希望地 ③ hopeless adj. 没有希望的;不可救药的 ▲搭配: ① in the hope of = in hopes of = hoping 怀着……的希望 ▲句型: ① hope to do sth (既表示愿望又表示对此很有把握)希望…… ② hope that clause 希望……;预祝…… ③ (be) in the hope / hopes of doing sth 希望…… ④ (be)in the hope / hopes that clause 希望…… ⑤ express the / one's hope to do sth 希望…… ② hope for sth 希望……;期待…… B. think over C. hand over D. go over [考查目标]考查 hand over 的意思。 hand over...to sb 把……移交给某人。 【考点 6】hope 的用法

⑥ express the / one's hope that clause 希望…… ⑦ It is hoped that... = Hopefully...人们希望…… ⑧ I hope so. 我希望如此。 I hope not. 我希望没有。(我希望不。) ⑨ had hoped to do sth 或 had hoped that sb would do sth 表示“本希望(本想),但未实现” ⑩ There is little / no / not much hope of (doing) sth 干某事的希望不大 ?I s there little / no / not much hope that...? 没有干某事的希望 / 可能吗? ? Is there any hope of doing sth? Is there any hope that…? 有十某事的希望吗? ▲辨析:desire;expect;hope;want:wish (见本讲考点 10) ▲友情提示:千万不可使用 hope sb to do sth 结构。 【考例 6】(2004 江苏) -- You haven't lost the ticket, have you? -- ____. I know it's not easy to get another one at the moment. A. I hope not C. I hope so [答案与解析]A B. Yes, I have D. Yes, I'm afraid so 根据上下文的语境可以得出答案。

[考查目标]考查语境中的交际用语。 1. mercy n. 仁慈、怜悯 They showed little mercy to the enemies. 他们对敌人毫不怜悯。 / We were treated with mercy. 人们对待我们很仁 慈。 have mercy on 对……表示怜悯 She was so kind that the showed much mercy on the poor. 她很仁慈对穷人很怜 悯。 at the mercy of 任由……摆布,受……控制 She is at the mercy of her emotions. 她完全受自己感情的支配。 【考点 2】order 的用法 ▲搭配: ① obey orders 服从命令 ② in order that 为了;以便 ③ in order to 为了;以便 ④ in order 整齐;按顺序;有条理 ⑤ out of order 失灵,出故障 ⑥ take orders from sb = take one's orders 接受命令 ⑦ send orders to sb 传令给…… ⑧ give an order 下命令 ⑨ take / have one's order 请某人点菜 ⑩ keep order 维持秩序 ? have orders 奉命 ▲句型: ① order sb. to do sth 命令某人干某事 ② order sth to be done 命令干某事 ③ order (that) sh / sth (should) + V. 命令干某事 ④ order sb sth 给某人订购某物 ⑤ in order to do sth; in order that-clause 为了…… ⑥ We used the computer in order to save time. = We used the computer in order that we might save time. 我们使 用计算机是为了节省时间。 ⑦ There came an order that...= An order came that... 传来……命令 ⑧ May I take / have your order? 你点菜吗?(饭店服务员用语) ▲辨析:command;direct;order 三词均意为“命令”,但

command 语气较强,多用于正式的场合。 direct 语气较弱。 order 语气较强,但比较局限和具体,多用于军事指挥中,接宾语从句时需用虚拟语气。例如:The men did as their officer had commanded. 士兵遵照长官的命令行事。/ The general directed that his men should retreat. 将军命 令他的部下撤退。/ The police ordered the demonstrators to stop. 警方命令示威者停止前进。 【考例 2】(1996 上海) -- I wonder if I could use your telephone. A. I wonder how C. Sorry, it's out of order [考查目标]考查交际用语。 [答案与解析]C ▲构词: ① pay phone 公用电话 ③ pay envelope 工资袋 ▲ 搭配: ① pay back 偿还/归还(借款等);报答;报复;回敬 ② pay for sth 付钱;支付;为……付 m(代价) ③ pay off (one's debts) 还清(债务) ④ pay sb back for... 报答某人什么 ⑤ pay one's debt 还账 ⑥ pay...a visit = pay a visit to 访问……;拜访…… ⑦ get / be paid = get one's pay 领工资;得到报酬 ⑧ pay taxes / rent / the bill 纳税/交租金/付账 ⑨ pay one's respects to sb 向某人表示敬意 ⑩ pay attention to 注意 ▲ 句型: ① pay sb some money for (doing) sth 干某事付给某人多少钱 ② pay sb + 钱付给某人多少钱 ③ pay for (doing) sth 为(干)某事付钱 ④ pay + 钱 + for (doing) sth 为(干)某事付多少钱 ⑤ pay sb to do sth 雇某人干某事 ▲ 辨析:fee;pay;salary;wage salary 指定期发放的工资,常以一个月或一年为期限,多为白领工作人员或管理部门的人员的工资 wage 多用复数 wages,指体力劳动者的工资,指每周所发的工资或计时计件工资 pay 指发给军人或其他公务员的“薪水”,经常指永久性的、定期付给一定数量的钱 fee 指为某种专业服务而付出的钱(如付给律师的)。例如: The fee for the concert is 100 yuan. 音乐会的票价是 100 元。 We can't afford private school fees. 我们负担不起私立 学校的学费。 It's a dirty job but the pay is good. 这是份很脏的工作, 但工资不错。 My salary is paid directly into my bank account. 我的薪金是直接拨入我的银行户头的。What's the average wage in this country? 这个国家的平均工 资是多少? 【考例 4】(NMET 1998)Cleaning women in big cities usually get ____ by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay [考查目标]考查 get paid 的含义。 [答案与解析]C get paid 领工资;得到报酬。 【考点 8】serve 的用法 ▲构词: ② payday 发薪日 ④ well-paid 高薪的 out of order 表示“出故障”。 【考点 4】pay 的用法 -- ____. B. I don't wonder D. No wonder, here it is

