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英语及物和不及物动词等的用法


及物动词

transitive verb 英语中按动词后可否直接跟宾语,可以把动词分成两种:及物动词与不及物动词。

及物动词: 又称“他动词”。又称“外动词”。动词的一种。它所表示的动作常涉及动作者以外的事物,如“吃”、“穿”、“读”、“写” 等。字典里词后标有 vt. 的就是及物动词。及物动词后必须跟有动作的对象(即宾语) ,并且可直

接跟宾语。 如 see 看见 (vt.) +宾语 I can see a boy. 其实所谓“及物”,就是后面可直接加宾语的动词,有被动形式,而不及物动词是没有被动式的,也不可直接加宾语,需加介词。 及物动词后面可直接接宾语,不及物动词后面不可直接接宾语,一般要加介词后再接宾语。实际上很多动词既是及物动词, 又是不及物动词。我举一个例子,就说 write。如 I am writing.和 I am writing a letter.在前一个句子 write 是不及物动词,在 后一个句子 write 是及物动词。又如,see 是及物动词,但在特殊情况下如 seeing is believing。 不及物动词就是一个动作不能施加到另一个物体上,也就是后面不能加宾语。 例如:He is running. run 这个动词就是不及物动词,后面不能加 sth。 (不能说跑什么东西) 分清及物不及物动词: 分清动词的及物不及物是在英语学习中必须解决的首要问题。动词及物与不及物通常有以下几种情况: a.主要用作及物动词。及物动词后面必须跟宾语。可以用于:"主+谓+宾";"主+谓+双宾";"主+谓+宾+宾补"结构。 如: He reached Paris the day before yesterday. Please hand me the book over there. They asked me to go fishing with them. 类似的还有:buy, catch, invent, found, like, observe, offer, prevent, promise, raise, find, forget, receive, regard, see, say, seat, supply, select, suppose, show, make, take, tell.... b.主要用作不及物的动词。不及物动词后面不跟宾语。只能用于:"主+谓"结构。 This is the room where I once lived. 类似的还有:agree, go, work, listen, look, come, die, belong, fall, exist, rise, arrive, sit, sail, hurry, fail, succeed.... c.既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义不变。如 begin 都是作"开始"讲。everybody , our game begins. let us begin our game. 类似的还有:start, answer, sing, close, consider, insist, read, learn, prepare, pay, hurt, improve.... d.既可以用作及物又可以用作不及物的动词,其意义完全不同。 这类动词作不及物动词是一个意义; 而作及物动词时却是另一个意义。 lift 作不及物动词时是指烟雾的"消散"。 saw the 如 we mountain when the clouds lifted. 作及物动词时是"升高;举起"。 He lifted his glass and drank. 类似的还有:beat vi.跳动 vt. 敲、打; grow vi.生长 vt. 种植 play vi.玩耍 vt. 打(牌、球),演奏 smell vi.发出(气味) vt. 嗅 ring hang vi.(电话、铃)响 vt.打电话 speak vi.讲话 vt. 说(语言) vi. 悬挂 vt. 绞死 operate vi.动手术 vt. 操作

在英语错误中,“及物动词+介词+宾语”(transitive verb+preposition+object) ,是常见的一种。所谓及物动词,就是谓语 动词(predicative verb) ,不必通过介词引荐宾语。相反的,不及物动词(intransitive verb)是不带宾语的。有许多动词, 虽然性质是及物的,但不一定要有宾语,如下列的①a 和②a 便是这种情形: ①a. We study every day. b. Do you study English every day. ②a. Please write clearly next time. b. Can you write your composition now? 如果本质上就是不及物动词,就不会有宾语;若要宾语,就要借介词之助,一起连用才行(不及物动词+宾语+介词),如③b 和④b;③a 和④a 是错的; *③a. The children are listening the music. b. The children are listening to the music. *④a. She is laughing the crippled man. b. She is laughing at the crippled man. 反之,及物动词不必靠介词,就可以带宾语,如上述的①b 和②b ,又如⑤和 ⑤ John is giving a book to me. ⑥ Who will answer this question? 如果无意中把介词加上,就错了,如: *⑦ Who will answer to this question? ⑥:

下列这句从房地产广告中看到的句子,也犯了同样的错: “We have many buyers awaiting for available units here.” “Awaiting”是个及物动词,后面的介词“for”是多余的,要去掉;不然把“awaiting”改为“waiting for”也行。 许多人习惯上喜欢把介词加到及物动词后面,然后才带出宾语。最常见的是“emphasize/stress on/upon”和“discuss about”, 如: ⑧ Singaporeans seem to have emphasized on material gains. ⑨ In our education system, we stress upon examination results. ⑩ World leaders spent a lot of time discussing about worsening economic problems. 显然的,这三句里的介词“on/upon”和“about”是多余的,不必要的。 下面是些类似的错误: ● The young must obey to their elders. ● Do not approach to that odd-looking man. ● The audience attacked on the rude speaker. ● Nothing can escape from his parents' eyes. ● Do you hope to serve for your nation? ● When did Susan marry with Paul? 介词“to, on, from, for, with”都要去掉才对。 为什么会有这些错误呢?主因是分不清楚及物动词和不及物动词的性质。 其次, 就是对同一个动词及其名词的句型有些混淆。 解决之道有二。第一,要把“及物动词+宾语”和“不及物动词+介词+宾语”划分清楚,如: ? I did not answer him./ I did not reply to him. ? He reached Londan yesterday./ He arrived in London yesterday. 第二,把及物动词转化为名词,然后加上适当的介词和宾语,如: ? Don't approach such a person. ? Is oral practice a good approach to language teaching?

不及物动词。intransitive verb ( vi. )
happen, rise,等等。如:

动词的一种。也称“自动词”、“内动词”。不能带宾语的动词和能带施事宾语的动

词。\n 如:“游行、睡觉、带头、躺、来”等。这些动词常见的有:appear, apologize,arrive, come, die, disappear, exist, fall,

The students work very hard.学生们学习很努力。 She apologized to me again. 她再次向我道歉。 The accident happened yesterday evening.事故是昨天晚上发生的。 A 有些动词只是及物动词; 它们不可以单独用,后面必须跟宾语。 注意 { False: They always want after lunch. Right: They always want a cup of tea after lunch. { False: He is sending now. Right: He is sending a letter now.

连系动词 本身有一定的词义,但不能独立作谓语,必须与表语一起构成谓语。
表语通常由名词、形容词,或相当于名词或形容词的词或短语等充当,说明主语是什么或怎么样。 一、 连系动词的类型有: 1. "存在"类:表示存在或具有某种特征或状态.这类连系动词强调"存在"。常见的有:be(是),look(看起来),feel(摸上去),seem(似 乎是),appear(似乎、显得),prove(证明是),smell(闻起来),taste(尝起来),sound(听起来)等。例如: The story sounds true. Those oranges taste good star. 2. " 持 续 " 类 : 表 示 某 种 情 况 或 状 态 的 持 续 。 这 类 连 系 动 词 强 调 " 持 续 " 。 常 见 的 有 :remain( 依 然 ),keep( 保 持 ),stay( 保 持),continue(继续、仍旧),stand(处于某状况或情形)等。例如:

Why don't you put the meat in the fridge? It will stay fresh for several days. It's already ten in the morning. The store remains closed. What's the matter? 3. " 变化 " 类: 表示 由 一 种情况 或 状 态 变化 成 另一 种 情况或 状 态 。 这类 连 系动 词 强调 " 变 化" 后的 情 况 或状 态 .常 见的 有:become(变成), turn(变成), grow(变得), get(变得)等。例如: Put the fish in the fridge, or it will go bad in hot weather. 二、注意事项 1. 有些连系动词通常不用于被动语态和进行时态中。如:feel, taste 等词。例如: -Do you like the material? -Yes, it feels very soft. 2. 一般情况下,连系动词主要跟形容词或分词作表语。例如: Be careful when you cross this very busy street. If not, you may get run over by a car. 3. 能跟名词作表语的连系动词常见的有:be, become, appear, seem, prove, remain 和 turn 等.注意:turn 后跟(表示主语身份 的)名词作表语时,不加冠词。例如: Twenty years later, he turned teacher. The population growth in China remains a problem. 4. 连系动词也可跟不定式(to do / to be),常见的有:appear, seem, remain, prove, look 等。例如: Having a trip abroad is certainly good for the old couple, but it remains to be seen whether they will enjoy it. On the long journey, Peter proved to be a most interesting guide. We all had a wonderful time. 表语是用来说明主语的身份、性质、品性、特征和状态的,表语常由名词、形容词、副词、介词短语、不定式、动词的-ing、 从句来充当,它常位于连系动词(be, become, appear, seem 等)之后。 例子: Africa is a big continent. That remains a puzzle to me. 非洲是个大洲。 那是一个残余的难题,对我来说。

