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unit4定语从句


Grammar
The Attributive Clause Ⅰ

Declan is a famous singer. He sings the song tell me why. Declan is a famous singer who sings the song tell me why.

He is a littl

e boy. He is eating . He is a little boy who is eating.

? He

is a popular singer whose song is popular among young people. ? He is a famous singer who is from Taiwan.

定语从句
修饰主语、宾语、表语的句子就叫做 定语从句。 引导定语从句的关联词有: 关系代词: that, which, who, whom whose, 关系副词:when, where, why

定语从句的位置 定语从句一定放在被修饰成分之后。 e.g. This is the car which he bought last year. 先行词 定语从句

Do you know the man?
He spoke just now. Do you know the man who spoke just now?

the red the green apple the small the big The apple which is red is mine. The apple which is green is yours.

The apple which is red is small. The apple which is green is big.

I have read the newspaper. It carries the important news. I have read the newspaper which carries the important news.

I showed him the letter. I received it this morning I showed him the letter (which) I received this morning.

引导定语从句的关系代词 that which who whom whose that即指人又指物, 作主语或宾语。 which指物, 作主语或宾语。 who, whom指人, who作主语, whom作宾语。 that, which, whom在定语从句中 作宾语时, 可省去。

whom指人, 在从句中作宾语, 可省略。

e.g. Do you know the man (whom) we saw at the Beijing Hotel?
The girl is from America. I called her just now.

The girl (whom) I called just now is from America.

1. that在从句中作主语或宾语, 指人和物
1)A plane is a machine that can fly. (主语)

2)The noodles that I cooked were delicious. (宾语) 3)Let’s ask the man that is reading the book over there. (主语) 4)The girl that we saw yesterday is Jim’s sister. (宾语)

2. which在从句中作主语或宾语, 指物 1)They planted the trees which didn’t need much water. (主语) 2) The fish which we bought were not fresh. (宾语) 3. who, whom 在从句中分别作主语和 宾语 (口语中who也可作宾语) 1)The foreigner who visited our school 2)yesterday is from Canada. (主语)

2) The boy who broke the window is called Michael. (主语)

3) The person to whom you just talked
is Mr. Li. (宾语)

4) Mr. Read is the professor to whom
you should write . (宾语)

4. whose 在从句中作定语, 指人或物 1)Miss Flower is the teacher whose

house caught fire last week.
2) This is the boy whose composition the teacher talked of .

3) This is the book whose cover is blue.

Note Ⅰ

that和which在指物的情况下一般 都可以互换, 但在下列情况下, 一般用 that而不用which。

(1)先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等 不定代词时。

I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow.

(2)先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等修饰时。 I’ve read all the books that are not mine. (3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。 This is the first book (that) he has read.

(4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰时。
This is the very book that belongs to him.

Note Ⅱ

1. 关系代词whose还可以在从句中 与它所修饰的词一起作介词宾语。 The boss in whose company my

father worked is a very kind person.

2. 当先行词是one, ones, anybody, anyone, all, none, those 等, 指人时一般用who, 不用that. Those who want to go to the cinema will have to wait at the gate of the school. 在以疑问词who开头的句子中, 或关系代 词在从句中作表语时, 用that, 不用who。 Who is the man that is shouting there? She is not the girl that she used to be.

3. 先行词是人, 从句中缺动词宾语或

介词宾语时, 用whom或that(介词 后不用 that)。
The teacher wants to return the book to the girl from whom he borrowed it.

He is the student (whom, who, that) you want to see.

关系代词that, which , whom 在从句中作
宾语时可省略掉。但放在介词后面时则 不可省略。

真题解析 1. The famous basketball star, ____ tried D to make a comeback, attracted a lot of attention. A. where B. when C. which D. who Key
解析: 本题考察定语从句关联词的选择, 从句意可知先行词the famous basketball star(著名的篮球明星)是人, 所以应用 表示人的关联词who。

2. (2006 北京) Women ___drink more than two cups of coffee a day have a greater chance of having heart disease than those ___ don't. A. who;/ B. /; who C. who; who D. /;/ Key: C 解析: 本题考查两个定语从句, 这两个 定语从句都缺少主语, 在定语从句中, 如果是关系代词做定语从句的主语, 关系代词不能省略, 故答案选C。

3. (2006 福建) Look out! Don't get too
close to the house ___ roof is under

repair.
A. whose B. which C. of which D. that

Key A
解析: whose在定语从句中做roof的 定语, 用于修饰house.

4. --Is that the small town you often refer

to?
--Right, just the one ___ you know

I used to work for years. (2005 福建)
A. that B. which C. where D. what

Key C
解析: 从句中you know是插入语, 所以 用where引导表示地点的定语从句。

Fill in the blanks with who, whom, that, which or whose. that / which 1. The earthquake ___________ hit the city in 1906 was the biggest in American history. 2. We don’t know the number of people __________ lost their homes in 1906 that / who earthquake.

which /that 3. The house __________ they built in 1987 stayed up in the earthquake.

4. A house __________ is built on sand which / that may fall down in a earthquake. 5. Luckily none of the people ______________ I know were killed who/whom/that in the earthquake .

6. Harry is the boy ______ mother whose is our maths teacher .

7. Look at that lady ______ name is Rose. whose

8. He is a teacher ______________ whom/who/that
I like very much. 9. Those pictures _________ were drawn which/that

by Tom are nice.
10. Those _____will go to the park stay here. who

11. That was all the money ______I had. that

whose 12. Is there any one here _______ name is Tom?
13. They talked for about an hour of things and

that persons _____ they remembered in the school.
14. Who ______ has common sense will do such that

a thing.
15. I don’t know the way ________________ he that / in which

worked out.
16. The person to______ you just talked is Mr. Li. whom

高考链接 1. It is reported that two schools, ____ are D being built in my hometown, will open next year. (2007 四川) A. they both B. which both C. both of them D. both of which 2. We shouldn’t spent our money testing so many people, most of ___ are healthy. D (2007 北京) A. that B. which C. what D. whom

3. He was educated at the local high school, ____ he went on to Beijing A University. (2007 江苏) A. after which B. after that C. in which D. in that 4. The thought of going back home was ____ kept him happy while he was B working abroad.(2007 上海) A. that B. all that C. all what D. which

5. Chan’s restaurant on Baker Street, ____ used to be poorly run, is now a B successful business. (2007 浙江) A. that B. which C. who D. where 6. Human facial expressions differ from those of animals in the degree ____ B they can be controlled on purpose. (2007 重庆卷) A. with which B. to which C. of which D. for which

7. Last week, only two people came to look at the house, ____ wanted to buy D it. (2007 安徽) A. none of them B. both of them C. none of whom D. neither of whom 8. Eric received training in computer for one year, _____ he found a job in a big B company. (2007 辽宁) A. after that B. after which C. after it D. after this

9. Yesterday she sold her car, ____ D

she bought a month ago.
(2008 浙江)

A. whom
C. that

B. where
D. which

改错
1. Under the big tree are 34 students, many of them come from class two. whom 2. My mother has a good book, which whose cover looks terrible. that 3. Who are the young girls who are having dinner in the restaurant?

4. She is one of the girls who is very interested in maths. are

5. Tom is the only one of the boys who like playing football. likes 6. Who is the girl that you talked to her just now?
7. There is an old woman, that is who holding a stick.

Homework
1. Finish the exercises on page 29. 2. Read the passage on Page 64. Complete the sentences below, using who, whom, which, that or whose.


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