① service n. 服务 ② servant n. 仆人,佣人 ③ service-charge = tip n. 服务费,小费 ④ a service industry 一种服务性行业 ▲ 搭配: ① serve sb heart anti soul 全心全意为人民服务 ② serve as / for 某物当……用;用作;起……作用 ③ serve one's turn / need / purpose 适合某人的目的 /需要 / 心意 ④ serve in the army 服役 ⑤ provide good after-sales service 提供优质 ⑥ community service 社区服务 ⑦ go into service 投入使用;去帮佣 ⑧ in service 当佣人;在职;服兵役;使用中 ⑨ do sb a (great) service 帮某人个(大)忙;给某人...(大)忙 ⑩ be at one's service 听候某人吩咐;听凭某人使用 ?At your service. 愿为您效劳;听候您的吩咐 ▲ 句型: ① serve sb (with) sth = serve sth to sb 拿/用……招待/款待某人 ② Can I be of (any) service to you? 我能帮你什么忙吗? ③ be of service to... 对……有用/有帮助/有好处 【考例 8】(NMET 1993)In some parts of the world, tea ____ with milk and sugar. A. is serving B. is served C. serves D. served [考查目标] 考查固定短语。 [答案与解析]B 考查 be served with 固定短语。 6. so young a body [说明]在一个带有形容词的名词词组中, 不定冠词 a / an 通常放在 adj. 的前面。 但是, 如果 adj.前有 so, too, how, quite 时,a / an 应放 adj. 的后面。其结构是:so / too / how / quite + adj. + a / an + n.。He is so good a student. / It is too difficult a job for me. 12. spare 1) adj. 备用的,多余的,剩余的 a spare tire 备用轮胎 / spare cash 余款 tonight? / Have you any spare time to help me? 2) n. 节约,抽出 ▲ 搭配: ① in one's spare time 在空余时间;在业余时间 ② spare no pains / efforts to do sth 不遗余力地去做某事 ③ spare one's energy 节省精力 【考例 3】(2005 湖北)They started off late and got to the airport with minutes to ____. A. spare B. catch C. leave D. make [考查目标]考查几个与时间名词搭配的动词含义。 [答案与解析]A 题意为“他们出发晚了, 只剩下几分钟的时间赶往机场”。 to spare = be able to afford to give (time, money, etc.) 意为“多余。余富”。 【考点 5】turn 的用法 ▲ 构词:turning n. [C]拐弯处,拐角处 ▲搭配: ① turn around / round 转过身;转过来 ② turn away 把……打发走;解雇;拒绝;把脸扭开 ③ turn down 关小;调低;拒绝 ④ turn green 变绿 ⑤ turn in 上缴;移交给警察 spare no effort / pain 不遗余力 / spare no expense 不惜工本 / Please spare me your opinions, just tell me the facts. / Can you spare this time to help me? / Can you spare me this book for a while? If you have a spare bed, may I stay