主语是一个句子中所要表达,描述的人或物,是句子的主体。 主语可以由名词,代词,数词,动词不定式,动名词,名词化形容词,分词,从句,短语等来担任。 谓语谓语是用来说明主语做了什么动作或处在什么状态。谓语可以由动词来担任,一般放在主语的后面。 表语表语是用来说明主语的性质,身份,特征和状态。 表语须和连系动词一起构成句子的复合谓语。 表语一般放在系动词之后。 表语可以由名词,形容词或起名词和形容词作用的词和短语担任。 宾语是谓语动作所涉及的对象,它是动作的承受者,宾语可以由名词或起名词作用的成分担任,宾语一般放在谓语动词后面。 有些及物动词可以有两个宾语,其中一个宾语多指人,另一个宾语指物,指人的宾语叫做间接宾语,指物的宾语叫做直接宾语,可 以带两个宾语的动词有 bring,give,show,send,pass,tell 等。间接宾语一般放在直接宾语的前面,如果强调直接宾语可把直接 宾语放在间接宾语的前面,但间接宾语前须加"to"。 有些及物动词除跟一个宾语外, 还需要加上宾语补足语,否则意思不完整,它们一起构成复合宾语,复合宾语中宾语和后面的宾 语补足语有一种逻辑上的主谓关系,这也是判断是两个宾语还是复合宾语的依据,宾语可以由名词或起名词作用的词担任。 定语用于描述名词,代词,短语或从句的性质,特征范围等情况的词叫做定语,定语可以由名词,形容词和起名词和形容词作用的 词,短语担任。如果定语是单个词,定语放在被修饰词的前面,如果是词组,定语放在被修饰词的后面。 助动词 va. 1)协助主要动词构成谓语动词词组的词叫助动词(Auxiliary Verb) 。被协助的动词称作主要动词(Main Verb) 。构成时态, 语态是助动词 助动词是语法功能词,自身没有词义,不可单独使用,它没有对应的汉译,例如: He doesn't like English. 他不喜欢英语。 (doesn't 是助动词,无词义;like 是主要动词,有词义) 2) 助动词协助主要动词完成以下功用,可以用来: a. 表示时态,例如: He is singing. 他在唱歌。 He has got married. 他已结婚。 b. 表示语态,例如: He was sent to England. 他被派往英国。 c. 构成疑问句,例如: Do you like college life? 你喜欢大学生活吗?

Did you study English before you came here? 你来这儿之前学过英语吗? d. 与否定副词 not 合用,构成否定句,例如: I don't like him. 我不喜欢他。 e. 加强语气,例如: Do come to the party tomorrow evening. 明天晚上一定来参加晚会。 He did know that. 他的确知道那件事。 3) 最常用的助动词有:be, have, do, shall, will, should, would 助动词 am,is,are 的用法 1) am,is,are +现在分词,构成进行时态,例如: They are having a meeting. 他们正在开会。 English is becoming more and more important. 英语现在越来越重要。 2) am,is,are + 过去分词,构成被动语态,例如: 窗户是汤姆打碎的。 世界各地都教英语。

The window was broken by Tom..

English is taught throughout the world.

3)am,is,are+ 动词不定式,可表示下列内容: a. 用现在时表示最近、未来的计划或安排,例如: He is to go to New York next week.. We are to teach the freshpersons. b. 表示命令,例如: You are to explain this. 征求意见,例如: 我该怎样答复他? 谁该去那儿呢? 我们明天早晨 7 点在校门口集合。 对此你要做出解释。 要他今天下午来办公室。 他下周要去纽约。 我们要教新生。

说明: 这种用法也可以说成是一种将来时态表达法。

He is to come to the office this afternoon. c.

How am I to answer him? Who is to go there?

d. 表示相约、商定,例如: We are to meet at the school gate at seven tomorrow morning. 助动词 have 的用法 1)have +过去分词,构成完成时态,例如: He has left for London. 他已去了伦敦。

By the end of last month, they had finished half of their work. 上月未为止,他们已经完成工作的一半。 2)have + been +现在分词,构成完成进行时,例如: I have been studying English for ten years. 我一直在学英语,已达十年之久。 3)have+been +过去分词,构成完成式被动语态,例如: English has been taught in China for many years. 中国教英语已经多年。 助动词 do 的用法 1) 构成一般疑问句,例如: Do you want to pass the CET? Did you study German? 你想通过大学英语测试吗? 你们学过德语吗? 我不想挨批评。 过去,好多学生不知道英语的重要性。

2) do + not 构成否定句,例如: I do not want to be criticized. He doesn't like to study. 他不想学习。

In the past, many students did not know the importance of English. 3) 构成否定祈使句,例如: 不要去那里。

Don't go there.

