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10. 定语从句III(限制性和非限制性定语从句)


定语从句Ⅲ

(限制性和非限制性定语从句)

概 念
1. 限制性定语从句是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语, 如果去掉,主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。这种从句

和主句关系十分密切,写时不用逗号分开。
2.非限制性定语从句和主句关系不是很密切,只是对先行 词作些附加说明,如果去掉,主句的意思仍然清楚。

这 种从句和主句,写时往往用逗号分开。译法上译成先行 词的定语“??的”,通常译成主句的并列句。

1)I was the only person in my office who was invited. 我是我们办公室惟一被邀请的人。 (如果把从句部分去掉,整个句子的含义就变了) 2)Football, which is a very interesting game, is played all over the world. 足球是一项非常有趣的运动,全世界都踢足球。 (如果把从句部分去掉,句子意思仍然清楚)

【跟踪演练】
1.The man has a son who is a doctor.
(只有一个儿子)

2.The man has a son, who is a doctor.
(其中一个儿子当医生) How many sons does the man have?

非限制性定语从句的引导词
关系代词有which,who, whom, whose, as;关系副 词有when, where。 1.This is a beautiful bike, which was bought by my father as a birthday gift. 2. This is a pretty flower, whose name I don’t know. 3. Last Sunday they reached Nanjing, where a conference was to be held.

【跟踪演练】

判断正误
1.He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday, that

pleased her a lot. (错)
2.He gave his mother a color TV set for her birthday, which pleased her a lot. (对) 注意:that不引导非限制性定语从句

which和as引导的非限制性定语从句的区别: 1.意义不同

He made a long speech, as we expected.
正如我们期望的,他作了一次很长的演讲。 He made a long speech, which was unexpected. 他作了一次很长的演讲,这出乎意料。 总结:as译为“正如,正像”,常在主动句中作宾语,在 被动句中作主语,如as is known to all;which代指前面 整个句子,译为 “这”。

2.位置不同
As was reported, three people died in the accident.

正如报道的,三个人死于车祸。
All the people died in the accident, which shocked everyone. 所有的人都死于这起事故,这让每个人都很震惊。

总结:as位置灵活,可以位于句首,也可以位于句中,而
which不能位于句首。

非限制性定语从句的其他形式: 有些非限制性定语从句可以由名词/数词/不定代词/比较级 或最高级+of which/whom组成。例如:

1)Our class consists of 60 students, all of whom like
English.

2) I have a lot of friends, two-thirds of whom are girls.
3) Pass me the book, the cover of which is red.

【高考链接】
1. (2014· 重庆高考)We’ll reach the sales targets in a month _______ we set at the beginning of the year. A. which B. where C. when D. what

【解析】选A。考查定语从句。句意:我们一个月内就可以

达到年初设定的销售目标了。根据句子结构和句意可知,用
定语从句,先行词为the sales targets,在从句中作动词set的 宾语,引导词可用that/which或省略。

2. (2014· 四川高考)Until now, we have raised 50,000 pounds
for the poor children, _______is quite unexpected. A. that B. which C. who D. it

【解析】选B。考查定语从句。句意:到现在为止,我们已经 为贫困儿童筹集了5万英镑,这是完全没想到的。根据句子结

构以及选项可知是考查非限制性定语从句,从句中缺少主语。
此处关系代词which代指前面整个句子的内容,并在从句中作 主语。

3. (2014· 北京高考)I borrowed the book Sherlock Holmes from the library last week, _____ my classmates recommended to me. A. who C. when B. which D. where

【解析】选B。考查定语从句。句意:上周我从图书馆借了

《福尔摩斯探案集》,这本书是我同学推荐给我的。分析句
子可知这是一个非限制性定语从句,从句中缺少宾语,排除 C、D;先行词是一本书,排除A。

4. (2013· 天津高考)We have launched another man-made

satellite, ______ is announced in today’s newspaper.
A. That B. which C. who D. what

【解析】选B。考查定语从句。句意:我们已经发射了另外一 颗人造卫星,这在今天的报纸上报道了。that和what不引导非 限制性定语从句;who的先行词是人;which引导非限制性定 语从句,指代前面整个句子,在从句中充当主语。

5. (2013· 重庆高考)John invited about 40 people to his wedding, most of______ are family members. A. them B. that C. which D. whom

【解析】选D。考查定语从句。句意:约翰邀请了大约40人来

参加他的婚礼,其中大多数都是他的家人。先行词为40 people,
在定语从句中作of的宾语并指人,用关系代词whom,故选D;A项

为代词,放入之后前后为两个完整的句子,两个完整句子不可仅
用逗号隔开,需在两句中间加入连词才对;B项that一般不放在介 词后面;C项which指代物。

6. (2013·四川高考)Nowadays people are more concerned about the environment_______ they live. A. what B. which C. when D. where

【解析】选D。考查定语从句。句意:目前人们更加关心他们

所居住的环境。A项可引导名词性从句;B项可引导定语从句,在
从句中可作主语、宾语;C项可引导定语从句,在句中作时间状 语;D项可引导定语从句,在句中作地点状语。从句中的live为不 及物动词,先行词the environment在定语从句中作地点状语,故 选D项。

7. (2013·山东高考)There is no simple answer, _______ is often the case in science. A. as B. that C. when D. where

【解析】选A。考查定语从句。句意:没有一个简单的答案,这

在科学领域里是常有的事。as引导非限制性定语从句,在从句
中作主语,代替前面的情况,意为“正如,正像”。

8.(2012?全国高考)That evening, ____I will tell you more about later, I ended up working very late. A. that B. which C. what D. when

【解析】选B。考查定语从句。句意:那天晚上我一直工作到很 晚,我过后会告诉你关于那晚更详细的情况。该空引导非限制 性定语从句,在从句中作about的宾语,所以只能用which;that不 能引导非限制性定语从句;what不能引导定语从句;when可以 引导非限制性定语从句,但是在从句中只作时间状语。故选B。

9. (2012· 浙江高考)Ellen was a painter of birds and of nature, ______, for some reason, had withdrawn from all human society.

A. which

B. who

C. where

D. whom

【解析】选B。考查定语从句。句意:艾伦是一个画鸟和自然 的画家,由于某种原因,他从社会退隐了。考查非限制性定语

从句,Ellen是先行词,在从句中作主语。解题时,先把插入
语for some reason去掉。故选B。

10. (2012· 福建高考)The air quality in the city, ______is shown in the report, has improved over the past two months. A. that B. it C. as D. what

【解析】选C。考查定语从句。句意:正如报告所显示的,在过 去的两个月里,这个城市的空气质量已有所改善。As“正如,

就像”引导定语从句,先行词为air quality。A项that不能引导
非限制性定语从句,B项it不能引导定语从句,D项what不能

引导定语从句。

11.(2011· 北京高考)Mary was much kinder to Jack than she was to the others,______, of course, made all the others

upset.
A.who B. which C. what D. that

12. (2011· 陕西高考)I walked up to the top of the hill with
my friend, ______we enjoyed a splendid view of the lake.

A. which

B. where

C. who

D. that

13.(2011· 江苏高考) Between the two parts of the concert is an interval, ______ the audience can buy ice-cream. A. when B. where C. that D. which

14.(2011· 新 课 标 全 国 卷 )The prize will go to the writer _______story shows the most imagination. A. that B. which C. whose D. what


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