⑥ turn off 关掉(自来水、电灯、收音机等);切断 ⑦ turn on 开;旋开(电灯、无线电等) ⑧ turn over 翻到;翻身;翻(书页);翻动;翻耕(土地);把…翻一翻;移交(工作);转让(公司) ⑨ turn to 翻到;转向;求救于;求助于 ⑩ turn up 调大;出现;到达;找到;转弯;转向 ? turn...into... 把……变成…… ? wait one's turn 等着轮到某人 ? by turns 轮流地.依次 ? turn out 结果证明是;生产 ? turn into 进入 ? in turn 依次;反过来(表示对比) ▲句型: ① turn + n. = become a / an / the + n. 变成 ② turn + adj. (green / yellow / deaf) 变得 It's one's turn to do sth = Now comes one's turn to do sth 轮到某人干某 事了;该某人干某事 一般疑问句:Is it one's turn to do sth? 特殊疑问句:Whose turn is it to do sth? take turns (at) doing sth / to do sth = take one's turn to do sth = do sth by turns = do sth in turn 轮流千某事 “(结果)证明”可表达为:...turn out (to be) + 名词或形容词;It turns / turned out that + 句子。例如:The meeting turned out to be a great success. 结果会议开得很成功。= It turned out that the meeting was a great success. ▲ 辨析:①become; get; go; grow; turn 该组词作系动词用时, 均表示变化,但 become 意为“变成,成为, 转为”,多用于书面语,多指有一种状态向另一种状态的变化,所表示的变化过 程往往已经完成,其后可接形容词、名词等作表语。 get 意为“变成,……起来”,多用于口语,多指由一种状态变成另一种状态,表示短时间的状态变化,其后接 形容词、不定式或现在分词等作表语。 go 常指由好变坏或由正常情况变成特殊情况。 如: go bad / blind / mad / crazy / wrong / red 变坏 /变瞎 / 变疯 / 出毛病 / (气得脸)变红;表示短时间的状态变化,其后接形容词等作表语。 grow 有“逐渐变成新状态”之意,强调变化过程。 turn 意为“变成”,表示成为完全不同的事物,强调变化的结果。其后可接形容词作表语,一般表示东西变质, 人或天气变坏及颜色的变化等,后接名词时,名词前无冠词。例如:Johnson has become a lawyer, but Michael remains a waiter at a hotel. Johnson 已做了律师,可 Michael 却还在一家宾馆当服务员。/ Don't get too excited! 不 要太激动! / Meat goes bad easily in summer. 肉在夏天易变坏。 / The smoke grew thicker. 烟变得更浓了。 / The milk turned sour. 牛奶酸了。 He has turned journalist. = He has become a journalist. 他已经成了一名记者。 ② close shut;turn off 该组词均表达“关,关闭”之意,但 close 意为“关,关闭,封闭”,是较正式的用语,常 指把门窗、箱子、盒千等关闭起来或将使用着的路封闭起来。shut 意为“关,关闭,关牢”,可与互换使用,但 其意味更强,强调关的结果,含有关紧或关牢之意。turn off 意为“关.关闭”,常用于电源、电灯、电视、收音 机等电器及水流等液体的关闭。 【考例 5】(2004 浙江) We wanted to get home before dark, but it didn't quite ____ as planned. A. make out [答案与解析]B B. turn out C. go on D. come up [考查目标] 考查动词短语辨析。 make out 表示“分辨”;turn out 表示“结果是”;go on 表示“继续”;come up 表示“问题等被提 出”。结合上下文的意思应该选 turn out。 【考点 7】waste 的用法 ▲ 搭配:a waste of……的浪费 ▲ 句型: ① waste sth 浪费;消耗

② waste time / money + (in) doing sth 浪费时间/金钱干某事 ③ waste time / money + on sth 浪费时间 / 金钱…… ④ It's (a) waste of time / money / breath + to do sth. / doing sth 干某事是白费时间/钱/口舌 【考例 7】(NMET 1995)You're ____ your time trying to persuade him; he'll never join us. A. spending B. wasting C. losing D. missing [考查目标]考查动词的辨析。 [答案与解析]B 根据上下文的意思”他不会加到我们中的,所以你是在浪费时间”。 [牛刀小试 1] 用所给单词的适当形式填空: (spare, hope, waste, hand, expect, envy) 1. Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had ____. 2. Children are tired of learning often because they ____ to do better than they can. 3. I ____ to stay there for one more week, but I changed my mind. 4. After all the students had taken their seats, the teacher ____ out the examination papers. 5. How I ____him the pleasures he had during the vacation! 6. The school building is limited, so we have no ____ room to hold this meeting. 7. First come, first ____. ☆词语比较☆ 1. now that, due to, because of, owing to (1) now that 作“既然”讲时, 相当于 since。 now that 中的 that 可省去。 Now (that) you are well again, you can travel. 你既然恢复了健康,就能够旅行了。 (2) due to 作“起因于、 归功于”时, 常作表语或跟在名词后。 Mistakes due to carelessness may have serious results. 粗枝大叶造成的错误可能带来严重后果。/ The team's success was largely due to her efforts. 该队的成功在很大程 度上是由于她的努力。 (3) because of “由于、因为”,在句中作状语或表语。His anger is because of your bad deeds. 他是因你的失礼行 为而生气。 (4) owing to “由于、 因为”, 常在现代英语中与 because of, due to 换用。 Owing to unfavorable weather, I was unable to carry on with it. 由于天气不好,我不能把它进行下去。 2. pay back, pay off, pay for pay back 是“偿还,报复,报答”的意思 pay off 是除“还清”的意思外,常用的意思还有“有报酬” pay for 是“付……款”的意思。 How can I pay you back for all your kindness? 你的这番好意我该怎么报答呢? / Soon they paid off the loan. 不久 他们把贷款还清了。/ His hard work paid off when he got the promotion. 他得到了提升,他的努力没有白费。/ Do you have to pay for your schooling? 你上学要付学费吗? 3. announce, declare 这两个词都含有“宣布”的意思。其区别主要是: announce 所宣布的是公众较感兴趣的事情,常带有“预告”的意思 declare 一般用于较为正式的场合,特别是用于官方场合。例如:It has been announced that they will be married next week. 据宣布, 他们将在下周结婚。 The price of rice was announced in the papers. 大米的价格已在报上公布。 declare war 宣战 declare peace 宣布和平 The arrested man declared himself (to be) innocent. 被逮捕的人声称自 己是无罪的。 declare 还有一个重要的意思是“申报 (纳税品、房地产等),例如:Do you have anything to declare? 你有什么 要申报纳税的吗? 4. combine, connect, join, unite 此组动词意为“联合、连接”。 (1) combine 意为“结合、 联合”, 指为了某一目的而把两事物结合在一起。 We must combine theory with practice.