Don't be so absent-minded. 不要这么心不在焉。 说明: 构成否定祈使句只用 do,不用 did 和 does。

4) 放在动词原形前,加强该动词的语气,例如: Do come to my birthday party. I did go there. I do miss you. 我确实想你。 我从未听说过这样的事情。 一定来参加我的生日宴会。 我确实去那儿了。

5) 用于倒装句,例如: Never did I hear of such a thing.

Only when we begin our college life do we realize the importance of English. 只有在开始大学生活时我们才认识到英语的重要性。 说明: 引导此类倒装句的副词有 never, seldom, rarely, little, only, so, well 等。 6) 用作代动词,例如: ---- Do you like Beijing? ---- Yes, I do. --你喜欢北京吗? --是的,喜欢。 (do 用作代动词,代替 like Beijing.)

He knows how to drive a car, doesn't he? 他知道如何开车,对吧? 助动词 shall 和 will 的用法 shall 和 will 作为助动词可以与动词原形一起构成一般将来时,例如: I shall study harder at English. He will go to Shanghai. 说明: 在过去的语法中,语法学家说 shall 用于第一人称,will 只用于第二、第三人称。现在,尤其是在口语中,will 常用于第一 人称,但 shall 只用于第一人称,如用于第二、第三人称,就失去助动词的意义,已变为情态动词,试比较: He shall come. He will come. 他必须来。 (shall 有命令的意味。 ) 他要来。 (will 只与动词原形构成一般将来时。 ) 我将更加努力地学习英语。 他要去上海。

shall 在疑问句中,用于第一,第二人称,征求对方意愿 shall I turn on the light? 要开灯吗?( 我把灯打开好吗?) shall he come to see you? 你要不要他来看你 (比较: will he come to see you? 他会不会来看你) shall 用在陈述句, 与第二第三人称连用, 变为情态动词 表示允诺,命令,警告,和说话人的决心 助动词 should,would 的用法 1)should 无词义,只是 shall 的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,只用于第一人称,例如: I telephoned him yesterday to ask what I should do next week. 我昨天给他打电话,问他我下周干什么。 比较: "What shall I do next week?" I asked. "我下周干什么?"我问道。 (可以说,shall 变成直接引语时,变成了 should。 ) 2) would 也无词义,是 will 的过去形式,与动词原形构成过去将来时,用于第二、第三人称,例如: He said he would come. 比较: "I will go," he said. 他说:"我要去那儿。" 变成间接引语,就成了: He said he would come. 原来的 will 变成 would,go 变成了 come.。 他说他要来。

情态动词

是一种本身有一定的词义,但要与动词原形及其被动语态一起使用,给谓语动词增添情态色彩,表示说话

人对有关行为或事物的态度和看法,认为其可能、应该或必要等。 情态动词后面加动词原形。 分类:

情态动词有四类: ①只做情态动词:must,can(could),may(might),ought to ②可做情态动词又可做实义动词:need,dare ③可做情态动词又可做助动词:shall(should),will(would) ④具有情态动词特征:have(had,has) to,used to 位置: 情态动词在句中放在谓语动词之前, 谓语动词前若有助动词,则在助动词之前,疑问句中, 情态动词则在主语之前。 I can see you. Come here. 我能看见你,过来吧。 He must have been away. 他一定走了。 What can I do for you? 我能帮你吗? How dare you treat us like that! 你怎能那样对待我们! 特点: 情态动词无人称和数的变化, 情态动词后面跟的动词需用原形,否定式构成是在情态动词后面加 "not"。 个别情态动词有现 在式和过去式两种形式, 过去式用来表达更加客气, 委婉的语气, 时态性不强, 可用于过去,现在或将来。情态动词属非及 物动词,故没有被动语态。 He could be here soon. 他很快就来。 We can't carry the heavy box. 我们搬不动那箱子。 I'm sorry I can't help you. 对不起,我帮不上你。 基本助动词与情态助动词最主要的区别之一是,基本助动词本身没有词义,而情态助动词则有自己的词义,能表示说话人对 有关动作或状态的看法,或表示主观设想: What have you been doing since? (构成完成进行体,本身无词义) I am afraid I must be going. (一定要) You may have read some account of the matter. (或许已经) 除此之外,情态助动词还有如下词法和句法特征: 1) 除 ought 和 used 以外,其他情态动词后面只能接不带 to 的不定式。如果我们把 ought to 和 used to 看做是固定词组的 话,那么,所有情态动词无一例外地只能接不带 to 的不定式: We used to grow beautiful roses. I asked if he would come and repair my television set. 2) 情态助动词在限定动词词组总是位居第一: They need not have been punished so severely. 3) 情态助动词用于第三人称单数现在时的时候,没有词形变化,即其词尾无-s 形式: She dare not say what she thinks. 4) 情态动词没有非限定形式,即没有不定式和分词形式,也没有相应的动名词: Still, she needn't have run away. 5) 情态助动词的“时”的形式并不是时间区别的主要标志。 在不少场合, 情态助动词的现在时和过去时形式都可以表示现在、 过去或将来时间: Would you mind very much if I ask you to do something? She told him he ought not to have done it. 6) 情态助动词之间是相互排斥的,即在一个限定动词词组中只能出现一个情态助动词,但有时却可以与 have 和 be 基本 助动词连用: You should have washed the wound. Well, you shouldn't be reading a novel. 用法 首先它是动词,而且不同于行为动词,行为动词表示的是可以通过行为来表达的动作(如写,读,跑) ,而情态动词只是表 达的一种想法(如能,也许,敢) 。 用法是:情态动词+行为动词原形 例句:I can read this sentence in English. 我能用英语读这句话。 情态动词是一种本身有一定的词义,表示说话人的情绪,态度或语气的动词,但不能单独作谓语, 只能和其他动词原形构成谓 语。

We can be there on time tomorrow.我们明天能按时去那儿。 May I have your name? 我能知道你的名字吗? Shall we begin now?我们现在就开始吗? You must obey the school rules.你必须遵守校规。 情态动词数量不多,但用途广泛,主要有下列: can (could), may (might), must, need, ought to, dare (dared), shall (should), will (would),have (to) ,had better. 功能 助动词(auxiliary)主要有两类:基本助动词(primary auxiliary)和情态助动词(modal auxiliary)。基本助动词有三个:do, have 和 be;情态助动词基本的有十四个:may, might; can, could; will, would; shall, should; must, need, dare, used to, ought to.had better 上述两类助动词的共同特征是,在协助主动词构成限定动词词组时,具有作用词的功能: 1) 构成否定式: He didn't go and neither did she. The meeting might not start until 5 o'clock. 2) 构成疑问式或附加疑问式: Must you leave right now? You have been learning French for 5 years, haven't you? 3) 构成修辞倒装: Nowhere can he obtain any information about his sister. Hardly had he arrived when she started complaining. 4) 代替限定动词词组: A: Who can solve this crossword puzzle? B: Tom can. A: Shall I write to him? B: Yes, do. can 和 could 的用法 1. 表示能力或客观可能性,还可以表示请求和允许。如: Can you finish this work tonight? Man cannot live without air. — Can I go now? — Yes, you can. 注意:①could 也可表示请求,语气委婉,主要用于疑问句,不可用于肯定句,答语应用 can(即 could 不能用于现在时态 的简略答语中) 。如: Could I come to see you tomorrow? Yes, you can. (否定答语可用 No, I'm afraid not.) ②can 表示能力时,还可用 be able to 代替。如: I'll not be able to come this afternoon. 2. 表示惊异、怀疑、不相信的态度。 (主要用在否定句、疑问句或惊叹句中) Can this be true? How can you be so careless! This cannot be done by him. 3. “can(could) + have + 过去分词”的疑问或否定形式表示对过去发生的行为怀疑或不肯定。如: He cannot have been to that town. Can he have got the book? 4. 用在疑问句及否定句中,表示惊讶,不相信等. 5. cannot```too\enough 表示"无论怎样``````也不过分","越``````越好" may 和 might 的用法 1. 表示许可。 表示请求、允许时,might 比 may 的语气更委婉一些,否定回答时(口语中常用) no , you can't . or , yes, please 用 mustn't 表示“不可以”、“禁止”、“阻止”之意(具有强烈禁止的意思)如: You may drive the car. — Might I use your pen? — No, you mustn't.

