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高考专题专练 阅读长难句


It is hard work that really pays off !

高考英语阅读长难句的处理技巧

一个英语句子之所以难以理解,有许多原因,其中一个主要原因是句子太长或者句子 结构复杂。句子过长或者复杂无非是该句除了主干之外还包含了一些附加部分,如插入 语、同位语、分隔现象、各种从句或较长的非谓语动词短语等等。这些附属成分常有逗

号 或分隔符号与句子隔开,且插在一个句子中间,使本来完整的句子被断开,因而增加句意 理解的难度。 分析长难度的基本方法是:首先,判断该句是简单句、并列句还是复合句;然后,找 出句子的核心成分,分清主语和谓语,再分清句子附属成分。下面我们来谈谈几种长难句 的处理技巧。 一、处理长难句的原则方法 如果待处理的长难句为一个复杂的单句,可这样处理:跳读修饰成分,迅速找出主谓 结构。这样一来,我们便可以将长句化为短句,将难句化为易句。具体步骤是:先跳读修 饰成分或附加成分,找出句子的主干并理解其意义;然后再分段理解修饰成分或附加成 分。 如果待处理的长难句为一个复杂的并列句,可这样处理:先找出其中的并列连词,然 后再根据并列连词的意思理清句子前后是顺连关系还是反连关系,是因果关系还是转折关 系等,最后再根据不同的语境关系正确理解句意。 如果待处理的长难句为一个复杂的主从复合句,可这样处理:先分清主句与从句,然 后弄清从句的性质,即弄清它是什么从句——名词性从句,还是状语从句,或是定语从 句。注意,弄清从句性质对于理解复合句的意思至关重要。 另外,有一点要提醒同学们,在处理长难句时,如果既能正确理解句意,又能将其准 确地译成中文,那是最好了。但是,对于有些长难句,要在较短时间内(如在参加考试 时)将其译成中文比较困难,此时只要能正确理解其意思就行了,如果硬要勉为其难地译 成中文,不仅会浪费时间,而且在许多情况也没有必要。

经典高考真题实例分析
下面这篇文章共有 194 个单词,却只有 9 个句子,平均每个句子大约有 22 个单词,是 近几年高考英语阅读理解中一篇比较典型的集中含有长难句的文章。文章内容如下:

Tristan da Cunha, a 38-square-mile island, is the farthest inhabited island in the world, according to the Guinness Book of Records. It is 1,510 miles southwest of its
冲刺高考— 勤奋创造奇迹, 态度决定一切

It is hard work that really pays off !

nearest neighbor St. Helena, and 1,950 miles west of Africa. Discovered by the Portuguese admiral(葡萄牙海军上将) of the same name in 1506, and settled in 1810, the island belongs to Great Britain and has a population of a few hundred. Coming in a close second——and often wrongly mentioned as the most distant island——is Easter Island, which lies 1,260 miles east of its nearest neighbour, Pitcairn Island, and 2,300 miles west of South America. The mountainous 64-square-mile island was settled around the 5th century, supposedly by people who were lost at sea. They had no connection with the outside world for more than a thousand years, giving them plenty of time to build more than 1,000 huge stone figures, called moai, for which the island is most famous. On Easter Sunday, 1722, however, settlers from Holland moved in and gave the island its name. Today, 2,000 people live on the Chilean territory(智利领土). They share one street, a small airport and a few hours of television per day.

针对性训练题 以下段落均选自近几年的高考英语阅读理解文章,均有一定难度,请你用以上方法试 一试: 1. Decision thinking is not unlike poker — it often matters not only what you think, but also what others think you think and what you think they think you think. (NMET2000. C 篇) 2. Dad, in a hurry to get home before dark so he could go for a run, had forgotten to wear his safety belt—a mistake 75% of the US population make every day.(NMET1999. D 篇) 3. First put forward by the French mathematician Pierre de Format in the seventeenth century, the theorem had baffled and beaten the finest mathematical minds, including a French woman sci entist who made a major advance in working out the problem, and who had to dress like a man in order to be able to study at the Ecolab poly technique.(NMET2003.C 篇) 4. It is difficult to measure the quantity of paper used as a result of use of Internet-connected computers, although just about anyone who works in an office can tell you that when e-mail is intr

冲刺高考— 勤奋创造奇迹, 态度决定一切

It is hard work that really pays off !

oduced, the printers start working overtime. That is, the growing demand for paper in recent years is largely due to the increased use of the Internet.(NMET2003.E 篇) 5. Whereas a woman’s closest female friend might be the first to tell her to leave a failing ma rriage, it wasn’t unusual to hear a man say he didn’t know his friend’s marriage was in serious tro uble until he appeared one night asking if he could sleep on the sofa.(NMET2001. E 篇)

根据长难句的结构,我们可以把长难句分为:环环相扣式、并列式、插入语式和改变语序 式。 一、环环相扣式 这类句子往往有多重句子修饰成分,这些修饰成分往往用非谓语动词或从句充当。在 阅读过程中,对于这类句式应当先找到句子的主干,然后再看修饰成分。 例 1: A mere hundred species (物种) are the basis of our food supply,of which but twenty carry the load.Wilson suggests changing this situation by looking into ten thousand species that could be made use of,which will be a way to reduce the clearing of the natural homes of plants and animals to enlarge farming areas.(2008 全国卷一 E 篇)

例 2: This process is also found among scholars and authors: a statement of opinion by one writer may be restated by another,who may in turn be quoted by yet another;and this process may continue,unless it occurs to someone to question the facts on which the original writer based his opinion or to challenge the interpretation he placed upon those facts.(2008 天津 D 篇)

二、并列式 有时候,一个句子会包含多个并列成分,如并列主语、并列谓语、并列宾语等,这些 并列结构往往有连词连接。在解读这类句式时,要注意利用连词和标点符号来判断并列部 分。 例 1: The thing I like best about them is that your money is going to be a good cause and not into the pockets of profit-driven companies,and you are not damaging the planet,but finding a new home for unwanted goods.(2008 天津 B 篇)

冲刺高考— 勤奋创造奇迹, 态度决定一切

It is hard work that really pays off !