我们必须把理论和实践联系起来。 (2) connect “连接”,指用东西把两事物连接在一起,或两事物直接相连,二者仍保持原状。The two cities are connected by a railway. 两座城市由铁路相连。 (3) join 意为“连接”,指以线、绳、桥等把两物或两地连接在一起,和 connect 意思相近,也可指两物互相 紧密相接。 We had better join the island to the mainland with a steel bridge. 我们最好建一座钢筋桥把这个岛与大陆 连接起来。/ Where does this stream join the Changiiang River? 这条河和长江在哪里汇合? (4) unite 意为“联合”,指两种以上的事物结合为一体,有合二为一的意味,强调结合后的统一性。 The two companies will unite into one. 这两家公司将合并成一家。/ The whole family united to help him. 全家齐心协力帮 助他。 5. worth,worthy (1) worth adj. 价值……的 a car worth $20000 价值 2 万美元的一辆小汽车 How much is this bicycle worth? It's worth £50. be worth doing 值得一做 It isn't worth waiting for him. (值得……的) (2) worthy adj. 有价值的;配得上的;可尊敬的(常作表语,其后常跟被动语态动词不定式或 of 加名词或被动 语态动名词)值得……的;应该……的 a worthy life 有价值的生活 a worthy man 高尚的人 a man worthy of praise (to be praised) 值得称赞的人 acts worthy of punishment 应该受处分的行为 She says she helps only the worthy poor. 她说她只帮助那些值得她去帮助的穷人(不包括那些她认为好吃懒做 等不配取得帮助的人)。 6. believe, believe in, trust 三者均有“相信”的意思。believe 指“相信某人(所说的话)”。I don't believe what she says. believe 后可跟 that 从句,表示“相信,认为”。He firmly believes that I can do it well alone. believe in 表示“信任,信仰(真理、宗教、原则等)”。The western people mostly believe in God. trust 指“相信(某人的品德、为人、能力等)”。 I don't trust him. (= I don't believe in him.) ☆短语归类☆ 2. as far as I know as far as I know = as far as I am concerned 就我所知 They returned at nine, as far as we know. 据我所知, 他们是九点返回的。 As far as I know, he is still working there. 就我所知,他还在那儿工作。 as far as I can see 据我看 As far as I can see, the wea- ther is not likely to clear up. 据我看,天气不大可能放晴。 【考点 4】in + 名词 + of ① in the eyes of 在……心目中;在……看来 ② in terms of 就……而言;根据 ③ in the area of 在……领域 ④ in time of 在……的时候 ⑤ in honor of 为纪念;为向……表示敬意 ⑥ in case of 万一 [例句] You are only a child in the eyes of your teacher. 在老师眼里你只是个孩子。Many of the scientists and engineers are judged in terms of how great their achieve- ments are. 人们往往从成就的大小来评价一些科学家和工 程师。There have been many developments in the area of language teaching。 语言教学领域有很多发展。 【考例 4】 As for Latin America generally, there is no reason why, ____ available resources, it cannot become a highly industrialized area. A. in terms of C. rather than B. by means of D. next to