用 May I ... 征询对方许可在文体上比较正式,在口气上比较客气。在日常口语中,用 Can I ... 征询对方意见在现代口语中 更为常见。 2. 用于祈使句中表示祝愿。如: May you succeed! 3. 表示推测、可能(疑问句不能用于此意) 。 He may be very busy now. 4. “may(might) + have + 过去分词”表示对过去发生的行为的推测。如: He may not have finished the work. must 和 have to 的用法 1. 表示必须、必要。 (must 表示主观多一些而 have to 则表示客观多一些)如: You must come in time. 回答 must 引出的问句时,如果是否定的回答,不能用 mustn't,而要用 needn't 或 don't have to。 — Must we hand in our exercise books today? — Yes, you must. (No, you don’t have to.) 2. “must be + 表语”的结构表示推测,它的否定或疑问式用 can 代替 must。 This must be your pen. 3. “must + have + 过去分词”的结构常用在肯定句中,表示对过去发生的行为的推测。它的否定或疑问式用 can 代替 must。 He must have been to Shanghai. 4. have to 的含义与 must 相似,两者往往可以互换使用,但 have to 有各种形式,随 have 的变化而定。must 与 have to 有下列几点不同: ① must 表示的是说话人的主观看法,而 have to 则往往强调客观需要。如: The play is not interesting. I really must go now. I had to work when I was your age. ② must 一般只表现在,have 则有更多的时态形式。 ③ 二者的否定意义不大相同。如: You mustn't go. 你可不要去。 You don't have to go. 你不必去。 ④ 询问对方的意愿时应用 must。如: Must I clean all the room? 注意:have to 也可拼做 have got to。 dare 和 need 的用法 1. need 表示“需要”或“必须”, 作情态动词时, 仅用于否定句或疑问句中, 在肯定句中一般用 must, have to, ought to,或 should 代替。如: You needn’t come so early. — Need I finish the work today? — Yes, you must. 注意:needn't + 不定式的完成式“表示本来不必做某事而实际上做了某事”。如: You needn't have waited for me. 2. Dare 作情态动词时,主要用于疑问句、否定句和条件从句中,一般不用在肯定句中。如: How dare you say I'm unfair. He daren't speak English before such a crowd, dare he? 3. Dare 和 need 常用作实义动词,有时态、人称和数的变化,所不同的是,作实义动词时,在肯定句中,dare 后面通常接 带 to 的不定式,在否定和疑问句中,dare 后面可接带 to 或不带 to 的不定式。如: I dare to swim across this river. He does not dare (to) answer. Don't you dare (to) touch it! I wondered he dare (to) say that. He needs to finish it this evening. shall 和 should 的用法

一.Shall 的用法: 1. Shall 用于第一人称,表示征求对方的意愿。如: What shall we do this evening? 2. Shall 用于第一、第三人称疑问句中,表示说话人征求对方的意见或向对方请示。如: Shall we begin our lesson? When shall he be able to leave the hospital? 3. Shall 用于第二、第三人称,表示说话人给对方命令、警告、允诺或威胁。如: You shall fail if you don't work harder. (警告) He shall have the book when I finish reading. (允诺) He shall be punished. (威胁) 二.Should 的用法: 1. Should 表示劝告、建议、命令,其同义词是 ought to;在疑问句中,通常用 should 代替 ought to。如: You should go to class right away. Should I open the window? Should 的含义较多,用法较活,现介绍三种其特殊用法。请看下面的句子: ① I should think it would be better to try it again. 我倒是认为最好再试一试。 ② You are mistaken, I should say. 依我看,你是搞错了。 ③ I should advise you not to do that. 我倒是劝你别这样做。 ④ This is something I should have liked to ask you. 这是我本来想问你的。 从以上例句可以看出:情态动词 should 用于第一人称时可以表示说话人的一种谦逊、客气、委婉的语气。 Should 还可以用在 if 引导的条件从句,表示一件事听起来可能性很小,但也不是完全没有可能。相当于“万一”的意思。从句 谓语由 should 加动词原形构成,主句谓语却不一定用虚拟语气。如: ⑤ Ask her to ring me up if you should see her. 你万一见到她,请让她给我打个电话。 ⑥ If you should change your mind, please let us know. 万一你改变主意,请通知我们。 ⑦ Should I (If I should) be free tomorrow I will come. 万一我明天有时间,我就来。 此外,Why(or How) + should 结构表示说话人对某事不能理解,感到意外、惊异等意思。意为“竟会”。如: ⑧ Why should you be so late today? 你几天怎么来得这么晚? ⑨ — Where is Betty living? — 贝蒂住在哪里? — How should I know? — 我怎么会知道呢? ⑩ I don't know why you should think that I did it. 我真不知道你凭什么认为这件事是我干的。 2. “should + have + 过去分词”结构一般表示义务, 表示应该做到而实际上没有做到, 并包含一种埋怨、 责备的口气。 如: She should have finished it. I should have helped her, but I never could. You should have started earlier. will 和 would 的用法 1. 表示请求、建议等,would 比 will 委婉客气。如: Would you pass me the book? 2. 表示意志、愿望和决心。如: I will never do that again. They asked if we would do that again. The door won't open 3. 用“will be”和“will(would) + have + 过去分词”的结构表示推测,主要用于第二、三人称。前者表示对目前情况的推测,后 者表示对已经完成的动作或事态的推测。如: This will be the book you want. He will have arrived by now. The guests would have arrived by that time. I thought you would have finished this by now. 4. Would 可表示过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向。 Would 表过去习惯时比 used to 正式, 并没有“现已无此习惯”的含义。如: The wound would not heal. During the vacation he would visit me every week.