例 2: The real attractions of the Hollowell farm to me were its position,being about two miles from the village,half a mile from the nearest neighbor,bounded(相邻) on one side by the river,and separated from the highway by a wide field.(2008 四川卷 E 篇) 三、插入语式 有些句子在中间会用逗号或破折号分开,而处于逗号或破折号之间的内容通常被称为 插入语。阅读时,要先将插入语部分跳过,先读主句,然后再读插入语部分。 例 1: The lack of right male (男性的) role models in many of their lives—at home and particularly in the school environment (环境)—means that their peers are the only people they have to judge themselves against.(2008 辽宁卷 C 篇)

例 2: Her work—thought to be the first of its kind to test the pressure theory—resulted from the observation that juvenile blacktip sharks off Florida moved into deeper water ahead of a violent storm in 2001.(2008 天津 C 篇)

四、改变语序式 有时候,有些句子会使用改变语序的手段,主要以强调结构和倒装来使句子复杂化。 正确掌握强调句型和倒装语法是理解这类句型的关键。 例: It was then that I realized that I had not really come to help,but to learn about and experience another culture that helped improve my own understanding of life and the world.__(2008 四川 A 篇) 总而言之,英语阅读中的长难句是一个比较复杂的语言现象,准确理解和把握长难句 是考生应该掌握的一项阅读技能。希望以上介绍的方法可以帮助你更好地掌握这项技能, 使长难句不再成为阅读的障碍。

Exs for translation and possible writing 1. The latest surveys show that quite a few children have unpleasant associations with homework. 2. No invention has received more praise and abuse than Internet. 3. People seem to fail to take into account the fact that education does not end with graduation.

冲刺高考— 勤奋创造奇迹, 态度决定一切

It is hard work that really pays off !

4. An increasing number of people are beginning to realize that education does not complete with graduation. 5. When it comes to education, the majority of people are convinced that education is a lifetime study. 6. Many experts point out that physical exercise contributes directly to a person’s physical fitness 7. Proper measures must be taken to limit the number of foreign tourists and great efforts should be made to protect local environment and history from the harmful effects of international tourism. 8. Many city residents complain that there are so few buses in their city that they have to spend much more time waiting for a bus, which is usually crowded with a large number of passengers. 9. There is no denying the fact that air pollution is an extremely serious problem: the city authorities should take strong measures to deal with it. 10. An investigation shows that female workers tend to have a favorable attitude toward retirement. 11. A proper part-time job does not occupy students too much time. In fact, it is unhealthy for them to spend all of time on their study. As an old saying goes: All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy. 12. In view of the seriousness of this problem, effective measures should be taken before things get worse. 13. The majority of students believe that part-time job will provide them with more opportunities to develop their interpersonal skills, which may put them in a favorable position in the future job markets. 14. It is indisputable that there are millions of people who still have a miserable life and have to face the dangers of starvation and exposure. 15. No one can deny the fact that a person’s education is the most important aspect of his life. 16. In the last decades, advances in medical technology have made it possible for people to live longer than in the past. 17. We should spare no effort to beautify our environment.

冲刺高考— 勤奋创造奇迹, 态度决定一切

It is hard work that really pays off !

18. People are convinced that computer skills will enhance their job opportunities or promotion opportunities. 20. This is a matter of life and death--a matter no country can afford to ignore. 21. For my part, I agree with the latter opinion for the following reasons: 30. Before giving my opinion, I think it is important to look at the arguments on both sides. 22. Although many people claim that, along with the rapidly economic development, the number of people who use bicycle are decreasing and bicycle is bound to die out. The information I’ve collected over the recent years leads me to believe that bicycle will continue to play extremely important roles in modern society. 23. In view of such serious situation, environmental tools of transportation like bicycle are more important than any time before. 24. Using bicycle contributes greatly to peoples physical fitness as well as easing traffic jams. 25. Despite many obvious advantages of bicycle, it is not without its problems. 26. From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that advantages of bicycle far outweigh its disadvantages and it will still play essential roles in modern society. 27. A large number of people tend to live under the illusion that they had completed their education when they finished their schooling. Obviously, they seem to fail to take into account the basic fact that a person’s education is a most important aspect of his life. 28. Now people in growing numbers are beginning to believe that learning new skills and knowledge contributes directly to enhancing their 29. For the majority of people, reading or learning a new skill has become the focus of their lives and the source of their happiness after their retirement. 30. For lack of distinct(独特的) culture, some places will not attract tourists any more. Consequently, the fast rise in number of foreign tourists may eventually lead to the decline of local tourism.

冲刺高考— 勤奋创造奇迹, 态度决定一切


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