[考查目标] 此题主要考查短语辨义。

[答案与解析]A by means of 通过。rather than 而不是。next to 几乎;仅次于,除……之外。 9. be in love with sb. 该短语意为“爱上某人”,其中的 be 可用 fall 替换,即 fall in love with sb. 也意为“爱上某 人”。Henry was / fell in love with Mary. make love to sb. 向某人示爱 15. may / might as well do 最好,还是做某事好,做某事也无妨 Since nobody else wants the job, we might as well let him have it. 既然谁也不要这份工作,我们不妨让他去做吧。There is nothing to do, so I may as well go to bed. 没事可做,是去睡觉也无妨。 【考点 5】含 mercy 的短语 ① have mercy on / upon 对……表示同情(怜悯) ② show mercy to sb. 怜悯/同情某人 ③ beg for mercy 乞求宽恕 ④ at the mercy of 任……摆布;在……掌握中 ⑤ leave...to the mercies of 让……受……的摆布 ⑥ throw...on one's mercy 请求……宽恕 ⑦ without mercy 无情地 [例句]They had no mercy on the prisoners. 他们对犯人毫不留情。They showed little mercy to the enemies. 他们 对敌人毫不怜悯。He went down on his knees and begged for mercy. 他跪下来乞求宽恕。I shouldn't like to be at the money of such a cruel man. 我不愿任由这样凶残人的摆布。 The slaves were left to the mercies of their master. 奴隶 们受尽了主人的虐待。He threw himself on my mercy. 他请求我宽恕他。He was treated without mercy. 他受到虐 待。 ▲友情提示:mercy 在以上短语中使用时,常作不可数名词(但第⑤个短语除外)。 【考例 5】She is a kind-hearted woman and often has mercy ____ these who are in trouble. A. a; for [答案与解析]B B. 不填; on C. some; to D. much; with [考查目标]此题主要考查短语的介词搭配问题。 have mercy on / upon 是固定短语,只能使用介词 on 或 upon。另外,短语中的 mercy 是不可 数名词,前面不可加不定冠词。 10. on one condition 该介词短语意为“规定一个条件”。 He allowed me to do it on one condition. on condition that 这是一短语连词 (=only if),引导条件状语从句。I'll give you the day off on condition that you work on Saturday morning. 【考点 1】pay 短语 ① pay back 偿还;报复 ② pay for 付……的钱;为……付代价 ③ pay off 还清;付完丁资后解雇;成功 [例句] Have l paid you back the $20 you lent me? 你借给我的 20 美元我还给你了吗? He paid me back by not coming. 他采用不来的办法报复我。Before he pays he likes to know what he's paying for. 在付钱时,他喜欢知道 他要付什么钱。 He paid dearly for his careless slip. 他为自己粗心的失误付出了巨大的代价。 Our plan certainly paid off; it was a great idea. 我们的计划当然成功了,那是个很好的主意。When the building was completed, he paid off the laborers. 大楼建好后,他付完工人的工资,打发他们离开。 ▲ 辨析:pay back 还给。只说归还,但不谈还清与否;而 pay off 是还清了。 【考例 1】It's high time the sum was paid ____ to the bank with interest. A. for B. off C. back D. on [考查目标]此题主要考查短语辨义。 [答案与解析]C gentlemen. 14. tend 常与 to 连用 vt. 有……的趋势, 有某种倾向 People under stress tend to express their full range of potential. 正确分析各选项的意义。题意是:到向银行还本付息的时候了。 8. be seated (= sit down) 意为“坐下”,是正式用语,而 sit down 是非正式用语。Please be seated, ladies and

/ He tends to pitch the ball too high. [牛刀小试 2] 1. After three years of hard work,they had at last paid ____ all the money they had borrowed. A. for A. relation A. put up B. off C. on D. back C. information C. tore up D. track 2. Mr. Stevens kept ____ of his business by telephone when he was in hospital. B. connection B. picked up 3. He ____ his collar to stop the cold wind. How he wished he were sitting in a warm room! D. pulled up 4. The wealth of a country should be measured in ____ of the health and happiness of its people as well as the material goods it can produce. A. terms A. in B. charge C. time B. on C. at D. honor 5. They were lost at sea, ____ the mercy of winds and waves. D. under ☆句型诠释☆ 1. Next to him lay a cushion, upon which the man could work metal. 本句前半句为倒装句。 正常的语序为 A cushion lay next to him, 倒装的目的是为了强调地点状语。 In front of my house stands a tall tree which can be seen from far away. / At the foot of the hill lies a large lake. 2. “……就……”英语表达法 (1) as soon as 归纳: as soon as 引出的时间状语从句既可以放在主句之前,也可放在主句之后,表示它所指的动作发生在另一分 句所指的动作之前。 as soon as 可以与动词的一般现在时,一般过去时或完成时态连用,主句的动词使用相应的动词现在时,过 去时或将来时。He started as soon as he received the news. 他一得到消息就出发了。As soon as he had got into the car, I said "good morning" to him in French and he replied in the same language. 他一上车,我就用法语向他道了声早安,他也用法语作了回答。 (2) hardly / scarcely / barely...when / before...no sooner... than... 归纳: 注意搭配关系:hardly / scarcely / barely 和 no sooner 不可以放在 when / before 和 than 之后。hardly / scarcely / barely 和 no sooner 否定词位于句首时,句中的主语和谓语必须部分倒装。hardly / scarcely / barely 和 no sooner 引导的是主句,表示它的动作发生在从句之前,故常用过去完成时;而 when / before 和 than 引导的从句只能与 一般过去时连用。 该句型含惊奇之意。 Mrs Winthrop had no sooner left the room than they began to gossip about her. 温思罗太太刚离开房间,他们就议论起她来了。Scarcely / Hardly / Barely had he begun to speak when I sensed that he was in trouble. 他刚一开口,我就感到他遇到麻烦事了。No sooner had we set out than a thunderstorm broke.我 们一动身就遇上了大雷雨。 (3) the moment / the instant 归纳:名词短语 the moment / instant / minute / second 和副词 immediately / directly 可以用做连词,相当于 as soon as,引导的是时间状语从句;从句既可放在句首,也可放在句中。 The moment I saw him, I knew that there was no hope. 一见到他, 我就知道没希望了。 The instant you leave this tent, you will get a big surprise. 你一出帐篷,便会大吃一惊。We will leave the minute you're ready. 你一准备好,我们就走。She returned immediately she heard the bad news. 她一听到这个坏消息,就返了回来。I left directly the clock struck twelve. 钟一敲十二点我就离开了。 (4) on + 动名词 (或表示动作的名词)归纳:动名词(或名词)结构表示它所表达的动作刚一发生或完成,句子 谓语所表示的动作就接着发生。 它相当于 as soon as 引导的时间状语从句。 On arriving in England, they were taken to the Crystal Palace by train. 他们一到英国便乘火车去水晶宫。He was greeted by the Prime Minister on his arrival at the airport. 他一到机场,便受到总理的欢迎。 另外, each time,every time 如同上面四种类型一样, 可直接用作从属连词, 引导状语从句。 Every time I listen to his advice, I get into trouble. 我每次听了他的劝告, 都会遇到麻烦。 I'll think of my hometown each time I listen to that song. 我每次听这首歌,都会想起家乡。 3. as...as... 与比较级的用法