5. 表料想或猜想。如: It would be about ten when he left home. What would she be doing there? I thought he would have told you all about it. ought to 的用法 1. Ought to 表示应该。如: You ought to take care of him. 2. 表示推测。注意与 must 表示推测时的区别: He must be at home by now. (断定他已到家) He ought to be home by now. (不十分肯定) This is where the oil must be. (比较直率) This is where the oil ought to be. (比较含蓄) 3. “ought to + have + 过去分词”表示过去应做某事而实际未做。如: You ought to have asked him (but you didn't). 这时,ought to 和 should 可以互相换用。 注意:在美国英语中,ought to 用于否定句和疑问句时,to 可以省略。如: Ought you smoke so much? You oughtn't smoke so much. ought 和 should 的区别: 1.ought 语气略强。 2.should 较常用。 3.ought 在美国英语中用的很少,而 should 却相当常用。 4.ought 属正式用语。 used to,had better,would rather 的用法 1. Used to 表示过去的习惯动作或状态,现在已不存在,在间接引语中,其形式可不变。如: He told us he used to play football when he was young. 在疑问句、否定句、否定疑问句或强调句中,可有两种形式: 疑问句 Did you use to go to the same school as your brother? Used you to go to the same school as your brother? 否定句 I usedn't to go there. I didn't use to go there. Usedn't 亦可拼作 usen't,但发音皆为['ju:snt]。 否定疑问句 Usen't you to be interested in the theatre? Didn't you use to be interested in the theatre? 强调句 I certainly used to smoke, but it was a long time ago. I certainly did use to smoke, but it was a long time ago. 其反意疑问句或简略回答中,也有两种形式: She used to be very fat, didn't she? (口语+常用)/ use(d)n't she? (正式+过时) Did you use to play chess? Yes, I did. Used you to get up early in the morning? Yes, I did. (Yes, I used to.) 2. Had better 意为“最好”,后接不带 to 的不定式。如: — We had better go now. — Yes, we had (we'd better / we had better). Hadn't we better stop now? (Had we better not stop now?) I think I'd better be going. (用于进行时态,表“最好立即”) You had better have done that. (用于完成时态,表未完成动作)

