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作文格式与标点


写作格式与标点

Manuscript Form
? ? ? ? ? Writing title Leaving the margin Paragraphing Capitalizing Dividing words

Manuscript Form
? Writing the title ? In the midd

le of the first line

Manuscript Form
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? The title should be capitalized 1) My Impression of Beijing 2) The Wall Between 3) Where Do the New Words Come From 4) What Traditions Mean to the Chinese 5) Different Views on Jane Eyre 6) Interpretation of Robert Frost’s “Fire and Ice” 7) A Clean, Well-lighted Place

Manuscript Form
? Words to be capitalized ? 1)Words except articles, prepositions, coordinating conjunctions(并列连词) ? 2)The first/last word of the title should be capitalized. ? 3) Prepositions longer than four letters should be capitalized. ? 4) Compound words like “Well-Lighted” should both be C-ed.

? ? ? ?

Ex. Capitalize the words in the following titles: 1). my first visit to the summer palace 2). a tale of two cities 3). rules to abide by 4). what is a dictionary for ? 5). the people without a country ? 6). well-known dramatists of the ming dynasty

Manuscript Form
? 1). My First Visit to the Summer Palace ? 2). A Tale of Two Cities ? 3). Rules to Abide By 4). What Is a Dictionary For? ? 5). The People Without a Country ? 6). Well-Known Dramatists of the Ming Dynasty

Manuscript Form
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Capitalization a. Proper names ◎ China, London, Washington. ◎ the Summer Palace, Beijing University, the Yellow River b. Capitalization in writing sentences 1) John is a smart boy. 2) Miss Johnson said, “When you write an essay, you should pay attention to both contents and language.” 3) “When you write an essay,” she said, “you should pay attention to both contents and language.” 4) “When you write an essay, you should pay attention to both contents and language,” the teacher said.

Manuscript Form
? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? ? Word division One-syllable words are not divided. E.g. count, think, map Words with more syllables are divided according the formation of syllables: E.g. re peat ed, trans la tion. A single letter cannot put at the end or in the beginning of a line. E.g. ..........................with heart y thanks. Divisions that may mislead should not be divided: E.g. …………………This is re ally important.

Manuscript Form
? ? ? ? ? ? Words with hyphens should be divided at the hyphen. E.g. ………………It was a welllighted house. The last word of a page should not be divided. Proper names are not to be divided. Division of words at the end of several consecutive lines should not be divided.

Punctuation
? The comma ? (1) A comma is used to join coordinate clauses. It is put before the conjunction (and, but, or, for, so, nor, or yet): ? a. We started early in the morning, and before dark we reached the village. ? b. He wanted to go on, but other people disagreed. ? c. Hurry up, or we’ll miss the train.

? We should remember that coordinate clauses have to be joined with a comma and a conjunction. One comma alone cannot do the job though it is possible in Chinese.

Punctuation
? (2) A comma is used after an adverbial clause or phrase, including a prepositional and a participial phrase placed before the subject, or inserted in the middle of the sentence: ? a. When the rain stopped, we continued to work in the fields. ? b. On hearing about the accident, he went to the site at once. ? But when the adverbial is placed after the main clause, the comma may not be used. ? c. The students were busy working in the reading-room when the lights went off.

Punctuation
? ? (3) Commas are used to separate a series of words or phrases with the same function in the sentence: a. Every weekend she goes to the nearest supermarket to buy park, chicken, fish, vegetables, bread and other foods for the next week. b. The children sang, danced, jumped, and chased each other. (4) Commas set off parenthetical elements: a. The machines you have supplied us, I’m glad to tell you, work very well. b. Many interesting places in Beijing, such as the Summer Palace and the Temple of Heaven, attract thousands of visitors daily.

?
? ? ?

Punctuation
? ? ? ? ? ? ? (5)In dates, a comma is used to separate the day and the year if the order is month—day—year; no comma need be used if the order is day—month—year: a. Hong Kong was restored to China on July 1, 1997. b. She was born on 15 September 1980. Two ways of dating American: July 1, 1997 European: 15 September 1980 A tragic story

Punctuation
? The period (full stop) is used at the end of a declarative sentence, a mildly imperative sentence, and an indirect question ? a. Punctuation marks are important in writing. ? b. Don’t overuse punctuation marks. ? c. She asked the teacher how parentheses are different from brackets.

Punctuation
? The Semicolon (;) ? (1) The semicolon is used between two coordinate clauses, which are not linked by a conjunction. ? She doesn’t like this film; she is disgusted with it. ? She was interested in history a few years ago; today her main interest is in anthropology. ? (2) Conjunctive adverbs like therefore, however, nonetheless, hence, otherwise, besides, moreover, etc.. should not be used as conjunctions to link two coordinate clauses. Before them there should be a semicolon, not a comma.