(1) ...as + 形容词(副词)原级 + as...;not as / so + 形容词 (副词) 原级 + as... I study as hard as you. 我学习和 你一样努力。He doesn't get up as / so early as his parents.他起床没有他父母亲早。 (2)……倍数 + as + 形容词(副词)原级 + as... Line AB is 3 times as long as Line CD. = Line AB is twice longer than / 3 times the length of Line CD. 线段 AB 是线段 CD 的三倍长。 (3) as + 形容词 + a / an + 单数可数名词 + as;as + 形容词 + 复数名词 + as I haven't got as much money as I thought. 我的钱没有我想像的那么多。 (4) as much / many as 多达……,……那么多 This factory produces as much as 100 tons of steel a day. 这家工厂 每天产铁 100 吨。 As many as 700 different languages are spoken in Africa. 在非洲人们所说的语言多达 700 多种。 5. x times + n. 通过结构,应掌握英语里表示倍数的表达句型。 A is x times the size (height, length, width...) of B. A is x times as big (high, long, wide...) as B. A is x times + adj.-er than B. The size (height, length, width...) of A is x times that of B. The meeting-room is three times the size of our office. = The size of the meeting-room is three times that of our office. 三倍以下通常用 double 或者 twice 来表达两倍。His weight is double what it was ten years ago. / This railway is twice longer than that one. / The room is twice the size of that one. = This room is twice as big as that one. ☆句型归纳☆ 【考点 1】As far as I know... 据我所知…… as far as 是连词,本意为“和……一样远”。引申意为“就 ……(程度,范围) 而言,至于,尽……”。类似的还 有:as long as“和……一样长”。 “只要”; as good as“和……一样好”。“实际上, 事实上, 和……几乎一样”; as well as “和……一样好”,“既……又……,不但……而且……”。例如:As far as I know, he isn't coming to the party. 就 我所知,他不会来参加这次聚会。As far as he is concerned, he can't afford such an expensive car. 就他而青,他买 不起这么贵的汽车。 【考例 1】(2004 北京、安徽) ____ I can see, there is only one possible way to keep away from the danger. A. As long as B. As far as C. Just as D. Even if [考查目标] 本题考查连词的用法。 [答案与解析]B 选项 A 中的 as long as 表示“只要”;选项 B 中的 as far as 跟其后的 I can see 一起表示“据我 看,据我所知”;选项 C 中的 Just as 表示“就在……时”;选项 D 中的 Even if 表示“即使”。 【考点 2】lf you offered me six times what you have just offered, I would still take my pound of flesh. 如果你给我已 经支付的六倍的钱。我还是要拿走我的那磅肉。倍数的表达方式有如下几种: ① A + be + 倍数 + the + 长(宽、高)的名词形式 + of + B。例如: The new building is four times the size of the old one. 新房的面积是旧房的四倍。 ② A + be + 倍数 + 形容词或副词的比较级 + than + B。例如: The sun is a million times larger than the earth. 太阳比地球大 100 万倍。 ③ A + be 或其他动词 + 倍数 + as + 形容词或副词的原级 + as + B。 例如: The car runs three times as fast as I walk. 汽年行驶的速度是我走路的三倍。 【考例 2】(2004 全国卷 III) It is reported that the United States use ____ energy as the whole of Europe. A. as twice C. twice much as [答案与解析]D B. twice much D. twice as much 表示倍数的名词要放在 as...as 的前面。