注:①had best 与 had better 同意,但较少用。②You had better … 用于同辈或小辈,对长辈不可用。 3. Would rather 意为“宁愿”,表选择,后接不带 to 的不定式。如: I'd rather not say anything. Would you rather work on a farm? — Wouldn't you rather stay here? — No, I would not. I'd rather go there. 由于 would rather 表选择,因而后可接 than。如: I would rather work on a farm than in a factory. I would rather watch TV than go to see the film. I would rather lose a dozen cherry trees than that you should tell me one lie. I'd rather you didn't talk about this to anyone. (句中的'd rather 不是情态动词,would 在此是表愿望的实义动词) can (could), may (might), 用法: can (could) 表示说话人能,可以,同意,准许,以及客观条件许可,could 为 can 的过去式。 Can you pass me the books? 你能给我递一下书吗 ? Could you help me, please? 请问,你能帮助我吗? What can you do? 你能干点什么呢? Can you be sure? 你有把握吗? can 和 could 只能用于现在式和过去式两种时态,将来时态用 be able to 来表示。 He could help us at all. 他完全可以帮助我们。 With the teacher's help,I shall be able to speak English correctly. 由于老师的帮助,我将能准确地讲英语。 may (might) 可以, 表示说话人同意,许可或请求对方许可。 You may take the book home. 你可以把书带回家去. May I come in? 我可以进来吗? May I use your dictionary? 我可以用你的词典吗? You may put on more clothes. 你可以多穿点衣服. He said he might lend us some money. 他说他可以借给我们一些钱。 may 否定式为 may not, 缩写形式是 mayn't. might 是 may 的过去式, 有两种用法, 一种表示过去式,一种表示虚拟语气, 使语气更加委婉, 客气或对可能性的怀疑。 He told me he might be here on time. 他说他能按时间来。 Might I borrow some money now. 我可以借点钱吗? He might be alive. 他可能还活着。 must, need, ought to, dare (dared)用法 Must 必须,应该,一定,准是, 表示说话人认为有必要做某事, 命令, 要求别人做某事以及对事物的推测。 must 用来指一般现在时和一般将来时, 过去式可用 have to 的过去式代替。 I must finish my work today. 我今天必须完成我的工作。 You mustn't work all the time. 你不能老是工作。 Must I return the book tomorrow? 我必须明天还书吗? After such a long walk, you must be tired. 走了这么长的路,你一定困了。 He must be the man I am looking for. 他一定是我要找的人。 He had to go because of somebody's calling him that day. 那天他要走是因为有人叫他。 must + have + 过去分词,表示现在对过去事物的推测。 He must have told my parents about it. 他一定把这件事情告诉我父母亲了。 He must have received my letter now. 他现在一定收到我的信了。 It's six o'clock already, we must have been late again. 已经六点钟了,我们一定又迟到了。 must 和 have to 的区别: must 表示说话人的主观思想, have to 表示客观需要。 You must do it now. 你必需现在就干。(说话人认为必须现在干) I have to go now. 我得走了。(客观条件必须现在走) need 需要 多用在否定式或疑问句中. Need I attend the meeting tomorrow? 我需要明天参加会议吗?

You need not hand in the paper this week. 这一周你不必交论文。 need 是一个情态动词, 他的用法完全和其他情态动词一样, 但 need 还可当作实义动词使用, 这时 need 就象其他动词一 样,有第三人称,单复数, 后面加带 to 的动词等特性。 I need a bike to go to school. 我上学需要一辆自行车。 Do you need a dictionary? 你需要词典吗? She needs a necklace. 她需要一条项链。 needn't + have + 过去分词 表示过去做了没必要做的事情。 You needn't have taken it seriously. 这件事情你不必太认真。 dare 敢 多用在否定或疑问句中。 The little girl dare not speak in public. 小女孩不敢在公众面前说话。 Dare you catch the little cat? 你敢抓小猫吗? dare 除用作情态动词外,更多的是当实义动词使用, 用法同实义动词一样,要考虑人称,单复数,时态等。 Do you dare to walk in the dark? 你敢黑夜走路吗? He doesn't dare to tell the teacher what happened that day. 他不敢告诉老师那天发生的事。 have to , ought ,will ,Shall , should . ought 应当,应该 后面跟带有 to 的动词不定式。 You ought to read these books if you want to know how to repair the motorcar. 如果你想知道如何修理汽车,你应该读这些书。 You ought to bring the child here. 你应该把孩子带来。 ought + to have done 句型。指过去动作,表示一件事情该做而未做。 You ought to have been here yesterday. 你昨天就应该来。 ought not to have done 句型。表示一件不该做的事情却做了。 You ought not to have taken the book out of the reading-room. 你不应该把书带出阅览室。 will (would)决心,愿望。 would 为 will 的过去式, 可用于各人称。 I'll do my best to catch up with them. 我要尽全力赶上他们。 I'll never do it again, that's the last time. 我再不会做那件事情了,这是最后一次。 He said he would help me. 他说他会帮助我。 will, would 用于疑问句表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问,用 would 比 will 更婉转,客气。 It's hot. Will you open the windows? 天气太热了,你能打开窗户吗? Will you help me to work it out? 你能帮我解这道题吗? Would you like some coffee? 给你来点咖啡怎样? Shall, should 表示命令,警告,允诺,征求,劝告,建议惊奇。 You should hand in the exercise book. 你应该交作业本了。 This should be no problem. 这应该没问题。 Shall we go now. 我们现在可以走了吗? Why should I meet him? 为什么我要见他? have to,不得不,必须,表示客观条件只能如此, 而 must 则表示主观思想必须。 I have to go now. 我现在得走了。 I have to cook for my child. 我得给孩子做饭。 You must be here on time next time. 你下次一定要按时来。 We must go to get the timetable ourselves. 我们一定要自己去拿时刻表。


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