Punctuation
? He promised to come to the meeting; however, he didn’t appear. ? She didn’t go with them to climb the mountain; otherwise, she would have been caught in the storm. ? The students gained valuable knowledge from their professors; moreover, they learned how go do research work from them. ? He didn’t go to the meeting; therefore, he doesn’t know what new decisions were made.

Punctuation
? ? The semicolon is used with conjunctions when the clauses contain internal punctuation.

He wrote a few good books when he was young and poor,but he wrote nothing worth reading after he became famous and rich. ? He wrote a few good books when he was young and poor; but after he became famous and rich, he wrote nothing worth reading.

Punctuation
? The Colon (:) ? (1) The colon is used to introduce a quotation or a statement. ? a. It will do everyone good to remember this old saying: “One will know that he does not know enough after he begins to learn.” ? Please compare: ? Mr. Wang said, “I will not come back until next week.”

? b. The president has made the following announcement: students who need financial assistance may apply at the Student Affairs Office.

Punctuation
? c. He gave two reasons for his failure in the examination: poor health and insufficient time for preparation. ? d. She bought many souvenirs: two small bronze statues, a carved wooden case for jewelry, and a kerchief with wax-printed designs. ? 注意:英语中的“:”得到使用是为了导入说明性信 息,与汉语有区别。

Punctuation
? Quotation Marks (“…”) ? (1) Double quotation marks are used to enclose direct quotations in dialogue or from books or articles. ? a. “Which American poet do you like best?” Bill asked. ? (2) Single quotation marks are used to enclose a quotation within a quotation. ? The professor said, “Confucius says, ?Do not impose on others what you do not desire yourself.? This is a very good principle of moral conduct.”

Punctuation
? Quotation marks are used for titles of articles, essays, short stories, short poems, songs, etc., and for headings of chapters or subdivisions of books. ? Titles of books, newspapers and magazines are generally underlined or italicized.

Punctuation
? (4) Words with special meaning are sometimes put between quotation marks. ? That warlord was said to have been “elected” president of his country.

Punctuation
?

?
? ?

? ? ? ?

a. I have just finished reading his story “An Unusual Experience,” which is very interesting. b. I have just finished reading his story “An Unusual Experience”. c. In the book there is a chapter on “Peking Man”; there is also a chapter on Banbo Village. d. He gave a very brief explanation of “register”: a particular type of word used in a certain situation or a certain type of writing. e. She asked, “What do you mean?” f. Could you explain to us the meaning of “postmodernism”? g. The man cried, “Fire! Fire!” h. Stop crying “I’m hungry”! We’ll have lunch in a minute.

Punctuation
? The Dash (—) ? (1) A pair of dashes set off a parenthetical element. ? His favorite authors — Jane Austen, Thomas Hardy and Bemard Shaw — kept him company. ? (2) The dash is sometimes used to introduce a summarizing clause after a series of nouns. ? Changes in the market, poor management, and miscalculated speculations — these caused the bankruptcy of the company. ? Bob, Lily, Adrian, Judy — none of them know where he is.

Punctuation
? (3) The dash may be used to introduce subheadings and authors after quotations. ? Wang Zhaojun in Autumn in the Han Palace ? — An Interpretation of the Theme of the Play

Punctuation
? Underlining and Italics ? (1) Titles of books, periodicals, newspapers, plays, movies, operas, and long poems are underlined or italicized. ? a. Students of English like to read the China Daily and the Beijing Review. ? b. She enjoys reading Shkespeatre?s plays and has read Hamlet, Romeo and Juliet, King Lear, and The Merchant of Venice.

Punctuation
? ? ? ? ? ? (2) Words and letters referred to as such are underlined or italicized. The letter u in utterance pronounces / ju: /. (3) Names of ships, aircraft and works of art are underlined or italicized. The plot of the film is based on the tragic sinking of the Titanic. (4) Sometimes underlining or italicizing indicates emphasis. Confucius said, “To govern means to be upright.” So in his view government and moral conduct are synonymous.

Exercises
? ? ? ? ? ? ? Correct the erroneous use of punctuations in the following sentences. I was not strict with myself so I made some mistakes. I learned how to learn、 how to make friends、 how to live alone. On 28th, August, 2006, I came to QFNU. Only in this way, can we improve ourselves。 In the first few days. I was confused, I didn’t know what university life is. Let’s first share the sweet memory, the military training.

Exercises
? I wanted to improve my listening, however, I listened to music instead. ? I have some regrets and achievements in the past year, take my study for example, I had to improve my speaking and listening……

Assignments
? 1. Preview Chapter 2. ? 2. Prepare for a composition on the title of A …That I Will Never Forget, or some other story on which you do have something to say. Please finish the first draft before next class. The story should have at least 300 words.


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