[考查目标]本题考查倍数的表达方式。 【考点 3】We can find several such ideas in Shakespeare's play The Merchant of Venice. 在莎士比亚的作品《威尼 斯商人》中。我们可以找到好些这样的理念。 在本句中 find 表示“找到,发现,发觉,感到”,后接名词、形容词、副词、现在分词、过去分词、介词短语 等作宾语补足语。例如:Tom has found his short-wave radio very helpful. 汤姆发觉短波收音机很有用。Jim found

it hard to take the crowded bus. 吉姆觉得很难搭上拥挤不堪的公车。 【考例 3】(NMET 2003) A cook will be immediately fired if he is found ____ in the kitchen. A. smoke B. smoking C. to smoke D. smoked [考查目标]本题考查 find 后接宾语补足语的用法。 [答案与解析]B find 后接现在分词作宾语补足语时,表示动作正在进行;接过去分词作宾语补足语时,表示动 作的“完成和被动”。根据语境可知,厨师在厨房抽烟要被开除,但是要抓住把柄.只能是他“正在抽烟”。 【考点 4】 For trade and cultural links as well as life in Britain and the construction of a building such as Stone- henge。 people in the Bronze Age must have had knowledge about certain things and certain fields of science. 鉴于贸易与文 化的联系及英国生活和像巨石阵的建筑结构。青铜时代的人一定了解很多事情并对一些科学领域有所涉及。 must 可以用来表示对事情的肯定的推测: 对现在的推测用 must + 原形动词, 对过去发生的事情的推测用 must + have done。如果把握不大,则可用 may / might + 原形动词表示对现在的推测,用 may / might + have done 表 示对过去的推测。而 can / could + 原形动词 (表示对现在的推测)以及 can / could + have done (表示对过去的推 测)一般用于否定或疑问句。 例如: It is possible that the King of Stonehenge was linked to the stones: he may have had a hand in planning the monument, or in helping transport and pull up the stones. 可能这个巨石王和这些石头有关 系:他可能参与策划建立这个纪念碑,或者帮助运输和竖起巨石。It must have rained last night, for the ground is wet. 地上是湿的,昨晚一定下雨了。 【考例 4】(2003 上海)My English-Chinese dictionary has disappeared. Who ____ have taken it? A. should [答案与解析]C B. must C. could D. would [考查目标]本题考查不同的情态动词在推测(或猜测)句型中,分别表示不同把握(或语气)程度的区别。 should have done 表示“本来应该做某事而实际上来做”;must have done 表示“一定做了某事”; could have done 表示“可能做了某事”,同时,could 用于疑问句;would have done 表示“应该会做某事”。根据上 下文语境“我的英汉词典不见了”,可知“可能会是谁拿走的呢?” [牛刀小试 3] 1.-- Excuse me, is this the right way to the Summer Palace? -- Sorry. I’m not sure. But it ____ be. (2004 湖北) A. might B. will C. must D. can 2. My sister met him at the Grand Theater yesterday after- noon so he ____ your lecture. (2002 上海) A. couldn't have attended C. mustn't have attended A. needn't 2000) A. as long as B. while C. if D. even though 5. Americans eat ____ vegetables per person today as they did in 1910. (2002 上海春招) A. more than twice C. twice as many as (2003 上海春招) A. as tong as C. as much as A. more than A. price B. as soon as D. as many as B. more of C. as much as D. so many as C. value D. usefulness B. as twice as many D. more than twice as many B. can't B. needn't have attended D. shouldn't have attended C. should D. may

3. Michael ____ be a policeman, for he is much too short. (1994 上海) 4. The WTO cannot live up to its name ____ it does not include a country that is home to one fifth of mankind. (NMET

6. After supper she would sit down by the fire, sometimes for ____ an hour, thinking of her young and happy days.

7. We advertised for pupils last autumn, and got ____ 60. (1998 上海) 8. You'll find this map of great ____ in helping you to get round London. (NMET 1998) B. cost 【交际速成】

【考点 1】如何用英语表达失望 (2005 名校示范卷) -- Give me two tickets for the 8 : 00 show. -- The 8 : 00 show tickets are sold out. -- ____. A. Thank you. C. What a shame! B. Why didn't you keep one for me? D. Never mind.

[答案与解析]C 这道题考查的是英语中失望的表达方式。根据上下文可知。一方想“买两张演出票”,而对方却 说“票卖完了”,那么买票方的反应会是“真可惜! (C 项)”而不可能是“谢谢(A 项)”、或质问对方“为什么不给我留 票?(B 项)”或“没关系(D 项)”。故只有 C 项正确。 【归纳】人在生活中经常会遇到让人失望的事情,在英 语中用来表达失望的方式有: ① What a shame! ③ It's a pity / shame that... ④ Everybody will be disappointed.. 例如:It's a pity that you missed yesterday's football game. It was exciting. 你错过了昨天的足球赛真是太可惜了, 很精彩的。 【考点 2】 怎样用英语表达因没弄明白或是出于好奇而“想知道” -- Paul, I'd like to have a talk with you at tea break. -- ____ Have what with me? A. Yes, please. C. Thanks. B. Sorry? D. You're welcome. ② What a pity!

[答案与解析]B 这道题考查的是对别人说话的反应。根据上下文可知,一方“喝茶时想跟你谈谈”.而对方没有 听清楚(“要跟我做什么?”),所以应说声“对不起”。故只有 B 项正确。 【归纳】常见的表达因没弄明白或是出于好奇而“想知道”的方式还有: ① I wonder what / who-③ I wonder if / whether ⑤ I really want to know... ⑧ I'd like to know more about... 例如:I'd like to know more about it. 我想了解更多。-- You can surf the Internet or go to visit it yourself. 你可以 去网上查查或亲自去看看。 [牛刀小试 4] 1. -- What's your head teacher like? -____. (2005 名校示范卷) A. He looks like my father B. He is an excellent teacher C. He likes music very much D. He works very hard 2. -- I just heard that the tickets for tonight's show have been sold out. A. I was looking forward to that B. It doesn't matter C. I knew it already D. It's not at all interesting 3. -- I was going to organize a picnic but finally decided against it. A. Everybody will be disappointed B. There's nothing to feel sorry about C. I think you deserve it --How could you do that? ____. (05 名校示范) --Oh no! ____. (2005 名校示范卷) ② I'm curious to... ④ I'm curious about... ⑥ I'd love to know...

⑦ What I'd really like to find out is...

D. Well, it all depends 4.-- At lunchtime, I'd like to have a chat (闲谈) with you. -- ____ Have what with me? A. I apologize. B. Pardon? C. I see. D. Forgive me. 5. -- Why didn't you tell Ann the truth? -- ____. (2005 名校示范卷) A. Yes, I was afraid to be scolded by her B. No, but I wanted to C. But I did D. I always hate telling lies 6. -- May I take your order now? A. Please bring us the bill B. No, everything is fine C. Yes, we would love to D. No, not yet. We need more time ☆精典题例☆ ( ) 1. ____ you've got a chance, you might as well make fun use of it. A. Now that B. After C. Although D. As soon as -- ____. -- OK. I'll come back in a few minutes. (05 名校示范卷)

【解析】选 A 本题的意思是“既然你已得到一次机会,你还是充分利用它为好”。可以看到,句中含有一个状语 从句。now that = since 意为“既然”。 ( ) 2. With the old stone bridge ____, a new steel one was going to be built there. A. torn down C. was torn down B. tearing down D. being torn down

【解析】选 A 该题考查 with + 宾语 + 宾语补足语 这一结构。tear down 是“拆毁”的意思。bridge 与 tear down 是被动关系,因此 tear down 应用过去分词,即 torn down。 ( ) 3. While watching television, ____. (2005 全国 III) A. the doorbell rang B. the doorbell rings C. we heard the doorbell ring D. we heard the doorbell rings 【解析】选 C 分词短语充当状语,其逻辑主语是句 子的主语。如果选 A、B,watching 的逻辑主语则是 the doorbell。不符合逻辑。We heard the doorbell ring. 其意是“我们听到铃声响了”,ring 是宾语补足语。 ( ) 4. It is known to all that ____ you exercise regularly, you won't keep good health. (2005 重庆) A. unless 持健康。” ( )5. You didn't let me drive. If we ____ in turn, you ____ so tired. A. drove; didn't get B. drove; wouldn't get C. were driving; wouldn't get D. had driven; wouldn't have got 【解析】选 D 含有 if 从句的虚拟语气表示过去发生 的事,从句用过去完成时,主句用过去将来完成时,即 would + have + 过去分词。这句话意思是:你不让我开 B. whenever C. although D. if

【解析】选 A unless 意思为“如果……不(if…not)。本题意思是“众所周知,要是你没有经常锻炼,你就不能保

车。如果我们轮流开车,你不会那么累。 ( ) 6. He hurried t0 the station only ____ that the train had left. (2005 广东) A. to have found C. found ( B. finding D. to find

【解析】选 D only to do 在句中充当状语,表示“结果……,竟然发现……”。“结果发现火车已经离开了。” ) 7. The matter____ your fate cannot be taken for A. relating to C. relate to B. related to D. to relate to granted.

【解析】选 B 该题考查动词 relate 用法。relate to “与…有关”,此处是过去分词作 matter 的后臵定语,相当于 一个定语从句:The matter which / that is related to your fate...taken for granted“想当然”。由此句可以判断 B 正确 答案。 ( ) 8. If you keep on, you'll succeed ____. A. in time C. at the same time B. at one time D. on time

【解析】选 A 该题考查介词短评的辨析。in time 有“及时”之意,还有“迟早、总有一天”的含义,相当于 sooner or later。其他选项均不合题意。 ( ) 9. I would love ____ to the party last night, but I had to work extra hours to finish a report. A. to go C. going ( B. to have gone D. having gone

【解析】选 B 表达未曾实现的愿望。 ) 10. Little Jim should love ____ to the theatre this evening. A. to be taken C. being taken B. to take D. taking

【解析】选 A 表示将来的意愿,little Jim 是动词 take 的承受者,故应用不定式的被动式。


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